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Full text of "73 Magazine (June 1986)"

WIN A KENWOOD TM-2570A! 



see page 97) 





Issue #309 
June 1986 
USA $2.95 

CAN. 13.95 



A WGE Publication 



FCC Proposes: 



Novice Phone 



page 7 



Table of Contents 



Never Say Die 

Nine full pages of 
W2NSD/1E 



Digital Simplex Repeaters 

New -wave ham radio— a marriage of pack- 
4 et and digital-voice technology ♦ . K4YKZ 48 



A Walk Through the VHF/UHF 
Spectrum 

Is there life after 40 meters? . , KT2B 26 



Messing With Microwaves 

Wonderfully cheap, and incredibly fun! 





1 


JOC 


^ 


jW^jT ^^-J i 



' U U D n n 

I 1 it u u 



bove the Crowds 

HF and UHF 



NASA Talks- 

A Permanent Ham 

in Space? page 34 

Dirt Cheap 
Microwaves page 52 



140-160 MHz 

On the IC-02 AT page 60 



74820' 



08725 



Hams In Space 

W5LFL & WftORE talk about the past, 
present, and future of ham radio . . KWlO 



34 



Two to Ten 

A quick way to get on 10 FM with a big 
signal ...»;*•• WB5IPM 38 



Some Guys Make It 



Classic humor from 73 's cellar K20RS 46 



They Threw What Away? 

Our favorite uncle is dumping his UHF 
swr bridges WA8WTE 58 

Those Tantalizing Twos 

Guess what? Your IC-2AT or 1C-02AT is 
abo a versatile scanner! AL7DS 60 

Computer Rotor Control 

The first step toward an automatic shack 

.-. WB2UVU 64 



T 1 - * * * 



Reviews 

Head to Head: ICOM's IC-471A versus Kenwood's TS-81 1 A ..... KT2B 20 



MFJ s new pa 


iCketTNC, theMFJ-1270 . 


■ B ■ ■ v ¥- « 


*****bi*«4 . ....*....~.*.....^ [H I l*Li*T £t*w 




Departments 


82 


Barter N' Buy 


18 


New Products 


72 


Contests 


76 


NK6K>Packet 


110 


Dealer Directory 


110 


Propagation 


83 


Fun! 


88 


QRP 


73, 108 


Ham Help 


10 


QSL of the Month 


17 


Letters 


74 


RTTY Loop 


81 


List of Advertisers 


79 


Satellites 


84 


Looking West 


98 


73 International 


4 


Never Say Die 


78 


Special Events 



ICOM Dual Bander 





i 





A/B PRiO 



M R 



TS 

SCAN 



LOCK 



ow 



CHECK 
MW l| 

M SKIP 











B_*JU^|ly 


-8 J" ft] L ~~ ^J - L w JL m J 










TONE 




VFO A 


HH3.ZQ "3 




DUF 


IS^RF ' 1 '" ,-l^K^H 
3 ^-l ^-^i «■ ■» t^_jE?3l^5 





CALL 1 



CALL 2 
TONE 

I 
TONE NO 




VOL \ ' / 
^ 3 



OFF / 



SOL % ■ t 





The Most Compact Dual Bander 

at the Smallest Price 




Finally there s a compact 
full featured 25 wan FW 
dual bander that's simple in 
design and operation, plus 
very affordable.. .the 
IC-3200A, 

Dual Bands. The IC-3200A 
covers both the 2-meter 
(I40.Q00-J50.000MHz) and 
70cm (440.000-450.000MHz) 
bands The I C-3200A also fea- 
tures fully programmable off- 
sets in 5KHz steps for MARS 
and CAP repeater operatron. 

25 Watts. The IC-3200A 
delivers 25 watts of output on 
both bands. Or the low power 
can be adjusted to one to ten 
watts. 



Compact. The IC-3200A 
is only 5ft # W x 2*H x 8 WD, 

Simple to Operate. With 
only 14 front panel controls, 
the IO320QA is by far the 
easiest dual bander to use. 



Memory Lockout. For 

scanning only certain memory 
channels, ICOM utilizes a 
memory skip [M SKIP} function. 

TO Tunable Memories* To 
store your favorite frequencies, 
10 memories are provided. 
Each memory will store the 
receive frequency, transmit 
offset, offset direction and PL 
tone. Each memory can be 
tuned up or down when 



selected, yet automatically 
returns to the original fre- 
quency when reselected. All 
memories are backed up with 
a lithium battery. 





Scanning, The IC-3200A 
has four scanning systems... 
memory scan, band scan, pro- 
gram scan and priority scan. 

Other Outstanding Standard 
Features: 

• New LCD display, easy to 
read in bright sunlight 

• Tone encoder (all PL/ 
subaudibie tones built-in) 

• IC-HMI4 mic with up/ 
down scan and DTMF 






One antenna connector 
(Duplexer already installed!) 

• Variable tuning increments 
5 and 1 5 KHz [2- meters J 
Sand 25KHz(70cm) 

• Frequency dial lock 

• Dual VFO's 

• Mounting bracket 

Optional Accessories* An 

optional JC-PS30 system 
power supply, voice synthe- 
sizer and IC-SP10 speaker are 
available. 

See the IC-3200A at your 
local ICOM dealer for the best 
buy on a full featured dual 
bander. 





raicoM 



First in Communications 



ICOM America. Inc. 2380-l!6th Ave NE, Bellevue, WA 98004 / 3331 Towerwood Drive, Suite 307. Dallas; TX 75234 

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stare California and Arizona residents please add sales lai Prices, specifications, descriptions subject to change without notice. 




THINGS TO LOOK FOR 
(AND LOOK OUT FOR) 
IN A PHONE PATCH 

• One year warranty. 

• A patch shouW work with any 
radio. AM, FM, ACSB, relay 
switched or synthesized. 

• Patch performance should not 
be dependent on the T/R speed 
of your radio. 

•Your patch should sound just 
like your home phone, 

• There should not be any sam- 
pling noises to distract you and 
rob important syllables, The 
best phone patches do not use 
the cheap sampling method. 
(Did you know that the competi- 
tion uses VOX rather than 
sampling in their $1000 com* 
mercial model?) 

• A patch should disconnect 
automatically if the number 
dialed is busy. 

• A patch should be flexible. You 

should be able to use it 
simplex, repeater aided simplex, 
or sernkJuplex, 

•A patch should allow you to 
manually connect any mobile or 
HT on your local repeater to the 
phone system for a fully 
automatic conversation. Some- 
one may need to report an 
emergency! 

• A patch should not become er- 
ratic when the mobile is noisy. 

• You should be able to use a 
power amplifier on your base to 
extend range. 

• You should be able to connect 
a patch to the MIC and EXT. 
speaker jack of your radio for a 
quick and effortless interface. 

• You should be able to connect 
a patch to three points inside 
your radio (VOL high side, PTT, 
MIC) so that the patch does not 
interfere with the use of the 
radio and the VOL and SQ. set- 
tings do not affect the patch. 

• A patch should have MOV 
lightning protectors. 

•Your patch should be made in 
the USA where consultation 
and factory service are imrned- 
ately available (Beware of an 
inferior offshore copy of our 
former PRIVATE PATCH IL) 



ONLY 

PRIVATE PATCH 

GIVES YOU ALL 

OF THE ABOVE 



PRIVATE PATCH 

SIMPLEX SEMI-DUPLEX INTERCONNECT 






The telephone is the most 
PRIVATE PATCH III gives you full 
your mobile and HT radios! 



With only three simple connections to 
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Suddenly the utility of your radio is drastically 

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PRIVATE PATCH III frees you from member- 
ships, cliques and other hassles common to 
many repeater autopatches. You can call who 
you want, when you want and for as long as 
you want. You can even receive your incoming 
calls! 



mode of communications., 
use of your home telephone from 






VOX ... the right choice ! 

VOX based phone patches offer many perfor- 
mance and operational advantages over the 
sampling method. These include operation 
through repeaters, compatibility with any 
radio, no lost words or syllables, greater range, 
smooth audio free of continual noise bursts. 
etc., etc. 

Most amateurs are not aware that the competi- 
tion's top of the line patch is VOX based. (You 
know . . . the $1000 model they enthusiastically 
call u our favorite commercial simplex patch" 
on page 3 of their SP brochure.) 

PRIVATE PATCH III offers about the same 

capability, performance and features as their 
top model but is priced closer to their bottom 
of the line (SP) model! 

So why settle for SP when top of the line costs 
little more? 



To Learn more about PRI VA TE PA TCH HI and the advantages of the VOX concept, call or write for 
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PARTIAL LIST OF FEATURES 
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RESTRICT FOR ONE TOLL CALL— Automatic re-arm * AUTOMATIC BUSY SIGNAL DISCONNECT 
■ CONTROL INTERRUPT TIMER {Maintains positive mobile control) • CW ID When you connect again on 
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A WALK THROUGH 

THE VHF/UHF SPECTRUM 26 

This is for all of you who've spent the 
last forty years on 75-meter AM. KT2B 
takes us on a guided tour through the 
five most popular bands above 50 
MHz, explaining who's there and just 
what they're doing. 



34 



73 asked hams-in -space Owen Gar- 
riott W5LFL and Tony England 
WOORE what they've been up to 
since their historic flights. You'll be 
surprised by their answers! 



TWO TO TEN 

Have you fried ten-meter FM? Re- 
peaters are popping up ail over the 
country, and the range is sometimes 
startling. WB5IPM s little gadget lets 
you use your two-meter gear to check 
out the action. 




Amateur 
Radio 



ISSUE #309 



SOME GUYS MAKE IT... 46 

OK, we cheated. Those of you who 
have been reading 73 for the past 
twenty years have seen this one be- 
fore. You'll laugh just as hard this 
time as you did before. 

DIGITAL SIMPLEX REPEATERS 48 

This combination of packet radio and 
FM voice repeaters might be a way to 
ease the overcrowding on our VHF al- 
location. The system's creator looks 
at the how and why of store-and-f or- 
ward voice repeaters. 

MESSING WITH MICROWAVES 52 

You wont believe how simple it is to 
play with frequencies in the GHz 
range. You won't spend a fortune, 
either, so you can build up two of 
these stations and have someone to 
talk with. 

THEY THREW WHAT AWAY? 

Yes, Uncle Sam is up to it again.. .for 
the price of scrap aluminum you can 
get dandy UHF swr bridge. Never 
mind that you've already paid for ft... 



THOSE TANTALIZING TWOS 

Sorry about that title. Get out your 
tweezers and screw up your courage! 



DEPARTMENTS 

LOOKING WEST & QRP 64 

These columns bring back an old friend and 
introduce a new one. QRP and antenna en- 
thusiast Bill Stocking WBVM opens shop with 
a monthly feature, mercifully oof called 
"Stocking's Stutters" . And we welcome back 
Bill Pasternak WA6ITF to his ofd spot in Look- 
ing West. Bill has been with 73 since the 
beginning, and always manages to find 
something unusual happening on the West 
Coast, Sometimes he tells us about it. 



FUN! 83 

KI2U has done it again. The annual Fun! poll. 
that is. This is the pulse of amateur radio, the 
heartbeat of harndom, the... well, youget the 
idea. This year the poll turned out some un- 
expected results. 

RTTY LOOP 74 

Must reading for June. Marc Leavey has 
come up with an incredible poem about find- 
ing a program for the Macintosh. Suitable for 
framing. " 



JUNE 1986 



Now pop the cover off of your beloved 
JC-2 or IC-02. A snip here, a tuck 
there, and voila you're holding a 
1 40—1 62-MHz scanner. 

REVIEWS 20, 24 

Two reviews for you this month. 
Above and Beyond columnist Pete 
Putman KT2B pits ICOM's IC-471 A 
and Kenwood's TS-81 1 A against each 
other in a head to head battle of the 
UHF multi-modes. And Marc Stern 
N1BLH presents the first look at 
MFJ's hot new packet TNC, the MFJ- 
1270. Is it the TNC for the masses? 




Astronaut Owen Garriott W5LFL 



NEVER SAY DIE 4 

Really must reading for June. Contains the 
"missing editorial* 1 absent from the May is- 
sue. (OK, since you asked, due to an * 'editori- 
al oversight" we, ah, forgot to run part of 
Wayne's column. Just a little part. It's the 
first time in NSD— don't miss ftt 



Legal Centred: Tha mere opening of the pages of this magazine, even tor a hasty glance at the contents, is hereby declared to be a legally binding contract between the purchaser, whether by paid 
subscription, newsstand purchase, or purchase at an electronics store, and ihe publisher. This is every bit as legally binding a contract as signing your name, nodding your head in agreement, or 
teahng the plastic wrapping from a software package Under penalty of copyright infringement, considered virtually a hanging crime by many courts, you are hereby forbidden from reproducing 
choice articles from this maga/ine tor distribution to low-Die hams who are too cheap to buy their own subscriptions You are further, under severe penalties, proscribed tram lending your copy of 73 
to a lic e n se d amateu r trie nd , a-cqu ai n t ance . neighbor , or even enemy for other than the purpose of a brief scanning of the table of contents t which should i nciude support rve comments by you rseff 
and an offering of the blow-in subscription card. Heavy penalties, including, but not completely restricted 10 a lifetime of crushing guilt an increasing paranoia that the dedicated minions of 73w*B 
discover your perfidy, or that Wayne tireen, in a bad momeni jot which he has plenty), will put a curse on you and your issue for 73 years You are turther direcied by the terms ot this contract to speak 
enthusiastically of 73 Magazine at least once during every radio contact you make. While it is nol absolutely imperative that you include a 73 subscription blank and your personal endorsement with 
your every OS L card , your conscience will be much dearer if you do this. Suitable subsc ri pi ion blanks are available from 73 I or only $ t per hu ndred . The exte nsion ot you r subscription by two issues 
for each of these subscription cards received by 73 (with credit card payment) is not to be construed as a bribe of any sort Please just consider it a personal thank you tram Wayne tor your help 



Editorial Offices: WGE Center. Peterborough NH 0345B-1 194, phone 603-&24-9261 Advecltelrig Otllcee: WGE Center h Peterborough NH 0345f>n&4 Circulation Offices: WGE Center. Peterborough MH 03458-1194, phone : 
eo3-9SM-926l Manuscripts: Coninoijiions in ihe torm or manuscripts with drawings annVnr photographs are welcome and will be considered (or possible publication We can assume no responsibility lor loss or damage 10 any material 
Ptose s enclose a damped, sett-addressed envelope with each submission. Payment for the use oi any unsolicited malarial wiV be made upon acceptance All coniribuiions should be directed to the 73 editorial offices. "How to Wnte for 
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73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 Z 




EVER SAY DIE 




COME FLY WITH ME 

Are you game to sit down at a rig 
in a rare DX spot and face the 
pileups? 

A few years ago f started going 
to Asia every October to see what 
was new at their yearly consumer 
electronic shows. It was so much 
fun that I wrote about it in 73, urg- 
ing readers to join me. This result- 
ed in more and more hams going 
on the tour each year — many re- 
peaters, tike me. 

On the 1985 trip several of us 
got to talking about how much fun 
the trip was t and that got us think- 
ing in terms of organizing a ham 
expedition for 1986 — one which 
would take us to Korea, Taiwan, 
and Hong Kong. We thought 
about including Japan, but with 
the present cost of the yen— the 
difficulty of getting a ham li- 
cense — better off withoul it. 



We should be able to get a li- 
cense for everyone lo operate in 
Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, 
so it would be a real ham trip. Also, 
I think we'll be able to get the local 
hams to host us, allowing our 
group to see how it feels to sit and 
work DX from Asia. 

Bob Norman K4GRD was par- 
ticularly enthusiastic about this 
idea — excited enough to agree to 
do most of the work (hen, hen). 
The tour pan! will be organized by 
Bob Chang, who's been running 
the consumer electronic and com- 
puter show tours to Asia for about 
eight years now. Chang does a 
fabulous job— which is why there 
are so many of us who have been 
making the trip year after year. 

If there are enough readers in- 
terested in the DXpedition, Bob 
will organize a hamfest in each 
city for you to meet the local 




"While we were diggin ' you a deeper ground, we struck oil!" 
4 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



hams — and perhaps get invited to 
their homes and operate their 
station. 

I ran a ham tour in 1 963 that was 
a corker. 73 of us— hams and 
wives — went to London, Paris, 
Geneva, Rome, and Beriin, I still 
run into hams at hamfests who tell 
me that was the best trip theyVe 
ever taken. We had a banquet/ 
hamfest with the hams in every 
city but Rome. We got to visit ham 
homes and operate. 

In Rome we had an audience 
with the Pope and went on a tour 
of Vatican radio. In Geneva we got 
to operate 4U1ITU and in London 
many of us operated GV2SM at 
the Science Museum, then the on* 
ly station in England permitted to 
handle third-party traffic. 

For younger hams— and old 
ones with short memories — it was 
while we were working on this lour 
that the ARRL filed its Incentive 
Licensing proposal with the 
FCC — the docket which almost in- 
stantly stopped the growth of am- 
ateur radio — put 85% of the ham 
dealers and almost 100% of the 
manufacturers out of business. 
With amateur radio self-destruct- 
ing, that put an end to ham tours. 

By the time amateur radio had 
recovered enough so that a tour 
might be practical again, I was 
up to here in computers and start- 
ing new computer magazines, 
I'm not sure that even now we 
have enough hams with the 
spirit it takes to goon a DXpedition 
to Asia. 

The tour part is fun in itself. 
We'll be able to get to the con- 
sumer electronic shows in Seoul 
and Taipei. I enjoy these because 
I often find products worthy of be- 
ing imported by my Wayne Green 
International division—you may 
have seen ads for Pico Products. 
It only takes one hot mail-order 
product to make millions, you 
know — lots of people have done it. 

Continued on page 10 




TAFF 



PUBLISHER 
Wayne Green W2N5DM 

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER 

Siuan Norwood 



EDITOR 
Perry Donham KWtO 

MANAGING EDITOR 
Chris Schmidt KA1MPL 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 
SteveJewettKAlMPM 

INTERNATIONAL EDITOR 
Richard Pherux 

COPY EDITOR 

Florence 



EDITORIAL ASSISTANT 
Carole Marioci 

ART DIRECTOR 
Dianrw Ritson 

DESIGNER 
Susan Hays 

ASSOCIATES 

Robert Baker WB2GFE 

John Edwards KP2U 

Bill Gosney KE7C 

Jim Gray WiXU 

Dr Marc Leavey WA3AJR 

Bill Pasternak WA6ITF 

Harold Price NK6K 

Peter Putman KT26 

Willi am Stocking WiVM 

ADVERTISING 
T -603-924-9261 
t-BQQ-722-7790 

SALES MANAGER 

Nancy Ciampa 

ADVERTISING SALES 
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MARKETING MANAGER 
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WGE PUBLISHING. INC. 

PUBLICATIONS DIRECTOR 
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CIRCULATION/ 

MARKETING DIRECTOR 
Harry Dflfmody 

OPERATIONS MANAGER 
David P Raether 

PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR 
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PRINTING SERVICES MANAGER 
Tedd A Duff 

SYSTEMS MANAGER 

Sa/aB Ptiilbin 

TYPE SETT1NG/P AGl NATION 
Bob Dukette, Mike Thompson 

GRAPHICS SERVICES 

Sure B Flanagan. Dan Croteau. 

Lb McGrafth, Cindy Pirkay 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 
Kristin Josiin 

Editorial Offices 

WGE Center 

Peterborough, NH 03458-1 1 94 

603^924-9261 



Wayne Green Enterprises is a division 
of International Data Group 

73 Amateur Radio (ISSN 0745-080X) 
is published mom hi y by WGE Publish- 
ing, Inc., a division qI Wayne Green 
Enterprises. Inc., WGE Center. Peter- 
borough NH 03458-M94, Entire con- 
tents - : 1986 by WGE Publishing, Ire 
No part of the publication may be re- 
produced without written permission 
from the publisher 








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TS-440S 



DX-citing!" 



Compact high performance HF transceiver 
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i Direct keyboard entry of frequency 

• AJ1 modes built-in 
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selection is verified in 
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► Built-in automatic 
antenna tuner 
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Covers 80-10 meters. 

• VS-1 voice synthe- 
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Superior receiver dynamic range 
Kenwood DynaMix* high sensitivity direct 
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dynamic range. (500 Hz bandwidth on 20 m) 
100% duty cycle transmitter 
Super efficient cooling permits continuous 
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RF input power is rated at 200 W PEP on 
SSB, 200 W DC on CW, AFSK, FM, and 110 
W DC AM. (The PS- 50 power supply is 
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• Adjustable dial torque 

• 100 memory channels 

Frequency and mode may be stored in 
10 groups of 10 channels each, Split fre- 
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• TU-8 CTCSS unit (optional) 

Subtone is memorized when TU-8 is installed. 

• Superb interference reduction 

IF shift, tuneable notch filter, noise blanker, 
all-mode squelch, RF attenuator, RIT/XIT, 
and optional filters fight QRM, 

• NIC-423 UP/DOWN mic Included 

• Computer interface port 

• 5 IF fitter functions 

• Dual SSB IF filtering 
A built-in SSB filter is 
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optional SSB filter 
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• VOX, full or semi 
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Optional accessories: 

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•AT -2 50 external auto, tuner (160 m— 10 m) 

• AT-130 compact mobife antenna tuner (160 rn- 
10 mj ■ IF-232C/IC-10 level translator and modem 
IC krt * PS-50 heavy duty power supply • PS-43Q7 
PS-30 DC power supply • SP-430 external 
speaker * MB-430 mobHe mounting bracket 
•YK-88C/88CN 500 Hz/270 Hz CW fillers - YK-88S- 
88SN 2.4 kHz/1. 8 kHz SSB filters • MC 60A/8O/85 
desk microphones * MC-55 <8P) mobile micro- 
phone •HS-4/5/6/7 headphones *SP-40/50 
mobile speakers * MA-5/VP-1 HF 5 band mobile 
helical antenna and bumper mount »TL-922A 

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•VS-1 voice synthesizer •SW-10QA/20GA/20QO 
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1111 West Walnut Street 
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Front panel programmable 38-tone 

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• CD-10 call sign display 

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TM-2550A/2530A/3530A 



• PS-50 DC power supply for TM-2570A 

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UT1 West Walnut Street 
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QRX. . 



EDITED BY PERRY DONHAM KW10 



Novice Phone 

THE FCC has proposed an enhancement to 
the present Novice-class license. The Notice 
of Proposed Rule Making, PR Docket 86-1 61 ( 
calls for data privileges from 28.1 to 28.3 MHz, 
SSB from 28.3 to 28,5 MHz, all amateur privi- 
leges from 220 to 225 MHz, and simplex and 
repeater privileges from 1246 lo 1260 MHz. 
Power restrictions would be 200-Watt PEP on 
ten meters, 25 Watts on 1-1/4 meters, and 5 
Watts on 23 centimeters. Highernclass sta- 
tions would be allowed to run the full legal limit 
in the Novice portions of these bands. Farther, 
Novice licensees would not be allowed to be 
trustees of a repeater station, although they 
would be allowed to operate through a re- 
peater. Technicians, because of the structure 
of the license system, would gain the addition- 
al privileges of the Novice enhancement. The 
FCC is very interested in hearing ideas on 
several points. Should the Novice-license 
term be reduced to two or five years to encour- 
age upgrading? Should questions be added to 
the Novice test to cover the new privileges? 
Should more than one person administer the 
lest, or should Novices be tested through the 
volunteer-examination program? Should Ele- 
ment 3 (the General-class exam) be broken 
into two parts — part A to cover VHF and re- 
peaters and part B to cover HF operation — to 
make it easier to upgrade from Novice to 
Technician? Comments on the proposal are 
due at the commission by July 16lh t and reply 
comments must arrive by August 20th. Send 
your original comment plus five copies (11 
copies if you want each commissioner to have 
one) to the FCC, 1919 M Street NW, Washing- 
ton DC 20554, Please include the Docket 
number in the head of your document, 

Albania Mania 

GUS BROWNING W4BPD. writing in his 
DX'ers Magazine, reports that OK2RZ and 
five other Czechoslovakian amateurs have 
obtained permission to operate from Albania. 
The DXpeditton to 2A *s expected to begin 
around the 20th of September— watch QRX 
for details, Gus also mentions expeditions to 
Vietnam and Yemen . , . it looks as though DX 
is beginning to pick up a bit* The DX'ers 
Magazine is a great source for up-to-minute 
news; you can write to Gus at PO Drawer DX, 
Cordova SC 29039. (Tell him you think 73 
deserves a kickback for plugging his rag.) 

Techno- Tantrums 

WHO WOULDA THOUGHT that our an- 
nouncement of the first 900-MHz amateur 
communication (QRX, January, 1986} would 
trigger a range war? Chuck Gollnick 
KA7QEM/* of the Iowa State University Cy- 



clone Amateur Radio Club contends that 
they, not Mike Krzystniak K9MK/5, are the 

rightful holders of the title. Now, this would not 
be so bad so long as one or the other could 
produce documentation of the exact time of 
the contact. Chuck and the boys at Iowa State 
drew first blood by describing their system; 
"Our first transmission was keyed by time sig- 
nals received from WWV. Considering the 
propagation delay between WWV and Ames 
(Iowa), the delay in our decoder circuit, and 
the key time of our transmitter, the signal was 
transmitted no more than 50 milliseconds af- 
ter the legal band opening, and probably less 
than that." To which Mike countered, +, l have 
no doubt that we [members of the Motorola 
Radio Club in Ft. Worth] beat your alleged 
50-milliseconds-after-the-band-opened claim 
by at least 49.999999 miltiseconds. I cannot 
discJose the commercial techniques that we 
used to do this with as they are. . currently 
proprietary " in the second round. Chuck and 
the Cyclones pointed out trial, "Our first trans- 
missions, . ,were made after the band was 
legally open. If . . . your clock was not calibrat- 
ed to the NBS standard and was, say. just 5 
nanoseconds fast. - , - then your first transmis- 
sions would have occurred at least 4 nanosec- 
onds before the 900-MHz band was open for 
legal use by amateurs, which would qualify 
you as the first amateur to earn a pink slip on 
900 MHz. M In the interest of fair play, and in 
the spirit of ham fellowship, I think we should 
point out that Iowa State's transmission was 
the first AM transmission, and the Motorola 
dub's was the first FM transmission. Give or 
take a nanosecond. 

OSCAR'S Out 

AMSAT-OSCAR 10 will not be available for 
this year's ARRL Field Day exercise, accord- 
ing to the Amateur Satellite Report. AO-10 
Command Station ZL1 AOX indicates that the 
bird will be visible only during perigee and that 
it probably wilt not be turned on due to 
eclipses during that period. Meanwhile, work 
is progressing on the next Phase III satellite, 
which is scheduled for launch aboard an Ari- 
ane booster later this year. 

Turkey and Ham 



AMATEUR RADIO ACTIVITY in Turkey is 
increasing, with more than 20 stations now 
licensed. Salim Unuver TA1 B details some of 
the action: "Lots of [Turkish hams] are usually 
on 14-MHz SSB or CW. Every night, U.S. 
hams can find TA stations on 14.200 MHz at 
1900 UTC. You will hear perhaps TA1C or 
TA1E, because they are using 3-element 
beams and running the legal limit of 400 Watts 
PEP. Other TAs are running 200 Watts to a 
dipole or ground plane, like me and TA1 F T and 
we are running RTTY on 14.180 each night at 




Salim Unuver TAW at his station in Ankara. 

1900, and all day on Saturday and Sunday." 
Salim points out that TA1 stations are located 
on the European side Of Turkey, while TA2-9 
indicates stations on the Asian side. TA0 calls 
are assigned to stations on Turkish islands. 



New SIN 



IF YOU PARTICIPATED in Ihe National Six- 
Meter Invitational Net Activity Day Contest 
[whew!] on May 31st-June 1st, please mail 
your logs to Lisa Lowell KAflNNO's new ad* 
dress: PO Box 547 + Hugo CO 60821 . 

Mallhu Good Guy 



DANIEL GOODKIN KA6 VVS, Novice at age 7 
and General at age 11. has become the 
youngest member of the Los Angeles County 
Disaster Communications Service (a part of 
the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service). 
Daniel has already earned two commenda- 
tions from the Malibu Sheriffs Department for 
his work during the recent Lake Sherwood 
and Carbon Canyon fires, where he worked 
for several days carrying messages between 
key command centers. Belonging to the DCS 
is a family affair for the Goodkins; Daniel's 
father Norm is the District Communications 
Officer for the organization, and Daniel's 
mother Naomi WBSOHW, brother Brian 
N6FKG, and sister Mari KA6PTV are all 
members. 

Eagle Droppings 

HAVE YOU SEEN the latest catalog from In- 
novations? They're one of those companies 
thai offer high-tech goodies tike wine comput- 
ers and 127-f unction watches. On page 33 of 
the catalog, right between Wet Tunes the 
Shower Radio and the Bionic Ear, is a little 
item called the Eagle 1 Professional 
Transceiver. "Not a toy or Citizens Band 
walkie-talkie. FCC approved, license informa- 
tion included. The Eagle 1 packs 200 milli- 
watts of output power for clear, sharp trans- 
missions up to 4 miles. Useful in warehouses, 
farms, and factories. Choice of 3 crystal*con* 
trolled channels within 10-MHz band for priva- 
cy (one crystal supplied with each unit)/' 

73 Amateur Radio * June. 1986 7 






■ 



Brent Cordes AE6R checked wrth Samhill 
Corp., the manufacturer, and discovered that 
the crystal supplied with each unit is for 
446,000 MHz, the national calling frequency 
for the amateur 440-MHz band! The other 
two channels are 446,200 and 445.800. I 
telephoned Samhill in New York and asked 
what sort of license was required to oper- 
ate the Eagle 1. "Oh, amateur/* was the re- 
ply I can see it now, . .thousands of yuppies 
buying chic little HTs, only to find a note in 
the box telling them that they can't use the 
radio until they learn Morse code and get 
an amateur license! We've dropped Innova- 
tions a polite note, and will let you know what 
happens. 

Pubs Merge 

BOB GROVE, Editor of Monitoring Times, 
and Larry Miller, Editor of International Radio 
(formerly Shortwave Guide}, have announced 
plans to merge their publications Starting 
wdh the July, 1986, issue, the new Monitoring 
Times wilt feature an expanded 60-page for- 
mat and improved laser printing. A one-year 
subscription is $14, available from 140 Dog 
Branch Road, PO Box 96. Brasstown IMC 
28902; {704^837-9200. 



Expo '86 



THIRTEEN MILLION VISITORS to Canada's 
World's Fair of Transportation and Com- 
munication will be exposed to the amateur 
radio virus, thanks to the members of the 
VE7EXPO Amateur Radio Society The all- 
volunteer effort will feature SSB. CW, RTTY, 
AMTOR. packet, FM, ATv\ and SSTV at fwe 
operating positions — two for HF and one each 
for packet, OSCAR, and VHF/UHF. The Expo- 
sition, which will run through October 13th , is 
housed on the Canada Pavilion, "anchored" 
in Vancouver harbor. The ham station, using 
special call VE7EXPO. will operate from 10 
a.m. to 10 p,m. each day Local repeaters 
(146,94, 224.30, and 443.525 MHz) will be 
monitored to provide directions and assis- 
tance to visiting amateurs. If you would like to 
work from the station, or if your club would like 



to come up as a group, contact the VE7EXPO 
Amateur Radio Society at 202-13640 67 
Avenue, Surrey, British Columbia Canada 
V3W6X5. 

Glowing Report 



73 INTERNATIONAL correspondent Rudolf 
Karaba OK3KFO sent us the results of a UHF 
aurora marathon recently completed in the 
Soviet Union. For two years, Soviet experi- 
menters have participated in a competition 
designed to examine UHF aurora propaga- 
tion. The top three single-op stations are 
UA3SMJ with 155 QSOs and 5,442 points, 
UR2RQ with 139/3,795, and UA9XQ with 149/ 
3, 1 59. The top club station is UZ9CXM with 23 
QSOs t and the top SWLis UA3-142-198 with 9 
reports. 

No Note Needed 

THE FCC, in a letter to the PHD Amateur 
Radio Club of Missouri, said that no doctor's 
statement is required when special amateur 
testing procedures are needed due to an ap- 
plicant's physical disability. The statement 
was necessary under the old testing system 
when an applicant was unable to travel to 
an FCC testing site, but the requirement was 
not carried over to the new volunteer testing 
program. 



4X4 Foray 



A TWO-WEEK TRIP to the Holy Lands is 
being arranged by the Chaverim* an inter- 
national group dedicated to fostering good- 
will among Jewish hams and their friends. 
The tour will depart from J.F.K. Internation- 
al Airport on Monday, October 27th f and 
wtJl return to the States on Monday, November 
10th. The group will visit Muslim, Jewish, 
and Christian shrines and will have the op- 
portunity to operate from 4X4 during its 
stay, There also will be meetings with the 
Israeli Amateur Radio Club and the Quar- 
ter Century Wireless Association, Space is 
limited, so contact Bill Soble W3QXT, 9357 




Hoff Street. Philadelphia PA 19115; (215>- 
676*6769. 

Motorola Morgue 

HERE'S A GREAT OPPORTUNITY to get rid 

of all that junk in your shack (sorry , 1 meant 
'valuable communication equipment"). Don 
Parker. Motorola's Branch Manager for 
Alaska, is the curator of the new Museum of 
Early Two-Way Radio Equipment in Anchor- 
age. Don has already gathered a number of 
vintage VHF/UHF radios, but is looking for 
more. If you think you might have something 
that belongs in a museum* get in touch with 
Don at Motorola, Inc., 5333 Fairbanks Street, 
Suite Ibsgnl, Anchorage AK 99502, or call 
(907)-562-2111. 

Write-in Vote 

THIS MONTH YOU'LL FIND a special Feed- 
back card next to page 80. Use it to rate the 
articles and columns in this month's 73. When 
ail of the votes are in, we'll award a free one- 
year subscription (or extension) to the person 
whose name is on the card we draw out of a 
hat. While you're filling things out, lake a sec- 
ond to complete the Product Report Card, too. 
In July we will begin publishing a running tally 
of your favorite radios .or least-favorite, for 
that matter. 



Logjam 



LOGS FROM THE DP0SL Hams-ln-Space 

mission of last year have been released. An 
automatic logging machine aboard the shuttle 
captured the following U.S. callsigns: AA6G, 
AJ5L, K1PXE, K6CO t K6NLP, K6RTC. 
K7PYK, KAQNVT, KA0DO, KA1DUX, 
KA2RBX T KA6CR, KA7SJP, KB4CRT, 
KB6FFJ, KB7RV, KC7EM, KD5RO. KD6PY, 
KD6WG, KD7AW, KG6GF. KG6KO, KG6LC. 
N1DBB, N2BKT, N3FL, N6CAV, N6FF, 
N6GVP, N6IDN, N6RW, N7GDW, N7ZL, 
N9AB, NA6E, ND2X/5, NF6S, NK6K, NNGV, 
W0BPP, W1HH, W1NU, W2JIMO, W3IP, 
W3PM. W4BE, W4MOP, W5AGQ, W5GBT, 
W5EBH, W5HOQ, W5HUG, W5RRR, W5VY, 
W5Z1B. W6KH. W6MFO, W7MCU, W70HF, 
W7GLC, W7US. W90DI. WA0RCX, 
WA1FCK, WA10MM. WA3HUP, WA3WBU, 
WA4BUS, WA5NOM, WA5RCL, WA5ZIB, 
WA6YBT, WA7GCS, W64KXB, WB5BSH, 
WB5GLD, WB7AYU. WB5LBJ/DU6, 
WB70HF, WB80TH, WD4AHZ. WD4BCS, 
WD4NAE, WD4PQN, WD5EZR. and WD9IIC, 



QSL 



Canada Place, site of the Canada Pavilion and special-event station VE7EXPO, 
8 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



That's all for this month. Thanks to We$tiink t 
the W5YI Report, Amateur Satellite Report, 
Tad Cook KT7H, Robert Smits VE7EMD, and 
the QX'ers Magazine for help with this 
month's column. Send your news and photos 
to 73 Magazine, WGE Center. Peterborough 
NH 03458, Attn: QRX. 




KDK 



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FM-740 70 cm 



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FM-740 

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• 16 fully programmable memory channels, plus priority call channel, plus 
2 VFOs for today's user 

• Subaudible encode and decode standard for today's 
2 meter bands 

• Subaudible frequency programmed by 1req„ no chart needed 



r OKH 1^332' i T -TTCT'^r**T ..•*-, t i*T?VJ ; 



uperior man machine Interface— one knob and o 
program all of the features easily—alphanumeric LCD prompts 

* 16 button speaker/mic with UP/DN loch-out switch 

* VFO Steps Size— 2-5-4QKHz t programmable ( x 10 with Speed on) 

* Band Scan— Programmable limits and mode*. CARRIER, AUTO & 
DELAY. Scan st^»^am& as set for VFO steps J 

* Memory Scan — Proffammable modes. SKIP, CARRIER, AUTO & DELAY, 



Specifications KDK FM 240 (and FM-740) 



General 



Supply Voltage 



Consumption 



Temp, Range 



Dimensions 



Weight 



13.8v s 15%. negative ground. 



Transmit; "L5A fir. 5w. 5.5A @ 25w 
Receive: .4A © Qsig., .6A (g max volume, 



- 10 deg. C to 6Q deg. C. 



40H x 14QW xlTOD mm (Body only} 



1,0 Kg (Body only J 



Transmitter 



Freq. Range 



Output 



Modulation 



Max Deviation 



Spur. Emm is 
Duplex Offset 



Tone 



FM-240 142.000 - 150.00 MHz 
^FM-740 440.00 - 449.975 MHz) 



High = 25 watts, Low = 5 watts (High = low, 
(Low = 1 W) (FM 740 High = Low) 



Van able reactance frequency modulation 



± 5KHz 



More than 60dB down from carrier 



Programmable ±.1 to l2.7MHz(set at ± 6KHzex- 
factory) 



Programmable 74*250.3 (34 El A tones) Encode and 
Decode 



Receiver 



Pint, Freq 


1st = 10 7MHz, 2nd=455KHz (lst2l.4MHz 2nd* 
455KHZ) 


Sensitivity 


Better than 12dB SiNAD ® .2uV I 


1 Squelch Sens 


Better than 15uV 


Bandwidth 


+ 6KH2 <§' -6dB 


Selectivity 


- 12.5KHZ ® ~60dB I 


| Image Ratio 


Better than 70dB 


Audio Output 


More than 2w. 8 ohms toad. 10% THD 


Standard Accessories 


1 Speaker Microphone 


Speaker = B ohms. Mike = Condenser type. 
SM-34A; UP/DOWN plus lone encoder. 1 


| Power Cable 


2 meters, with 7 A fuse, | 



SEE 




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EVER SAY DIE 



from page 4 

We stay in the best hotels and 
get great breakfasts every morn- 
ing as part of the tour package. 
The tour includes air fares, land 
transportation, airport taxes, and 
so on, The ham DXpedition will 
include at least one hamfest din- 
ner in each city, Chang also orga- 
nizes reasonably priced dinner 
parties for those interested in try- 
ing local foods — such as the deli- 
cious Mongolian Barbeque in 
Taipei, Or perhaps, by the time 
you get to incredible Hong Kong, 
you'll be ready for a Mexican din- 
ner. That was my choice last Octo- 
ber—dragging along a young 
ham, Chris Peterson KB9YT, and 
Rod McKuen (the poet), going to 
the restaurant via the Start Ferry, 
then a ride on a 75-year-old trolley 
car. You won't forget a trip around 
Hong Kong like that— especially 
al night. We went back to our hotel 
on the new ultramodern subway; 

They've got a 2m repealer in 
Hong Kong p so well all be able to 
keep in touch from anywhere in 
the colony. Bob and I were talking 
about bringing a portable repeater 
to Taipei , but we don't know 
whether Tim Chen BV1A will be 
able to get it okayed or not. II "d be 
fun, if we could swing it. We might 
be able to do that in Seoul, too. I 
got a license there a few years ago 
as HL9WG and worked all over 
the city with my HT via a repeater 
run by Army MARS. Everyone 
should bring an HT t naturally. 

The DXpedition will take about 



ten days, which almost everyone 
should be able to finagle 

I should be satisfied with a DX- 
pedition to Korea, Taiwan, and 
Hong Kong, but 1 wondered if, as 
long as we're in the area anyway, 
you might not want to take just a 
few more days and make it not just 
a trip you'll never forget, but one 
your friends will never forget ei- 
ther. My sneaky plan is to take 
those with the time and guts on 
from Hong Kong to Sabah 9M6. 
Brunei V85, and Sarawak 9M8. 

I made this trip three years ago 
and it was one of the most inter- 
esting I've ever made. Along the 
Borneo north coast is Kota Kin- 
abalu, Sabah, where we'll stay at 
the Kinabalu Hyatt. KK t as they 
call it, is a lovely, fascinating town. 
The hams are incredibly friendly. 
Until you've gotten on the air from 
Sabah, you don't know what a 
pileup really is from the DX end. 

The next stop is Bandar-Seri- 
Begawan, the capital of Brunei — 
the wealthiest country per capita 
in the world. We'll stay at the 
Brunei Sheraton. The hams there 
are also ultra-friendly. This is the 
country where people are able to 
get interest-free loans from the 
government for cars and houses. 
The Sultan is the richest man in 
the world. I wonder if he'll shake 
hands with us — he might if we 
have a good-sized group. 

In Kuching, the capital of 
Sarawak, we'll be staying at the 
new Hilton. On my last trip I got on 
the air and had a balL l also made 
a side trip up into the hills to visit a 




QSL OF THE MONTH 

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TO 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



long-house— a whole village built 
on stilts, including the sidewalks. 
There were still skulls hanging 
from the days, just a generation 
ago, when these people were still 
head hunters. 

The whole trip— Seoul, Taipei, 
Hong Kong, Kota Kinabatu t Ban- 
dar-Seri-Begawan, Kuching— will 
take twenty days— about three 
weeks for an experience you'll 
never forget If you go for it, Bob 
and I have an eye on getting you to 
China and Macao next year— and 
probably to Singapore and 
Bangkok in 1986— unless you'd 
like to get up to see Father Moran 
in Nepal and see what it's like 
to operate from 9N1MM Yep, 
I've done that, too. I've operated 
from all those places, , .ho 
hum. . ,yawn. 

Of course it's always possible 
that amateur radio has been so 
decimated by its lack of growth 
for the last 23 years that there 
aren't enough adventurous spirits 
left to make a DXpedition like this 
feasible. 

Take a look at your calendar 
and see if you can get away from 
October 5th to 16th for the three- 
country DXpedition — or until Oc- 
tober 25th for the six-country DX- 
pedition, The costs aren't firm yet, 
but should run around $3,000 for 
the three countries and $5,000 for 
the six countries. 

If you've got enough left to bring 
your wife, I guarantee she'll enjoy 
It. There are plenry of things to see 
and a lot of shopping to do. You 
probably already know about buy- 
ing electronic gadgets in Hong 
Kong— by far the cheapest place 
in the world for T em. HK is also a 
great place for clothes— providing 
you manage to get past the tailor 
in the hotel in Taipei where most 
of the group this last trip bought 
$150 custom-made suits (I bought 
two). Custom-made shirts are 
$10. You've seen the Seoul bar- 
gain fur ads in many American 
magazines. 

In Sarawak you get some great 
batik paintings and batik shirts* I 
like the batik shirt I bought in 
Kuching so much I wear it just 
about all summer. Each country 
has interesting things to buy. The 
prices are surprisingly low— ex- 
cept in Manila where they are 
much, much lower, 

Tell your wives that Sherry was 
with me on the trip and loved ev- 
ery minute of it. She will never for- 
get our sitting at dusk by the 
Sarawak River having a "steam- 
boat" dinner— all sorts of meats 
and vegetables you dip in boiling 
broth and cook at the table, It's a 



lot like shabu-shabu, if you've 
had that. 

We also won't forget the short 
intense rain shower which 
dumped maybe four inches of wa- 
ter in an hour and then went away 
as quickly as ft came. Sure, these 
Borneo countries are only about a 
hundred miles from the equator, 
but they're comfortable, running 
around 82-85 degrees year 
round. Don't bring your heavy 
coats— just a raincoat or umbrella 
for that occasional shower. 

Let's see, I didn't mention a visit 
to the Korean Village, just outside 
Seoul— you'll need lots of film for 
this. It's a recreated old Korean 
village, showing how people used 
to live. There are plenty of food 
vendors and their food is su- 
perb — cooked while you watch. 

In Taipei you'll want to allow 
some time to see their incredible 
museum— and maybe, if you have 
the stomach for it, a trip to Snake 
Alley. Yecch, You'll certainly want 
to try a Wendy's hambu rger at the 
Wendy's next to the hotel in Taipei 
and the one at Etweon in Seoul— 
the only Wendy's in the world I 
know of with hookers sitting 
around the tables looking for busi- 
ness. Yep* they serve Frosties 
there too. If you get hooked on 
Wendy's, there's a nice one in 
Hong Kong now, too, complete 
with salad bar. Lordy! It's all there. 
McDonalds. Pizza Hut, Kentucky 
Fried— even Chuck E Cheese's 
Pizza Time Theatre. Of course 
just down the street you can get a 
great Indonesian ristofle. 

I'm trying to arrange to have 
some OSL cards we can take 
along with us — if I can get my print 
shop in gear, If you sign up in time 
we'll have your QSL cards for the 
trip— showing your six-country 
DXpedition on a map. 

You'll have to make a decision 
on this early so Bob will be able to 
send a copy of your ham license to 
each of the seven countries in- 
volved and get the paper work 
done. These government bureau* 
crats don't rush for anyone, so get 
me a $1 ,000 down payment for the 
trip and eight copies of your ham 
license. 

I am planning on personally es- 
corting the DXpedition— so I'll be 
able to give you inside info on 
where to go, what to see, what to 
shop for, and what to do. Be 
warned that I also talk a blue 
streak and got surly the only time 
anyone out-talked me, 

I have this peculiar problem— 
when I find something which is fun 
I have an urge to share my fun with 
as many people as possible. DX- 




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peditioning to Asia is just about 
the last word for a ham, so I'm 
pushing you to take the egg mon- 
ey and come with us this October, 

If I don't get at least 50 DXpedi- 
troners signed up by June 30th 
I'll have to just go by myself and 
look tor you on 20m T eating your 
head out. 

Young hams, if there are any, 
shouldn't waste their money on a 
house or a car— they should in- 
vest it in the memory of a lifetime. 
Retired hams should dig into the 
sugar tin and get on this DXpedi* 
tion while they still have some life 
left. Remember, the average life 
span of men these days is 72 — 
which means that by the time 
you're 72 half your friends are 
dead and the other half are too 
sick to travel anymore. 

So, as I asked in the beginning, 
are you ready to come with me — 
sit down at a rig in a rare country 
and face the pileups? Write to 
me— Wayne Green W2NSD/1, 
DXpedition "86. WGE Center, Pe- 
terborough NH 03458 USA, so we 
can get moving. 

THOSE FOUR-LETTER WORDS 

Mercy me. the good old days 
are back— I've just had an indig- 
nant letter complaining about my 



using four-letter words in my edi- 
torial—words like hell and damn. 
Welt, the letter got me to thinking, 
so it wasn't completely wasted. 
Oh, as far as getting me to change 
my writing vocabulary, it was a 
waste. The purpose of words is to 
convey ideas, so I'm going to use 
what 1 feel are the appropriate 
words to express my ideas. When 
I'm expressing anger or exasper- 
ation, HI be using words which 
convey my feelings — strong 
words. 

There's a big difference in my 
mind between effectively commu- 
nicating ideas and gratuitous 
cursing. Having spent several 
years in the Navy, I'm quite at 
home with everything our lan- 
guage has to offer in so-called 
dirty words. 

Which brings me to profanity 
over the air — of which I am not a 
big fan. In case you haven't no- 
ticed, the FCC has backed off on 
this. Every attempt to keep broad- 
casters "clean" has resulted in 
our courts backing free speech. 
The end result is that legally, the 
last l heard, you can use any of the 
tour-letter words you like. 

Before you trot out your version 
of Navy language and bray it on 
75m, let's think about this, When I 



hear someone using foul lan- 
guage, I hardly think s/he is very 
intelligent. We're just not used to 
hearing educated people talk gut- 
ter language. Note the term— gut- 
ter. That means the lowest possi- 
ble class — gutter people. 

Just as we dress for the impres- 
sion it makes on other people — 
dress for success, as it were — we 
also use language for the impres- 
sion it makes. People do judge 
you by your clothes when they see 
you. Conversely, you are showing 
people who you are by the way 
you dress. If you are a low-class 
bum you'll dress that way. 

When we hear someone over 
the air the only way we have to 
judge that person is by the lan- 
guage s/he uses. We judge by 
their vocabulary, their accent, and 
the way they express themselves. 
Have you ever made a tape of 
your voice making a ham contact 
and then listened to it critically- 
listened as if this were someone 
else you were judging purely by 
what you're hearing? Tape 
recorders are cheap thse days — 
in fact, most of you have at least 
one around. Try taping yourself 
for an hour and see how you come 
out when you judge yourself. 

We have a far from classless 



society. Indeed, class is some- 
thing most of us are concerned 
with a good deal of the time. We 
judge people by how they dress 
and talk when we meet them. Are 
they above or below us in class? 
Oh, it's not usually a conscious 
thing, but we judge people and 
treat them accordingly. 

Class has been fairly well de- 
scribed in many books. Vance 
Packard did a fine job of this a 
generation ago Class is in- 
grained—it shows clearly in your 
clothes, car, house, furnishings, 
speech, recreation, the food you 
eat and drink, and your work. 
There are so many lifetime train- 
ing factors involved that few peo- 
ple are able to change class. 
We're familiar with lower-class 
people who've gotten rich — the 
"Beverly Hillbillies" syndrome. 
We make fun of them. 

When we hear fellow hams talk- 
ing we can't help but look for clues 
as to class. We get 'em from their 
language. If we hear four-letter 
words— or even that dread 13-let- 
ter word— we know what you are. 
Remember, you only have one 
chance to make a good first im- 
pression—and when you're on 



Continued on page 9 1 



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Bultt-ln SWR/Wattmeter has 2000 and 200 watt 
ranges, forward and reflected power. 2% meter 
movement- 6 position antenna switch handles 2 
coax lines (direct or through tuner), wire and ba- 
lanced lines. 4:1 balun 250 p* 6 KV variable capac* 
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All metal black cabinet and panel gives RFI pro- 
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stand tilts tuner f or easy viewing. 5 x 14 x T4 in, 



MFJ'a bail 300 watt tuner It now even better 

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verticals, whips, beams and quads. 

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ETTERS 



AMers and DSBers. . Jhey can 
QRM each other as much as they 
tike, and I bet nobody would miss 
themonHE—KWlO. 




WIRE ON FIRE 




I found that the W3MT an- 
tenna bridge described in the 
April, 1986, issue does indeed 
put more fire in the wire. Run- 
ning a mere two candlepower in- 
put, my CW signaf is reported to 
have pegged the S*meter at 
ZS6NN, Amateur radio needs 
more revolutionary circuits like 
this one. 

Howard Sahi WB0IWN 
Lake wood CO 



Come o/i, Richard, there are 

barely tens of thousands of hams 
on the air to begin with, and 
you want me to believe that 
most of them are on six meters? 
f don't buy it, ft seems to me 
that the current (and project- 
ed) level of activity could be 
handled in a 2>MHz-wide band. 
i think the overall benefit to 
ham radio from a PDRS out- 
weighs the loss of a few MHz of 
spectrum— KW tQ t 



THE GREAT EXCLUDER 





I was in total shock and dis- 
may over your support of RM- 
5241 (ORX f March, 1986) to take 
away the upper two MHz 
of our six-meter band for the 
creation of Don Stoner's Pub- 
lic Digital Radio Service (PDRS). 
Sloner's contention that "less 
than 1,000 are active on the 
band 1 ' is preposterous! The 
2,500 members of the Six Me- 
ter International Radio Kiub 
(SMtRK) and the approximate- 
ly 300 repeaters on six (there 
were slightly over 50 in 1978) 
are evidence of this. There are 
a sizeable number of users of six 
in the club to which I belong 
(Goddard ARC) and if my calcu- 
lations are correct there are 
tens of thousands of six-meter 
users. My interest in amateur 
radio began on six meters as a 
teenager in the middle seventies, 
primarily because of the varied 
propagation one can experi- 
ence on the band. Six got me 
into amateur radio, and it can 
continue to lure others, particular- 
ly with the sunspot cycle headed 
upward. 

Six is healthy, and use of it 
is growing. Recent access to the 
band by the British, with other 
European countries soon to fol- 
low, can only accelerate this 
growth. While there may be a lot of 
hams who don't use six, there are 
many of us out here who do. No, 
six meters is not dead; there area 
lot of us out here who enjoy it, 
thank you. We intend to keep rt 
that way, 



I totally agree with the comment 
about the ICOM IC-02AT in the 
February issue. I bought mine a 
year ago and have found it to be 
an extremely nice radio, but its 
scanning speed leaves much to 
be desired! With today's technolo- 
gy I can't understand why it scans 
so slowly, fVe noticed the speed 
of my friend's Kewood HT; rt 
greatly outperforms the 02AT in 
the scanning department. Could 
you do an article on how to speed 
it up? 

Chris Sufeske N4LZG 
Stafford VA 

White you're waiting for the 
speed-up mod, check out the arti- 
cle by AL7DS in this issue to find 
out how to cover 144 to 165 MHz 
onyour02AT.—Ed. 




Glad to see Wayne back in the 
arena, handling the flaming sword 
in defense of the radio amateur! 

AM is through, we must recog- 
nize, but SSB is very difficult to 
home-brew, especially outside 
the United States, due to troubles 
finding crystal filters and so on. 1 
think that double-sideband (DSB) 
might be the answer we are look- 
ing for. It's much easier to design 
than SSB, with no crystal fitters — 
beginners could have their fun 
again! What the world needs is an 

easy-to-buifd transceiver— make 
it DSB! 

Carlos Vienna Carneiro PY1CC 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 



Ric ha rd Penc NE2 J Let s forget the PDRS on six me- 
Laurel MD ters and give 52-54 MHz to the 



I usually agree with you con- 
cerning amateur radio. We need 
to get the rest of our hobby's 
members to open their eyes and 
ears and pul their brains into gear 
and look into the future of our 
pastime. 

I am a retired Air Force flyer. 
I have been teaching in the 
electronics program at East 
Tennessee State University for 
the past few years and have 
watched many a potential ham 
go away, probably never to re- 
turn. We offer a course in ham 
radio, for one semester-hour 
credit. The student must earn a 
Novice ticket and make con- 
tacts on the university radio sta- 
tion. The course is conducted 
by K4SE. The results have been 
so-so. 

I have conducted several 
Novice classes over the past 
few years and, to tell the truth, 
I feel that most of it has been 
a waste of time. Several peo- 
ple have obtained their licens- 
es, but to my knowledge only 
one has used it. He has upgrad- 
ed and is active. The rest, put 
bluntly, have no desire to use 
the code and don't even give it 
a try. 

We worry that we will let 
the wrong element into ham ra- 
dio if we relax and drop the 
great excluder. CW. i have news 
for the worry warls: We are doing 
what we want to avoid by keep- 
ing the code as an entry require- 
ment. It is a common practice 
for one person in a group to go 
get a tegit Novice ticket, then up- 
grade to General and then get 
all his friends into the hobby via 
the Novice route. They are usually 
into electronics and computers 
and have no trouble getting a 
Tech. ticket. Most of them make 
good hams. It's a shame we force 
them to be unethical to get into our 
hobby. 

I hope you can get back on the 
bandwagon and lead us on. We 
need to badger the ARRL and 
FCC until we get the no-code 
through, ff we don't, I'm afraid our 
hobby is doomed. 

Why did I become a ham? 
It sure wasn't to communicate! 
t wanted to be able to fly my mod- 
el airplanes and be able to 



conduct legal on-the-air ex- 
periments with radio control. 
Involvement with hamming in 
the traditional sense came later, 
I was involved with emergen- 
cy communications in the ear- 
fy 60s when a hurricane ripped 
up the outer banks area of North 
Carolina. AM on a BC-610 from 
the MARS station. I don't get on 
the air very much even though I 
have 160-2 afl-mode capability. 
When I do it I'm usually working 
some Novice. I get a thrill out 
of being the first contact for a 
new ham. 

In teaching we try to develop 
a rationale for learning from the 
point of view of the student. If 
the student does not have a 
good reason for learning, he wifl 
not learn much. If he does have, 
you can't help him enough. We 
must find a reason why Joe Ham 
in the Unfted States should want 
the no-code ticket and the 
thousands of new hams it would 
attract. 

I have not heard much dis- 
cussion about the influence that 
the Japanese no-code ticket had 
on the availability of ham gear 
in the United States, but I'll bet 
not many of us have thought 
about it. More hams will bring 
more crowding on the bands, 
Yes. But it will also bring more 
makers into the equipment mar- 
kets and more and better equip- 
ment for us to buy. When we de- 
velop the newer techniques such 
as spread spectrum, as we did 
with SSB, the congestion wifl dis^ 
appear. The new people will bring 
with them new ideas and we will 
all benefit. 

One last bit: I teach a course 
calfed electronic circuit fabri- 
cation. The typical student comes 
into the course with the usual 
fears of not being able to do it, and 
then after a few successful labora- 
tory experiences, during which 
skills such as soldering, wire- 
wrapping, parts testing, and such 
are introduced, the student be- 
comes enthusiastic about ft We 
go from a schematic to a compfet- 
ed project that must include a 
PCB. When the semester is over, 
we have a group that has found 
the joy of making something that 
works and is ready to giv** au.ie- 
thing else a try. Too bad we ex- 
clude them from ham radio with 
Morse code. If we don't make 
room for them in our bands, 
someone else will! Remember 1 1 
meters? 






Donald H Lettrelt W4VBH 
Bluff City TN 



73 Amateur Radio • J u ne , 1 986 1 7 




EW PR 



■ II 



UCTS 




d 




THE RIGHT SHU 1 



I 



"WW «••* 



w* 



Free toot catalog available from 
Jensen. 

NEW JENSEN CATALOG 

Jensen Tools, Inc., has re- 
leased its latest catalog featur- 
ing many additions to the Jensen 
line of tools, tool kits, and test 
equipment. 

The 82-page catalog is avail- 
able free from Jensen Tools, lnc+ t 
7815 S 46th Street, Phoentx AZ 
85044; (602)-968-6241 . Reader 
Service number 157. 

KALGLO CONDITIONED UPS 

Kalgto Electronics has added a 
new standby uninterruptible pow- 
er supply to their Aegis™ line of 
power-conditioning equipment 
The model LS250 Line-Saver- 
SREGTR uses pulse-width modu- 



lation to regulate the 250-Watt 
rms ac output for greater efficien- 
cy under various load conditions. 
The PWM ac output also increas- 
es battery efficiency to extend 
backup time: 5-10 minutes at full 
load, 20-25 minutes at half load, 
and 35-40 minutes at one-third 
toad 

The unit comes with an internal 
1 2-V sealed rechargeable battery, 
two voftage-surge-protected ac 
outlets, and audible and visual 
power failure indicators. The sug- 
gested retail price is $549. 

For more information, please 
contact Kaigio Electronics Com- 
pany, Inc.. Dept CP* 6584 Ruch 
Rd. E Alien Twp. t Bethlehem PA 
18017; (215)-837-0700. Reader 
Service number 159. 

LOW-TEMP ALUMINUM 
BRAZING ROD 

Medford Specialized Services 
markets an aluminum brazing rod 
for repairing and welding alu- 
minum, copper, and brass joints. 
The rod's low melting point (732 
degrees) makes it easy to use with 
a propane torch. Low-resistance 
joints may be formed on anten- 
nas, tank circuits* and matching 
networks as simply as soldering. 

For further details, contact MSS 
Wonder Rods, N3401 Castle Rd„ 
Medford Wt 54451. Reader Ser- 
vice number 153. 

(COM HIGH-POWER 

2M MOBILES 

1COM has announced two new 
packet-compatible 2m mobile 





ICOMs IC-28H 45-Watt 2m mobile transceiver. 



rigs, the IC-28A (25 Wans) and the 
IC-28H (45 Watts). Both radios are 
small, only 5*1/4* x 5-1/2" x 2" 
(the IC-28H is 7-1/4" deep). They 
feature a large liquid-crystal dis- 
play with automatic dimming, 
wideband (138-174-MHz) cover* 
age for MARS and CAP operation, 
21 memory channels, and band or 
memory scanning. 

For more information, contact 
ICOM America, Inc., PO Box C- 
90029. Betlevue WA 98009-9029. 
Reader Service number 152, 

OVONIC SILENT GENERATOR 

Ovonic ThermoElectric Compa- 
ny, a division of Energy Conserva- 
tion Devices, Inc., is now market- 
ing the Compact Silent Generator. 
This lightweight, silent, solid-state 
generator obtains its energy from 
any source of heal and can pro- 
duce up to 6 Watts of dc at 9 volts 
or up to 5 Wafts at 6 or 12 volts, 
The CSG can directly power light 
loads or be used to charge exter- 
nal batteries. 

For complete information P write 
or call Ovonic ThermoElectric 
Company, 1864 Northwood. Troy 
Ml 48084; (313)-362-3140> Read- 
er Service number 1 54. 

ACTICON MINI RS-232 PORT 

Rapitech Systems, Inc. has de- 
veloped a DB*25 connector which 



includes a complete RS-232 com- 
munication circuit. The Acticon™ 
connector was designed to free 
up space on computer circuit 
boards by placing all of the hard- 
ware necessary for RS-232 com- 
munications inside the DB-25. 

For complete details, contact 
Rapitech Systems, Inc., 75 Mon- 
tebeilo Rd», Suffern NY 10901. 
Reader Service number 156. 

ETRON RF NOTES 3 

Rf Notes 3, Volume 1 is a new 
software package from Etron En- 
terprises which aids in the design 
of Butterworth-response filters to 
the seventh order- Based on net- 
work modeling, the program de- 
signs low-pass, high-pass, band- 
pass, and band-reject filters as a 
function of input/output imped- 
ance ratios and user-defined input 
parameters, The output of the pro- 
gram is a schematic diagram la- 
beled with circuit constants, 

Rf Notes 3, Volume 1 is avail- 
able for IBM DOS 2.1; for further 
details contact Etron Rf Enterpris- 
es, PO Box 4042 r Diamond Bar 
CA 91 765; (714)*594~8741. Read- 
er Service number 158. 

LARSEN 450-MHZ 
KULGLASS™ ANTENNA 

Larsen Electronics has an- 
nounced the model KG-450 on- 





The LS250 standby UPS from Kafglo Electronics. 
18 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



TheActicon active connector from Rapitech Systems 




Nemal connectors for Beiden 9913 and 8214 cables^ 



glass antenna for the 450-512- 
MHz range. The KG^t50 is a half- 
wave, unity-gain element without 
a ground plane, and offers up to 
2,4 dB gain in most mobile instal- 
lations. The antenna is tuned by 
cutting the whip according to a 
chart provided by Larsen. The an- 
tenna kit includes 14 feet of RQ- 
58A/U JowJoss coax. 

For more details, write or call 
Larsen Electronics, POBox 1799. 
Vancouver WA 9866$; (206)~573- 
2722. Reader Service number 
161. 

NEM AL CONNECTORS 

Nemal Electronics has intro- 
duced a new line of connectors 



designed to fit Belden 9913 and 
821 4 style cables. The connectors 
are available in both type-N and 
8NC and accommodate a 9-1/2- 
to-11-gauge center conductor. 
Both styles meet MIL-C-39012 
specs and incorporate silver- 
plated contacts and Teflon™ insu- 
lation. 

For more information, contact 
Nemal Electronics International, 
12240 NE f4th Avenue, North 
Miami FL 3316t; (305)893- 
3924. Reader Service number 1 55, 

MERCER VOM 

Mercer Electronics, a division of 
Simpson Eiectric Co., has intro- 
duced the model 9120 VOM, The 




The Mercer model 9120 VOM. 



new instrument features 25 
ranges (including dB), 20,000 
Ohms/volt dc sensitivity, 5,000 
Ohms/voit ac sensitivity, and a fre* 
quency response of 100 kHz on 
the 3-, 1 2- T and 60-voit ac ranges. 
The model 9120 will measure up 



to 12 Amps dc. 

For additional information on 
the model 9120 VOM, contact 
Mercer Electronics. 859 Dundee 
Ave.. Elgin IL 60120; (312yG97- 
2265. Reader Service number 
160. 




MAGGIORE ELECTRONIC LAB. 



Manufacturers of Qualit y Communications Equi pment 



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* 'When You Buy. Say 73'* 



73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 19 






73 Review 



Head -to- Head: 

Kenwood's TS-811A versus I CO Ms IC-471A 



by Peter H. Putman KT2B 

ICOM America, Inc. 
2380-1 16th Avenue NE 
BellevueWA 98004 
IC-471A— $799 

Trio-Kenwood 
Communications 
1111 West Walnut Street 
Compton CA 90220 
TS-811A— $899 



Here's the dilemma: You'd like to get on 
the 70-cm band, and in a big way. You've 
set your sights on weak-signal operation, 
A TV, OSCAR, and even some FM repealer 
and simplex operation Then you read in a 
VHP column that "nothing beats using a 
transverter with your multimode HF transceiv- 
er. w Sounds Good! Then you discover that 
using a transverter with your HF radio at best 
yields only about 4 MHz of the band to play 
with in the vicinity of 432 to 436 MHz. Hey, that 
won't work at all! 

So you peruse the catalogs and come 
across the wonderous 70-cm muttimodes vari- 
ous manufacturers fall Japanese) make and 



see that they'll give you what the transverter 
scheme won't — full band coverage and all 
modes. A quick call to the local authorized 
distributor and soon you're the proud posses- 
sor of one of these beauties. Bet it set you 
back a piece of change, too! 

Now you're busy chasing OSCAR contacts 
and tripping repeaters all over the area, won- 
dering why anyone would prefer the transvert- 
er route. Good question, and among those 
which this review will try to answerl 

For this review, I obtained two off-the-shelf 
70-cm multimodes from local amateurs, to en- 
sure that what I evaluated is what you'd be 
likely to buy. I wasn't able to obtain the Yaesu 
FT-726 with 70-cm module, but at least you'll 
get an idea how the state-of-the-art from ICOM 
and Kenwood compare to your present 
setup — not to mention each other! No doubt 
about it, these radios wilt set you back a few 
dollars. Are they worth it? Let's find out. 

A Comparison of Features 

The ICOM 471 A lists for $799. For this, you 
get 25 Watts rf output, dual vfo's, 32 indepen- 
dent programmable memories, and three dif- 
ferent scanning modes. The Kenwood TS- 
81 1 A lists for $899, This buys you 25 Watts rf 
output, dual vfo's, 40 independent pro- 
grammable memories, and three different 
scanning modes, Pretty close so far. 

Both radios offer USB, LSB, CW, and FM 
operation over (he 430-450-MHz band. Both 
have continuously adjustable power output. 
Both are capable of ac operation (an ac power 
supply is standard on the TS-81 1 A, whereas 
on the IC-471A it's an option) and can use 



'scanning" microphones for remote tuning. 
That's where the similarity ends, 

ICOM and Kenwood have, in their own pe- 
culiar ways, included and excluded from 
these radios certain features that you might 
either wish to have or have no use for whatso- 
ever! in many cases, the feature present on 
one radio is missing or unavailable on the 
other. Perhaps the best way to show this is 
with Table 1 . 

Obviously, there's a difference of opinion 
here regarding just what the 70-cm operator 
needs in a multimode transceiver. It makes it 
more difficult to review the units from a com- 
parison standpoint, as well! When possible, Til 
touch on how well these features worked for 
the particular radio under test. 

Photo A is a front view of the two radios, 
They're comparable in size, with the ICOM 
being slightly larger Both displays are easy to 
read and contain a multitude of information 
regarding operating mode, scan mode t BIT 
position, simplex/duplex operation, and tun- 
ing speed on the vfo. Both employ push-but- 
ton function and mode selection. 

Here's where I make my first subjective 
evaluation: The TS-81 1A's multifunction but- 
tons make its front panel somewhat confus* 
ing, and it takes a second to find your way 
around the rig. On the other hand, the IC-471 A 
is very user-friendly, and anyone could begin 
to use this radio right out of the box without 
referring to the manual. 

Speaking of manuals: I've gotten quite used 
to the strange English that peeks through 
Japanese manuals on occasion. However, 
there is no excuse for the spelling errors in the 





Photo A. The fCOM IC-471A and Kenwood TS-&1 1A 430-MHz transceivers 
20 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 

































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Photo B Specuat display of the TS-81 1A running 25 Watts at 432. 100 Photo C. Spectral display of the lC^47tA running 25 Watts at 432. 100 
MHz. The second harmonic is down more than 70 dB. MHz. The second harmonic is down 60 d&. 



TS-81 1 A manual. Come on f guys! "Micro- 
porcessor?" Both manuals are fairly thor- 
ough, to their credit. The Kenwood manual is 
quite detailed regarding the front-panel con* 
trols and the use of the vfo's, memories, and 
scan features The ICOM is equally thorough 
with its expJanalion of the front-panel controls, 
but it uses fewer words to get the job done. 

Both radios have the complement of bells 
and whistles you'd expect for the price. The 
ICOM's bells and whfstles, however, have 
more practical value and Kenwood's are more 
hi*tech for technology's sake. (HI elaborate on 
that momentarily.) Kenwood has also mclud- 
ed its new DCS (Digital Coded Squelch) sys- 
tem, which is becoming standard equipment 
on its VHF/UHF radios. Since it didn't com- 
pare to anything on the ICOM t I chose not to 
test and review it. 

The Kenwood TS-81 1 A 

Okay, on to the controls! Starting with the 
Kenwood, one feature I found downright clev- 
er is Ihe switch marked CH.Q, When you 
press this switch, the vfo dial steps in 5-kHz 
increments with a positive detent feedback 
through the dial — it really clicks with each 
step! Apparently, this is accomplished with a 
solenoid system, as you hear a rather loud 
relay "click" when you press the switch. With 
the switch out. the vfo dial tunes silky smooth 
in 104tz increments. I've never seen anything 
like this before on any radio! 

The FM, USB, LSB, and CW push-buttons 
provide for more multimode selection. In addi- 
tion, the Morse verification through the speak- 
er of the push-button selected is useful if 
you're not looking at the radio directly. Next to 
this control is one marked AUTO, which auto- 
matically selects the mode of transmission de- 
pending on where you are in the band. Only 
problem is it's based on some sort of 
Japanese band plan that doesn't jive with 
ours, at least befow the OSCAR subbands, so 
this control is useless and can be ignored. 

Below these buttons are controls for SCAN 
start/stop; MJN to save memories; REV & 



LOCK to lock up the dial and provide for re- 
versed offsets in memory channels 36, 37, 
and 38; AL to turn on/off the channel 1 priority 
circuit alert; and CH.S to operate the channel- 
select position for dialing up memories. Phew! 

On the right of the vfo knob are controls for 
the previously mentioned CRQ function, A/B 
to select the two vfo's, STEP to select tuning 
rate, SPLIT to split the vfo's. M > V to transfer 
data from the selected memory to the vfo, and 
A=B to reset the two vfo's to each other. Be- 
low these are controls to select either vfo or 
memory position and a control marked COM, 
which is for a preset frequency of 433.000 
MHz (apparently some sort of simplex net fre* 
quency in Japan), You can reprogram this if 
necessary. 

The complement of controls is rounded out 
by a continuously variable RIT control, which 
a second switch from the front panel can can- 
cel RIT excursions are in the range of 9*9 kHz 
either side of center frequency. Also found are 
MIC and RF PWR controls, IF SHIFT, SQL for 
squelch, noise blanker, AFgain, RFgain t Up/ 
Down 1 *MHs frequency selection, and VOICE 
for an optional VS-1 voice synthesizer. 

On the far left, two of the three tiny switches 
select repeater offsets and subaudible tones 
(with the optional TU-5 board installed); the 



other activates the tone circuit. Below these 
are three larger switches for speech process- 
ing. ALC meter display, and ACC — which acti- 
vates a rear-panel connector with dry-contact 
closures rated at 0.2 Amps. Enough switches 
for you? I thought so. 

And, would you believe with alt that there's 
no front-panel Iransmit/receive switch? In- 
stead, you have to either insert a submtniature 
plug and switch into the rear-panel jack 
marked ST BY or use the PTT switch on the 
microphone. (Why do you need a separate 
TAR switch? How about when you Ye checking 
swr on antenna lines! Since the TS-81 1 A has 
no VOX circuit, you need to use the ST BY 
circuit to switch to transmit when operating 
CW. A front-panel switch would have been 
more convenient!) 

Kenwood receives another bad grade for 
using a *UHF M SO-239 connector instead of 
the standard type-N at this frequency. Come 
on, Kenwood. Type-N connectors aren't that 
hard to make up. At least ICOM doesn't think 
so, as they did use a type-N fitting on their 
antenna connection, (But I'm getting ahead of 
myself !) Other rear-panel connections include 
exlernaf speaker, Key jack for a CW key, ACC 
1 for a computer interface, ACC 2 for an exter- 
nal RTTY interface {this wasn't quite ex- 



Feature 

Speech processor 
Adjustable age 
Noise blanker 
Transmit switch 

Rrr 

Preamp option 
M shift 

VOX operation 
Multi-speed tuning 
Ac power supply 

* See text, 



Kenwood TS-81 1 A 

Yes 
No 
Yes 
No* 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Included 



ICOM IC-471 A 

No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Option 



Table 1. Feature comparison. 

73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 21 



plained in the manual), and finally, ac and dc 
power connections. 

As I said earlier, the TS-81 1 A comes with a 
power supply as standard equipment, One 
note here: The owner of this radio, Bill DiCarlo 
KA2QEP. mentioned that the area around the 
power supply gets quite hot when it's been on 
for awhile. 

I didn't notice that the transformer became 
dangerously hot over a two-hour period, but it 
did get very warm, so I would recommend 
adequate ventilation when using the internal 
supply. If the unit must be in a confined area, 
use a muffin fan to keep cool air flowing 
through the supply. Bill mentioned that other 
TS-811A users mentioned this condition as 
well when he worked them on OSCAR, so 
apparently the problem is not isolated. 

The ICOM IC-471 A 

Enough of Kenwood. Let's go over to the 
ICOM and review its controls in the same 
fashion. 

Starting with the front-panel layout, you see 
concentric controls for AF/RF GAIN, 
SQUELCH/TGNE (yes, an actual tone control 
on receive audio!), and MIC GAIN/RF PWR. 
Directly above these are push-button switches 
for VOX, noise blanker, AGC time constant, 
METER (in FM it's a discriminator meter), 
PREAMP for the optional AG-1 mast-mounted 
preamp, and mode selective scan, which se- 
lects only those stored memories for the mode 
in use to be scanned. 

Directly to the left of these controls are the 
mode switches (FM, USB, LSB, and CW) and 
the desired front-panel TRANSMIT switch. 
Above it are the offset write control CHECK 
control (a repeater reverse switch), + Duplex 
and -Duplex switches, tone encoder control, 
and tone select (which selects the subaudible 
tones available on the built-in subaudible 
encoder). 

To the right of the vfo are controls for tuning 
speed; dial function select, which chooses ei- 
ther vfo or memory-select operation; SPLIT to 
split vfo's; UP/DOWN for stepping through the 
band in 1-MHz steps; a continuously variable 
RIT that has an excursion range of 9.9 kHz 
either side of the center frequency. Finally, the 
upper right corner contains the A =8, A/B, 
WRITE. SCAN, VFO/M. and M> VFO switch- 
es, which function as their counterparts on the 
TS-81 TA do. 

The display on the 471 A contains a lot of 
information similar to the TS-6 1 1 A display and 
is equally easy to read. It displays frequency in 
use, along with the mode selected, offsets, 
memories in use, tone switch on, and RIT 
engaged with frequency excursion displayed. 
The vfo selected is also displayed, 

Looking at the rear panel, you find the an- 
tenna jack (type-N), CW key jack, dc power 
socket, external speaker jack, and the provi- 
sion for an optional computer interface unit, as 
well as the cover plate for the optional 1C-PS25 
power supply which fits quite snugly inside the 
transceiver. 

Now for the human engineering part: The 
IC-471A wins hands down when it comes to 
the sensible layout and engineering of its con- 
trols. Nothing is confusing, and the most 

22 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



needed and frequently used controls are the 
biggest and are very accessible. The two 
hams who accompanied me to our test lab site 
felt much the same way — that the Kenwood 
had way too many "bells and whistles" and 
was confusing to operate. I did like the detent 
tuning option on FM built into the TS-81 1 A, 
however. If s quite easy to overshoot your in- 
tended station with the silky smooth dial on the 
IC-471 A* which isn't needed when tuning in 
FM stations 1 5 kHz apart. 

the fad that the IC471A is a bit larger 
doesn't hurt either! Having more room to 
space out all of those controls makes select- 
ing them less confusing. Call it what you will, I 
maintain that the IC-471 A is simply more user- 
friendly. 

The Kenwood does get good marks for the 
audio reinforcement of the mode selected via 
audible Morse code. This feature is good 
when changing to SSB from CW during a con- 
test and making sure you've picked the right 
sideband. The vfo dial is very smooth and a 
little tighter than the IC-471 A dial, which I 
prefer since it's similar to the vfo knob on my 
Kenwood T&430S. 

Performance 

Now let's move on to performance evalua- 
tion. For the critical tests, I used a Hewlett* 
Packard 8640 rf signal generator and 8554 
Spectrum Analyzer with a 141 T i-f unit. The 
power source was an Astro n RS35M at 13.8 
volts dc. The output of each radio was fed 
through a 200- Watt, 30-dB, 50-Ohm attenua- 
tor and into the analyzer for transmitter spec- 
tral purity measurements. 

As you can see from Photo B, the Kenwood 
is phenomenally clean! It exceeds the FCC 
requirement of spurious emissions, being 
more than 60 dB below the carrier. We 
couldn't find the second harmonic! The IC- 
471 A, on the other hand, just barely made the 
FCC spec (see Photo C) and hovered right at 
the -60-dB mark as shown on the scope dis- 
play. The third harmonic is not much more 
attenuated at -65 dB. 

Both radios feature continuously variable 
power output. In the minimum position, the 
TS-81 1 A had 1 ,8 Watts of rf across 50 Ohms. 
This swung smoothly up to a maximum of 28 
Watts with the control at maximum. On the 
IC-471A, the minimum power was 6 Watts; 
with the control fully open, the power output 
was 30 Watts, Both radios met the claimed 
power specification of 25 Watts, These tests 
were made with a Bird Model 43 wattmeter, 
using a 10- and a 1 0CKWatt slug into a Terma* 
line coaxial resistor and short 9913 coaxial 
jumper. 

Receivers 

Now, on to the receivers. We first evaluated 
minimum discernible signal (MDS) on both 
receivers. For the TS-81 1 A and the IC-471 A. 
that number was the same at -140 dBm T or 
.023 u V\ A reading of S1 took .26 uV of signal 
on the IC-471 A, while a similar reading on the 
TS-81 1 A required .5 uV. Neither radio met its 
claimed performance specifications for sensi- 
tivity (less than 0.30 uV for 10 dB S+N/N for 
the IC-471 A and less than 0.14 uV for 10 dB 



S + N/N for the TS-81 1 A) t although the ICOM 
was a bit closer. 

In FM mode, the MDS for the TS-81 1 A was 
-130dBm (07 uV), while the IC-471 A needed 
-123 dBm (.16 uV) to register. The TS-81 1 A 
achieved full quieting signal (20 dB of quiet- 
ing) with - 103 dBm or 1 .5 uV of signal, and it 
took the same amount to create 20 dB of quiet- 
ing on the IC-471 A. This figure was not as 
good as ICOM claimed, and the Kenwood 
didn't measure up either. 

Selectivity and Sensitivity 

As regards selectivity, both radios passed 
with flying colors and exceeded their claims. 
For the TS-81 1 A, selectivity of more than 2.2 
kHz @ -6 dB in SSB/CW and more than 12 
kHz @ -6 dB in FM was in agreement with our 
measurements. Same thing for the IC-471 A, 
with claims of more than 2.4 kHz @ -6 dB in 
SSB/CW and more than 15 kHz @ -6 dB in 
FM mode. These radios are selective, indeed. 

Squelch sensitivity was next. For the TS- 
81 1 A, the claim was less than 0.16 uV at the 
threshold level We measured .2 uV in SSB/ 
CW, and .09 uV in FM mode. On the IC-471 A T 
the claim was less than 1 .0 uV in SSB/CW 
mode and less than .3 uV in FM mode. We 
showed .23 uV to break the squelch in SSB/ 
CW and .1 uV in FM mode. Incidentally, the 
S-meter readings varied wildly between units, 
It took .026 mV to register S9 on the IC471A 
and ,01 mV to make the grade on the TS- 
81 1 A. Finally, we measured FM bandwidth to 
be about 9 kHz on the IC-471A with some 
noticeable distortion and 7 kHz on the TS- 
81 1 A with noticeable distortion. 

Summing up. both radios exaggerate their 
sensitivity claims, but are better than their 
claimed selectivity figures, Both units would 
definitely benefit from a welt-designed pream- 
plifier ahead of the front end. (The front end in 
the TS-81 1 A is a 3SK129, while the IC-471 A 
uses a SSK48 MOSFET.) There's no reason 
why these units could not have been outfitted 
with a well-designed GaAsFET front end. Ken- 
wood is already putting GaAsFETs in its 144- 
MHz FM rigs! The 3SK48 is a good MOSFET, 
but it really doesn't have the noise figure of a 
good microwave transistor or GaAsFET. The 
casual user might not notice the difference on 
FM, but ifd be very obvious in the SSB/CW 
mode. My advice? Buy a good external 
preamp. 

Testing 

Last but not least, I put the units on the air 
for comparison. The control station was my 
Kenwood TS-430S with a Microwave Module 
ahead of it, using a microwave transistor in the 
front end. I used a Bird Coaxial Switch to in- 
stantly switch the antennas — 4 x 21 element 
F9FT beams— to the three radios. 

Reports were surprising. Using identical mi- 
crophones on the TS-430S and TS-81 1 A, the 
stations I worked preferred the audio quality of 
the TS-81 1 A better. But the IC-471 A gathered 
the best reviews for audio with the standard 
HM-12 microphone from every station polled 
except one. I discovered that the speech pro- 
cessor made little or no difference on the TS- 
81 1 A as compared to the TS-430S. The IC- 




P.C. E LECTRONICS 2522 S. PAXSON LN. ARCADIA CA 91006 (818) 447-4 565 
TOM W6QRG MARYANN WB6YSS CompuServe 72405,1207 



■28 



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471 A, of course, has no processor, Received 
audio sounded best to me on the TS-43QS, 
with the TS-811A second and the IC-471A a 
distant third, The unit really does need the 
tone control, as the iCOMs audio is very 
bassy on receive, 

I measured the starting frequency to be 
432.100 for our tests, confirmed with the sta- 
tion on the other end using a counter. The 
display on the TS-81 1 A read 432.100.1 and 
the lC-471Aread 432.099.2. We noticed some 
drift on both radios, and after about one hour, 
my TS-400 system and the listening station's 
system were still on frequency to each other at 
432.100. but the 471 A had to be readjusted to 
432.099,1 and the 81 1 A to 432.100.3. Accept- 
able, considering the frequency, 

\ switched to CW and all three radios re* 
ceived nice reports for the waveform with no 
perceived key clicks. The TS-430 and 10471 A 
both offset nicely in the CW mode T giving the 
listening station an 800-Hz note, The TS-81 1 A 
had no offset whatsoever and had to be tuned 
in to obtain the beat note, which is a pain in the 
neck. A steady signal to produce an S9 +10 
signal here on the TS-430S registered about 
S7 on the TS^811A and S9 on the IC-471A, 
confirming our previous measurements. As 
stated earlier, the age is adjustable on the 
I&471A but not on the TS-81 1 A. being select- 
ed with the mode in use, so I couldn't evaluate 
it fairly. 

All told, the two mutti modes performed 
about as 1 expected against the transverter/ 
HF-radio combination. Both multi modes really 
need preamplifiers to make the grade on 70 
cm. Both acquitted themselves well in a short 
period of FM repeater operation, receiving 
good audio reports. Note that the microphone 
gain on FM with the TS-81 1 A is fixed and not 
controlled by the front-panel MIC control! 
Now, why the heck is that? It's adjustable in all 
modes on the IC-471A, which is a real plus. 
Another strange engineering design from 
Kenwood, perhaps? 

The Final Evaluation 

Overall, if I had to buy one or the other, I'd 
go with the ICOM IC-471A over the Kenwood 
TS-81 1A for two reasons: First, the front pane! 
is very well laid out and the controls easy to 
use. Second, the receiver is a bit more sensi- 
tive than the TS-81 1 A, and ICOM makes a 
companion mast-mounted preamp for the 
unit, which Kenwood either doesn't make or 
isn't importing at this time. The quality of the 
ICOM transmit audio also impressed me. 

Although the Kenwood has some clever fea* 
tures and by far the cleanest transmitter. I 
wouldn't use most of the bells and whisttes in 
day to day operation, and they are so closely 
integrated into the basic operation of the radio 
that they become somewhat confusing, t will 
say in its favor that the TS-81 1 A has a nice feel 
on the vfo and the channelized detent tuning 
option is great to have on FM, as opposed to a 
smooth spinning dial. 

Thanks to Joe Dolan KA2KWS for the use 
of his IC-471A and to Bill DiCarlo KA2QEP 
of QEP's Electronics for the use of his 
TS-811A.B 



MFJ-1270 TAPR-2 Packet TNC 



by Marc Stern N1BLH 

MFJ Enterprises, Inc. 
Box 494 
Mississippi State 
MS 39762 
MFJ-1270— $129.95 



At last, someone has made packet radio 
available to the common ham. MFJ En- 
terprises of State College, Mississippi, has 
introduced a TAPR TNC-2 clone thafs every 
bit as good, if not better, than the original. 

And, in what may come as a surprise to 
many who expected the MFJ unit to work well 
but be inexpensively made, the MFJ-1270 
Packet Radio Terminal Node Controller {Pho- 
to A) is a very well made unit. MFJ has done it 
right. 

Look at the printed circuit board (Photo B). 
It's a class act and definitely not a simple 
phenolic board. Instead* it is double silver- 
plated with plated-through holes. The mother- 
board looks as if it comes right from a comput- 
er room. All of the components are socketed, 
which is another plus because it allows you to 
keep up with the latest changes in software. 
All MFJ has to do, in I his case* is burn new 
programmable read-only memory chips and 
send them out to customers who can then 
insert the new software. 

As it is. the MFJ TAPR-2 clone has the latest 
revision of the TAPR-2 software. The date on 
my evaluation unit read 12/30/35, and I have 
to believe that this is the latest or one of the 
latest revisions of the TNC software. 

A tiny unit, it is 7-3/8" wide by 1-1/2* high by 
9-1/2" deep, and it weighs about two pounds, 
This puts it on a par with other low-powered, 
portable units on the market. In fact, the MFJ 
TNC is built to run off 1 3.8 V dc. That means it 
is perfect for portable low-power operation, 



such as in an emergency when you have to 
move and handle high-speed traffic in the 
field. 

It's a far cry from the TNCs of a year or so 
ago that were anchored to 120 V ac and wall 
outlets. This definitely limited the effective- 
ness of the TNC. 

Essentially, the MFJ board is a plug-and- 
play unit. Since it contains the latest TNC pro- 
gram, all you need is a computer and a termi- 
nal program in the computer. The TAPR board 
acts as if it were a remote system— which it is, 
reaify— and the computer communicates 
through its telecommunications program with 
the TNC, You don't need any special program 
to use the MFJ TNC because everything is 
built in. 

Connecting the TNC and computer is easy 
because a standard serial interface has been 
implemented. This means that a straight* 
through RS-232C cable attached to a serial 
port will work quite nicely. MFJ also includes 
an eight-pin Kantronics-styfe connector and 
cable, as well as a five-pin DIN cable with 
which you connect your radio and the TNC. 

A series of DIP switches on the rear (see 
Photo C) sets the speed of the TNC's serial 
port. I left the evaluation unit set for 1200- 
baud, a 7-bit word length, and 1 stop bit. I then 
reconfigured my computers communications 
software to conform, which was the easy way 
of doing things from my point of view. 

You needn't do it that way, of course, be- 
cause the TNC is actually atmy computer in its 
own right. And since it is a computer, it's pro- 
grammable. That programming is handled via 
the built-in terminal software used by the TNC 
to communicate with the computer. You hit 
the CTRL-C combination (on an IBM PC, any- 
way) which puts you into command mode 
where you can set just about any parameter 
you care to think of— including word length, 
parity, and the like. 

This programming also sets up the TNC for 
use at your station. Your station's call is used 
as the TNC T s identifier to the packet network. 
It recognizes the standard AX. 25 network pro- 
tocol and, like any TNC, wilt also act as a 
digipeater, as welt as a beacon. This feature is 




MFJ TNC2 PACKET RADIO 



ffTJ 

MODEL MfJ-tzro 



DCO PTT 57* CQRI PWW 



■ 



Photo A. The MFJ-1270 TNC-2, 



24 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 





Photo B. The printed circuit board. 



Photo C. A rear view of the MFJ-1270. 



user-selectable, as is the TNC's ability to rec- 
ognize both V 1 ,0 and V 2.0 of AX25. Just 
about every feature of this TNC is user- 
select able. 

The CPU of the MFJ-1270 TNC-2 is a Z-80. 
It is backed by 16K of RAM and 32K of ROM. 
The ROM holds the monitor routine for the 
TNC t as well as the firmware program. The 
RAM is the user scratchpad. 

There are so many features to the TNC-2 
that I'll just have to touch on the highlights. In 
action, the MFJ-1270 TNC-2 is ready to go 
right from the box. It's simply a matter of wir- 
ing up a microphone connector for your VHF 
FM rig and putting it on the atr\ MFJ notes 
correctly in its manual that using the TNC in 
this manner is inconvenient if you use the rig 
for FM phone work, too. It offers an interface 
box which allows you both packet and phone 
options. It looks like a good idea. Not only 
does MFJ offer such a unit, it also gives you 
the schematic so you can build your own. It's a 
nice touch. 

I found that the 1270 was set up to work 
correctly from power-up. To MFJ's credit, 
though, the manual does tell how to remedy 
problems if the tones aren't set up correctly. 

The switching time of my evaluation 1270 
matched the Kenwood TR-7930 with which it 
was primarily used. Both the radio and the 
TNC handled my input with no problems, I 
used shielded cables for all the cabling; this 
also helped ensure reliability because it kept 
noise interference to a minimum— which can 
be a problem when you're dealing with cabling 
several pieces of computer equipment togeth- 
er, I suspect ribbon cable would create noise 
problems and would urge anyone considering 
packet to use shielded cabling. 

t did run into one problem, though, when it 
came to cabling, and that was due to pilot 
error. As most hams do, I usually attempt to do 
something before reading the documentation 
thoroughly. Most of us will read enough to find 
the on-off switch and then start playing. 

I did this with the 1270 when it came to 
cabling up the microphone connector, then 
followed the diagram rather than reading the 
text closely. After I had finished wiring the 
cable, I found it didn't work. When I read the 
documentation, I found that it noted that ca- 



' 'When You Buy r Say 73 



** 



bles would vary from the diagram and that 
each buyer would have to check out the con- 
nections with a volt ohm meter for continuity. 
The only correction I would urge is keeping all 
the cabling the same or just providing a DIN 
connector and a picture of the 1 270's require- 
ments. Leave the color-coding off the diagram 
because many people will follow tt rather than 
read the documentation. 

The manual is the best I've ever seen from 
MFJ. Over 200 pages long, it is readable and 
covers every aspect of the TNC from interfac- 
ing (with a comprehensive discussion of serial 



interfacing for major computers through 
setup — and a two-part tutorial) to a detailed 
discussion of the command set and error mes- 
sages, as well as a technical discussion of the 
TNC. It also covers— as do all of MFJ" s manu- 
als—the TNC's theory of operation and pro- 
vides a comprehensive set of schematics. 

MFJ has done it and I still wonder how. 
The Mississippi ham radio manufacturing 
firm has brought in a sub-$130 TNC that's 
worth much more. It deserves a took by any- 
one serious about packet. Reader Service 
number 1 52. ■ 



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73 Amateur Radio * June. 1986 25 



Peter ft Putman K71B 
84 Burnham Road 
Morris Plains NJ 07950 



A Walk Through the 
VHF/UHF Spectrum 



KT2B surveys ham radio's biggest allocation 
the bands and modes above 50 MHz. 



In this article, 1*11 try to provide a brief but 
concise overview of the amateur spectrum 
Space above 50 MHz. In doing so, 1*11 try to 
answer questions such as: (1) How many 
frequencies do we have up there? (2) Who's 
using them? (3) How can I (the reader) better 
use them? (4) Who makes equipment foT 
those bands anyway? (5) You mean I can 
actually work England and South America on 
6 meters? 

Actually, we in the amateur service are 
quite fortunate with our spectrum allocations. 
Table ! shows the most active bands. The 
only group with access to more spectrum 
space is the U.S. government itself! Yet, 
much of this spectrum space lies largely dor- 
mant, either due to ignorance or just laziness. 
As time marches on and pressure mounts 
from groups outside the amateur radio ser- 
vice, we'll be hard pressed to justify retaining 
these privileges unless we make better use of 
them, for as you well know "possession is 
nine-tenths of the law! " 

The 6-Meter Band 

For starters, consider the lowest frequency 
allocation: 6 meters. This band occupies the 
frequencies from 50-54 MHz and is a rather 
unusual animal. For example, although it is 
truly a VHF band based on spectrum posi- 
tion, it often behaves like an HF band owing 
lo different types of propagation that may 
occur. The most common is sporadic- E, Es 
for short- This condition is prompted by 
sunspot activity and results in sporadic ion- 
ization of the E layer of the ionosphere. (Typ- 
ical HF propagation occurs in the F layer of 
the ionosphere.) When this happens, contacts 
may be made with stations located thousands 
of miles away, often with low power levels. 
Severe thunderstorm cells frequently accom- 
pany this phenomenon, which has been ex- 
tensively researched over the years. 

A type of propagation that occurs less fre- 
quently nowadays on this band is F2 layer 

26 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 




Photo A, ICOMs FC-1271A 1.2-GHz 
transceiver, 

propagation, similar to that which occurs on 
the lower frequencies. Right now, the 
sunspot cycle has bottomed out but is climb- 
ing up again; so in about five years, F2 propa- 
gation will be at its peak on this band. Here 
the possibilities are greater for DX: If s quite 
common to work into Japan from the West 
Coast or into England and Africa from the 
East Coast. One fine example of what F2 can 
provide is a contact made by Mike Crawford 
WA2VUN from his home in N J. to a ZL in 
New Zealand, running 80 Watts to a single 
seven-element yagi. 

Many 6- meter fans have WAC certificates, 
largely due to F2 propagation. Now that 
amateurs in Great Britain have received 6* 
meter privileges (although somewhat lim- 
ited), it will be possible to make the W2-G2 
contact path more readily when the sun- 
spot cycle peaks out. Many stations have 
already worked the British Isles via Es T which 
occurred several times last summer, form- 
ing paths from the Atlantic Coast states 3,000 
miles across the sea to England. With the 
eventual abandonment of TV channel 1 in 
Europe in favor of UHF color channels, 
most of the continent should receive the 50- 
MHz allocation in time for the next sunspot 
peak, providing new DX enjoyment for 6* 
meter types. 



Aside from these modes, another popular 
form of DX and one that takes a considerable 
amount of skill is Meteor Scatter, which in- 
volves the use of ionized meteor trails to 
reflect 50- MHz signals over several-hun- 
dred-mile paths. It takes a lot of patience and 
repetition to make a scatter contact since most 
of these meteor "bursts" or "pings" are 
very short in duration and occur during the 
early morning hours or during intense meteor 
showers . 

Normal 6-meter propagation is on the or- 
der of a few hundred miles at best. You can 
detect enhanced propagation by watching TV 
channel 2, 3, or 4 for distorted, breaking-up 
video with heterodyne beats as another dis- 
tant signal is received. Often during Es, the 
distant signal will replace the local station 
completely for a few minutes, and you 11 have 
the rare pleasure of watching a Miami weath- 
er report on your screen in Cleveland! 
(Neighbors who know you* re a ham will 
blame vou for this condition by attributing it 
to TVI!) 

For the average station, 50 to 100 Watts 
and a single five-to-seven-element yagi will 
do the trick for SSB/CW work. The higher 
your antenna, the better, (This also helps to 
reduce possible TVI, as the increased vertical 
spacing between your 6-meter antenna and 
the nearby TV yagi also increases the attentu- 
ation of out-of-band overload products.) 
Most transceivers made for 50 MHz could 
stand the help of a good, well-designed MOS- 
FET preamplifier with 12-16 dB of gain. 
Some of the transceivers available (like the 
ICOM 55 1/55 ID series) make provision for 
such a preamp. 

Don't let TVI scare you away from the 
band, either. In many areas, the penetration 
of cable service has all but eliminated this 
problem (assuming the system operator runs 
a clean shop!). Most often TVI is caused by 
using high-gain yagis and placing them at the 



same height as most of the neighboring TV 
antennas, which is just asking for trouble. 
Get it up in the air as high as you can! 
Of course, there's no reason why you can't 
go 6*meter mobile or portable with horizon- 
tally polarized antennas as well, and take 
advantage of the nearby hills to chase DX on 
50 MHz. 

Another mode of operation that has 
achieved some popularity on the band is FM 
operation. Although there aren't many, 6- 
meter repeaters are distributed throughout 
the United States and can be accessed with a 
few Warts from a portable or mobile rig, 
When Es is present, you can have quite a lime 
with FM, working through repeaters hun- 
dreds of miles away! Unfortunately, there 
aren't too many FM mobile rigs being made 
these days by the major manufacturers, so 
you'll have to dig around to see what you can 
come up with used. The 50-MHz band is a 
valid allocation in Japan: so* when the 
sunspot cycle was at its peak, we were flood- 
ed with all sorts of 6-meter radios— porta- 
bles, mobiles, and multimode base stations. 
They ' re still around at flea markets for a good 
price. 

Right now, the choices for new 50-MHz 
radios are somewhat limited to the ICOM 
55 ID, ICOM 505, and Yaesu FT-726R with 
6-meter module installed. You can also go the 
trans verter route with Microwave Modules' 
MMT-50-28 or 50-144 units, the new Mutek 
TV VF-50 transverter, or kits from SSB Elec- 
tronics and Hamtronics. Used radios that fit 
die bill include the Kenwood TS-600, Drake 
TR-6, Heath SB 1 10. Yaesu 627RA, and 
ICOM 560 mobile radios. Portable choices 
include the ICOM 502 and the Yaesu FT- 
690. Kenwood and Yaesu also make 
transverters to match their HF radios, which 
you can often purchase very reasonably. An- 
tenna manufacturers include KLM, Hy-Gain, 
and CushcrafL Sources for amplifiers are 
somewhat limited. Mirage is the only U.S. 
manufacturer making a 100-Watt solid-state 
unit at this lime— perhaps more will come on 
the market as the sunspot cycle approaches its 
next peak. 

The 2-Meter Band 

Moving up the dial, switch your atten- 
tion to the 144-MHz or 2-meter band, as it 
is more commonly called. This is the 
most densely populated amateur allocation 
in the entire world, largely due to the 
phenomenal popularity of FM and repeater 
operation. It's also the band on which the 
OSCAR Mode B downlink frequencies are 
located. In North America, South America, 
and Japan, the 2-meter allocation runs from 
144-148 MHz* while in Europe it's limited to 
144-145 MHz, 

Normal propagation is considered to be 
line of sight on this band, and with gain anten- 
nas and some power, the average distance 
worked is in the range of about 50-100 miles. 
Most of the activity on 2 meters consists of 
FM repeater operation, with SSB/CW opera- 
tors usually found down around 144.100- 
144,200 MHz. Packet operators have carved 
out frequencies near 145.000 MHz for their 



6 METERS 

50.000-50,100 
50/100-50.500 
50.110 
51.000-51.100 

and 
52.000-52.100 
50.500-54.000 
53.1.53.2,53.3, 
53 A 53,5 
2 METERS 
144.000-144.050 
144.050-144,060 
144.060-144,100 
144.100^144.300 
144.200 

144.600-144 900 
144,900^145.100 
145.100-145.500 
145,800-146.000 
146.000-148.000 
1-1/4 METERS 
220. 000-220. 050 
220.050-220.060 
220.060-220.500 
220110 

220.500-222.000 
222.000-223.300 
223.300^223.500 
70 CENTIMETERS 
430.000-432.070 
432,070-432.200 
432.110 

432.200-435.000 
435.000-438,000 
436.000-440.000 
439.250 

440.000-450.000 
23 CENTIMETERS 
1260.000 MHz-1270.000 MHz 
1269.000 MHz 

1270.000 MHz-1 290,000 MHz 
1295.000 MHz- 1297.000 MHz 
1296.090 MHz 
1297,000 MHz-1300.000 MHz 



CW, Beacons 
CW.SSB.AM 
Calling Frequency 



Pacific Calling Frequency 
FM and Repeaters 

Radio Control 

EME (Moonbounce, CW only) 

Beacons (CW) 

CW 

SSB,CW 

Calling Frequency 

FM Repeater Inputs 

Simplex, Packet 

Repeater Outputs 

OSCAR Mode B Outputs 

FM f Repeaters 

EME (Moonbounce) 
Beacons 
SSB, CW 
Calling Frequency 
Link Frequencies 
Mixed Use (all modes) 
FM, Repeaters 

EME (Moonbounce) 

CW, SSB 

Calling Frequency 

Mixed Use, Link Frequencies 

OSCAR inputs (Mode B), Outputs (Mode L) 

ATV, ATV Repeaters 

National ATV Simplex Frequency 

FM, Repeaters 

ATV, FM, Mixed Use 

OSCAR Mode L Input 

Mixed Use, FM, Repeater Inputs 

CW, SSB 

Calling Frequency 

Mixed Use 



Table I. Modes used on the most active VHF/UHF hands. 



simplex operations, Moonbounce types fre- 
quent the area below 144.050, and the OS- 
CAR downlinks are in the range near 
145.800 MHz. More equipment is sold for 
this amateur band than for any other in the 
world, as well. 

Enhanced propagation on 144 MHz comes 
in many forms: First and most commonly 
encountered is tropospheric propagation, or 
trope tor shorthand. This phenomenon oc- 
curs when temperature inversions are 
present— that is, for a given increase in alti- 
tude, the air temperature actually increases 
instead of decreases. When this happens, lay- 
ers of warm air are often sandwiched between 
layers of cold air and a duct is formed along 
the boundaries, carrying signals along much 
like a waveguide. Users of repeaters are very 
familiar with this condition in the late sum- 
mer and early fall, usually in the morning 
hours. 



Strong storm systems in the area can induce 
tropo, with the intensity of the ducting effect 
proportional to the areas of the cold and warm 
air masses as they overlap, Tropo ducts also 
form at higher altitudes, and stations below 
the duct are often unaware of activity inside 
the duct. In this country, most tropo occurs 
along the coastal regions— mainly the 
Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, 
and the Pacific Coast to a lesser degree. The 
path from Hawaii to Southern California has 
been worked many times on 144 MHz via 
tropo, 

A form of propagation that can show up at 
any time on 2 meters (and on 6 meters* as 
well) is aurora, which is related to sun- 
spot activity. During auroral propagation, 
signals are reflected off the auroral curtain 
and received 800- 1 ,000 miles away, depend- 
ing on the intensity of the aurora. This type of 
propagation occurs more frequently at higher 

73 Amateur Radio • June. 1986 27 






latitudes* with stations in the Northeast, Up- 
per Midwest, and Canada able to take best 
advantage of it most of the time. When aurora 
is very intense, stations from the southern 
United States will often be heard off the 
curtain. 

Still another form of enhancement is Es, 
which occurs much the same way as it does on 
50 MHz, but far less often. Usually strong 
storm cells over the Midwest and Southwest 
provide the best conditions for Long-haul DX, 
observed mainly during the months of June 
and July. You can often detect sporadic- E by 
listening to FM broadcast stations or watch- 
ing TV channels 7-13 for interfering stations 
outside the normal coverage area. The higher 
the channel it's observed on t the more intense 
the Es. A rule of thumb is to watch the Es on 6 
meters, and when it becomes quite short— 
200 to 300 miles— move to 2! 

Just as on 6 meters, you can work meteor 
scatter with patience and determination. It's 
more fruitful to pick a major shower to do it, 
though, as the pings from everyday meteorite 
trails are harder to detect than on 10 and 6 
meters. Good, high-gain antennas and sched- 
ules are a must, as well as a fair amount of 
power to make it worthwhile. And as I men- 
tioned earlier, moonbounce operation, or 
EME (Earth -Moon-Earth), is very popular 
on 2 meters. Stations here usually run large 
four-bay or larger antenna arrays with legal 
limit amplifiers to overcome the 200+ dB 
path loss from here to the moon. Low- noise 
GaAsFET preamplifiers find favor in this 
application. 

There is a bewildering array of equipment 
for 2 meters currently available! At least 
eight Japanese and one U.S. manufacturer 
have FM handie-talkies available for the 
band, not to mention mobile FM radios. In 
addition, there is a preponderance of 2-metcr 
multimode radios for both base station and 
car, as well as the world *s only multimode 
handie-talkie (Santec LS-202). Three compa- 
nies in Europe have gone the other route and 
manufacture transverters for the band, so as 
to employ HF multimode transceivers as i-f 
frequency TX/RX sources, most often in 
the 10-meter band. Examples of these would 
include the popular Microwave Modules* 
MMT series, as well as Mutek and SSB 
Electronics. 

There's a plethora of antennas to choose 
from as well— KLM, Cushcraft, Jaybeam, 
CueDee, Hy-gain, and Tonna to name a few. 
Most users of FM employ vertically polar* 
tzed antennas, such as ground planes and 
J-poles, while SSB/CW users employ hori- 
zontally polarized yagis, with as many as 19 
or 20 elements. This is often the reason why 
newcomers to weak-signal work can't hear 
any activity, as they are still using their verti- 
cal arrays! 

There are many manufacturers of amplifi- 
ers for 144 MHz as well, with Mirage, TET, 
Alinco. THP, and Microwave Modules being 
among the more popular solid-state models. 
Henry Radio manufactures several versions 
of a 2-meter amplifier using 3CX800 and 
8877 tubes, which find use largely with the 
moonbounce set and weak -signal enthusiasts. 

28 73 Amateur Radfo * June. 1986 



* m 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^tJ 













Photo B. The Kenwood TM-257QA 2m mobile 
radio. 

As far as the OSCAR users are concerned, 
multimode transceivers for 432 MH2 and 144 
MHz or transverters are the order of the day, 
with "twist' polarization (antennas using 
both horizontal and vertical elements) yagis 
and 100-Watt amplifiers. 

Two meters is a perfect example of what 
happens when amateurs take to a certain 
band and populate it: The amount of equip- 
ment available goes up in direct proportion! 
If s probably the most secure allocation 
we have above the HF bands* directly due 
to the activity. Unfortunately* the same can- 
not be said for the next band, 220 MHz, 
which has long been the stepchild of our VHF 
allocations. In fact, you can consider 220 
MHz to be a UHF allocation in the scheme of 
things, lying above TV channel 13 at 220- 
225 MHz. 

The 1-1/4-Meter Band 

The l-i/4-meter band is a rather unique 

allocation; in all the world, only we in North 
America can use it! This certainly explains 
the lack of commercially made equipment for 
the band, with nothing being manufactured 
here in the United Stales and the only 
transceivers coming in from Japan— where 
the allocation doesn't exist. At present, only 
ICOM makes a mobile FM transceiver for 
the market. Kenwood, ICOM, and Yaesu 
make hand-helds for 220, as well. In 
addition, for some time Hans Peters 
VE3CRU of Transverters Unlimited has 
been making modified 220 Microwave Mod- 
ules that work with HF multimode radios. 
SSB Electronics is also introducing equip- 
ment for this market. 

What can you work on 220? For one thing, 
the propagation under normal conditions 
closely resembles 144 MHz, with line-of- 
sight conditions being the rule on low pow- 
er. With a gain antenna and some power, 
50-100 miles is possible. Enhanced prop- 







, 69 IB 


© '<5 '» ^ 1 









Photo C. Yaesu 's FT-726R multimode. multi- 
band transceiver. 



agation takes several forms, with the most 
common being trapospheric propagation as 
on 2 meters. This occurs mostly from late 
summer through fall and can result in con- 
tacts in excess of 500 miles, mostly along 
coastal areas. 

During periods of sunspot activity, 220 
contacts can be made via aurora, again in the 
same manner as 2 meters, with stations in the 
northern regions of the United Stales having 
the best propagation. Meteor Scatter is also 
quite popular on 220 during strong showers, 
such as the Perseids in early August. Again, 
schedules are a must here; otherwise, you'd 
never hear the minute-to-minute *pings* 
from random meteorites entering the atmo- 
sphere. As far as Es is concerned, there 
haven't been any strong documentablc cases 
for it lately, though this will likely change 
when the sunspot cycle peaks out in about 
five years. 

Operation on 220 mainly consists of FM 
and repeaters. In fact, many users of 220 have 
tired of the crowded conditions on 2 meters 
and have moved up to what they consider to 
be a more "civilized" band, especially in 
urban areas. In those areas, most of the coor- 
dinated repeater pairs have long been as- 
signed, yet many of the machines are "dor- 
mant" much of the time. Down at the far end, 
you'll find the weak signal chasers and moon- 
bouncers, with the former around 220.110 
and the latter around 220.050. Moonbounc- 
ers in particular like this band since it is 
relatively ,4 quiet"' as opposed to its lower 
frequency brother. And with the band falling 
above TV channel 13, TVI is rarely, if ever, a 
problem, even with high power levels. 

These advantages haven't been lost on oth- 
er potential users of the band, so 220 contin- 
ues under siege from a variety of special 
interests, who've come up with all sorts of 
4 'shared spectrum 1 proposals, as well as 
schemes to take the band away from hams 
outright and parcel it out to commercial 
users. The big problem is activity— there just 
isn't enough to ensure the long-term use of 
the band. So the big manufacturers in Japan 
are loath to come out with lines of full-fea- 
tured multimode radios for 220, not trusting 
in its staying power. It's up to us to determine 
the fate of 220, and the old saw "use it or lose 
it" certainly applies here. 

One group that appreciates the "quiet" on 
220, as well as the abundance of repeaters, is 
the packeteers, who are multiplying on this 
band. Without the bother of continuous voice 
transmissions to contend with, the packet 
mode is a very viable alternative. Of course, 
the Novice Enhancement Docket before the 
FCC may change all of that, giving voice 
privileges on 28 MHz, 220 MHz, and 1260 
MHz. It would result in more Novices on 
the band and in the long run may be what it 
takes to keep 220 in the amateur table of 
allocations. 

As I said before, the equipment situation is 
somewhat tight. In addition to the 220 Mi- 
crowave Modules. SSB Electronics will soon 
import a 220 transverter to the United Slates. 
As far as amplifiers go. Mirage and Tokyo 
HighPower make 220 units for 50-120-Watt 






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output, using HTs or mobile ngs as exciters. 
In the higher power range* Henry Radio 
makes a version of the popular 2004 for this 
band, using the 3CX800. Antennas are avail- 
able from both Cushcraft and KLM, as well 
as mobile whips from Larsen. A good deal of 
the operators on 220 have rolled their own 
equipment, for obvious reasons. 

The 70-Cm Band 

Now, let's take a big step up to our next 
allocation: the 70-cm band, or 430-450 
MHz, Originally, this band included the 
range 420-430, but recent FCC restructuring 
has removed the lower 10 MHz from amateur 
use. Here's a band that's larger than 6, 2, and 
1-1/4 meters combined. It's also a worldwide 
allocation, so equipment is plentiful and not 
that expensive. Whatever your fancy— from 
weak-signal work to ATV, OSCAR. FM, 
and repeaters—there's plenty of room to en- 
gage in it on 70 cm. 

Here is a true UHF band. Signals travel 
line of sight and can be affected by objects of 
varying density in the signal path, such as 
trees, buildings, and even clouds of moist air. 
Yet, since the 70-cm band is largely unaffect- 
ed by sunspot activity (and subsequently any 
sporadic-E)* it's a preferred choice for such 
services as commercial television in Europe. 
Since the wavelength is so small, high -gain 
multiple-element yagi antennas are possible 
using only 15 feet or so of boom length. 

Propagation enhancement usually occurs 
via tropo. In some cases, it's so intense that 
astounding distances can be covered. For ex- 
ample, during the hurricane last September 
that hit along the East Coast of the United 
States, signals from Florida were heard into 
Connecticut and Massachusetts! Tropo duct- 
ing is quite common at this frequency, al- 
though you usually have to be up a bit in 
elevation to hook inio the duct. Signals can 
also be worked via aurora on rare occasion, 
as happened this past February when intense 
sunspot activity resulted in auroral activity 
from 50 MHz through 432 MHz! Stations 
were heard working grid squares from the 
East Coast into Illinois. Ohio, Michigan, and 
Indiana via the "buzz." 

Starting at the Jow end of the band around 
432,010^32.050. you'll find the moon- 
bouncers. This is a very popular band for 
EME since you can construct high-gain ar- 
rays that don't take up much room. Many 
European and Japanese EME enthusiasts go 
mobile or portable for their contacts, towing 

30 73 Amateur Radio • June. 1986 




Photo E. The LT 23 S 1296-MHz transverter 
from SSB Electronics. 

their arrays along on trailers. Power becomes 
somewhat more difficult to generate on 70 cm 
as many of the popular ceramic power tubes 
don't carry full ratings through 400 MHz. 
However, the problem of Faraday rotation, 
the slow shift of polarization on reflected 
signals from the rnoon t is less pronounced on 
this band. It takes longer for the wave to 
shift— often minutes— as opposed to 2 me- 
ters, where the shift occurs at a rapid rate. 

Next, you find the weak-signal types 
around 432. HO MHz, the national calling 
frequency. SSB and CW work is plentiful on 
70 cm, especially during contests. Many op- 
erators use muitimode transceivers to cover 
these modes, and. of course, there are many 
transverters made for the band. 

Going further up, you run into the OSCAR 
uplink frequencies in the range 435-437 
MHz. These are the inputs for Mode B with 
corresponding outputs on 2 meters. The ATV 
crowd is next, for the 70-cm band is the 
lowest frequency allocation that permits Fast 
Scan Amateur Television, Many stations are 
on in color, and there are ATV repeaters 
located on tall buildings in urban areas. 

Finally, you run into the FM crowd above 
440 MHz, Like 220. the 440 allocations are 
largely used up in the major urban areas, but 
many of these repeaters are closed repeaters, 
using PL or tones to unlock the machine for 
use by members. The national simplex 
calling frequency on FM is 446.000. 

As you might expect, there's no shortage of 
equipment to choose from on 70 cm- All of 
the major Japanese manufacturers make both 
hand-helds and multimodes for base and mo- 
bile operation. The major European manu- 
facturers offer trans verters for the band, as 
well as ATV transmitting and receiving con- 
verters. Since many of the radios on the mar- 
ket usually suffer from less-than-acceptable 
front-end sensitivity, there's an abundance of 
preamplifiers available for both station- 
mount and mast-mount application. Serious 
users of the band employ low-loss cables such 
as 9913 and hardline for transmission lines, 
since the average coax used at HF is too 
* lossy * ' here. Also standard in most cases is 
the use of low-loss 50-Ohm connectors, such 
as type N andBNC 

Amplifiers are also plentiful, Alinco* Mi- 
rage, TET, Microwave Modules, and Lunar 
make solid-state versions with outputs up to 
140 Watts. For the higher power require- 
ments, Henry makes the 2004 and 3004 using 
3CX800 and 8877 tubes, Antennas are avail- 
able through a variety of sources, including 



KLM , Cushcraft, Hy-gain, Larsen, CueDee, 
Toima, and Jaybeam, OSCAR operators will 
employ the "twist** type of antenna for the 
uplink mode, while ATV operators will go 
for horizontally polarized yagis, along 
with the moonbouncers and weak-signal 
operators. All FM operation uses vertical 
polarization. 

OSCAR Mode L, used less frequently than 
Mode B, employs uplinks on 1269 MHz and 
downlinks on 436 MHz. At this time, packet 
operation on 70 cm is sketchy at best. But due 
to the combination of spectrum space, world- 
wide popularity, and availability of equip- 
ment, 70 cm could easily become the next 
most popular band after 2 meters! Already in 
Japan, reports are made of the type of conges- 
tion we experience here on 144 MHz, with 
FM being again the predominant mode* 

The 23-Cm Band and Above 

Before closing, Til touch briefly on the 
SHF bands, namely 23 cm and above* The 
1260-to- 1300-MHz band is coming on fast, 
especially in Europe and Japan. Here's a 
band that's twice as big as 70 cm! Again, the 
popular modes are SSB/CW, ATV, OSCAR, 
and FM. Propagation is essentially limited to 
tropo, Fve never heard of any auroral con- 
tacts via 23 cm, although during the February 
conditions, there were those who certainly 
waited patienily to be the first! 

Moonbouncers also like 23 cm since Fara- 
day rotation is even slower here and they can 
construct high-gain arrays or dishes in a rela- 
tively small square area. Of course, power is 
more difficult to generate here, so most of the 
amplifiers you* 11 hear are home-brew, gener- 
ally employing triodes such as the 7289/ 
3CX100. Even 9913 exhibits high losses at 
this frequency , so hardline is the transmission 
medium of choice. 

Equipment available includes the new 
ICOM IC-1271A 10- Watt muitimode base 
for SSB, CW, FM, and ATV. ICOM also 
makes the IC-120 mobile FM radio with 1 
Watt of output . Kenwood makes the TR-50 
FM portable, also running 1 Watt from a 
self-contained battery-operated unit, High 
performance transverters are readily avail- 
able from Microwave Modules and SSB 
Electronics, makers of the popular LT-23S 
10- Watt transverter. GaAsFET preamplifi- 
ers abound at this frequency t since they are a 
necessary evil for serious weak -signal work. 

Antennas are made by Tonna of France and 
Jaybeam, DownEast Microwave manufac- 
tures a fine line of loop yagis for 23 and 13 
cm. Larsen makes a 23-cm mobile antenna, 
based on a cellular design for 800 MHz, 

Most often, the inhabitants of this band like 
to roll their own antennas, but it's a tricky 
task as mast supports often exceed the length 
of the driven and parasitic elements! Hence, 
most users place the beams at the very top of 
their masts or make up side arms with vertical 
supports. Frequently, users of the band will 
experience reflection from such objects as 
airplanes and large buildings! Often refrac- 
tion can occur over mountainous areas, and 
it's not unusual to hear lots of mulupath on 
the signals when living in such an area. 







When is Microlog going to get into Packet? 



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At 13 cm, much the same conditions pre- 
vail » except very little is available for the 
band commercially except from Europe and a 
few specialty houses in this country. Loop 
yagis are very popular at this frequency, as 
are dish antennas. Transverters are available 
from such manufacturers as SSB Electronics 
of Germany , which sells a unit for 1 3 cm with 
an i-f at 144 MHz. running 3- Wan output. 
EME EJearonics of Germany makes beauti- 
ful cavity amplifiers for both 23 and 13 cm, 
using two 7289 tubes to achieve 50-to-100- 
Wart output. 

Amateurs have additional allocations at 10 
GHz, 24 GHz, 48 GHz. and above, although 
it's hard to sav who's active here other than 



the diehard experimenter and occasional con- 
test stations. In addition, Pve sidestepped the 
902-MHz band, simply because if s such a 
new allocation that I'm not very familiar with 
it, I can tetl you that there is activity on 902, 
as a repeater group was on the band the day it 
became available (from Texas— it figures!). 
SSB Electronics has indicated the availability 
soon of a 902-MHz transvertcr, as has Hans 
Peters of Transverters Unlimited. Many 
hams are modifying cellular equipment to 
cover this band with excellent results, seeing 
propagation similar to 23 cm. 

Closing Remarks 
That about covers our walk through the 



VHF/UHF spectrum, and as you can see 
there's plenty of room for expansion and 
experimentation. Indeed, these frequencies 
are the key to the future of the hobby, as 
we continue to try new modes that require 
greater bandwidths than our already-crowd- 
ed HF bands can provide. If you haven't 
given one of these bands a try lately, why 
not pick up a transvener or HT and have a 
go! Many activities exist for the VHF/UHF 
operator, with no less than six national con- 
tests and many certificates to be had, such as 
the popular VUCC (VHF/UHF Century 
Club). It needn't take a tot of money, or a lot 
of space cither, Set your sights high, for a 
change! ■ 



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HAM STATION 



32 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 




your gear and read what the other 73 readers think of theirs. 



. .WAYNE W2NSD/1 

Here are ten reasons why you're going to be all upset 
with yourself if you don't subscribe to 73 —Now! 

1.) If we're going to get amateur radio growing again I'm going to need your help. I can do it, but not alone. 

2-) You're going to enjoy the new life in 73 — articles on how and why you can get involved with packet radio, 
OSCAR t traffic handling, DXing, cross-band repeaters, RTTY, slow-scan, and so on, 

3.) You won't want to miss 73*s bargain DXpeditions— starting with Asia this October — going to Sarawak 9MB, 
Brunei V85 and Sabah 9M6, 

4.) Will I be able to get 800,000 new hams licensed per year in China? I think I can — and you will want to read 
how I'm going to do it- I'll even tell you how to get such a program going in the U.S. 

We sure could use it! 

5.) Are you interested in 73 reader evaluations of ham gear? Now you can vote on '/?wsn 

jfilYWE 

6.) Want to find out just how bad an operator you are? Read the LID list 
in 73 and weep. Better yet t shape up! 

7.) How about building stuff? Ill be running ail the simple construction 
projects I can get in 73. Better get out your soldering pencil and tin it. 

8.) I have a whale of a lot of fun building gadgets, typing away on RTTY, 
working high-speed CW, making DX contacts on 10 GHz from a local 
mountain (DX being a new state), working a new country on 20m, getting on 
the air from some very rare spot . . .stuff like that. Don't stay in a rut with 
your hamming, there are just too many fun things to do — and I'll be 
writing about 'em in 73. 

9,) I've forgotten what this was, but it was very important and 
persuasive. If I could remember it you'd call my 800 operator 
immediately with your subscription. You'll never forgive yourself 
if you miss out on this one. . . I remember that much! I think it 
had something to do with a whole lot of money — perhaps a 
free trip somewhere. Check 73 for the details. 

10.) We're going to be reprinting some of the funniest 
ham humor from 73 's sordid past. A medical checkup is 
recommended before reading. 

11.) (bonus) Yes, I know 73 got pretty dull last year—well, 

well, I'm back and whatever 73 is, it won't be dull. Better get a 
refill on your Diazide so you won't be after me for giving you apoplexy 
when you read my editorials. 

Call: 1-800-722-7790 

Send in the coupon— or call my 800 
operator and get started with 73\ 
It's only $19.97 a year, or three 
years for $50. (Three's obviously 
the best deal. Three years from now 
you'll wish you'd bought six.) You 
can send a check or your credit card 
info. Remember, procrastination is 
the thief of 73, so do it now. Look, 
you've got my guarantee: Either 
you enjoy 73 or you can ask for your 
money back. Y'all write, y'hear? 

Wayne Green W2NSD/1 
Editor/Publisher— again 



r 




Name 
Call- 
Address. 
City 



Expiration date: 



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CALL: 1-800-722-7790 



5 
? 



| 73 Magazine WGE Center Peterborough, NH 03458 USA S I 

^^^^^ ^^^^_ ^^^^— ^^^^v ^^^^_- -^^^^_ -^^^^m- -« ^^^» ^^^^— ^^^^h ^™^™» ^^^^^ 



Hams in Space 



An interview with Owen Garriott W5LFL 

and Tony England W0ORE. 



The theme for this month s issue is ' 'Above 
the Crowd— VHF and UHF Operation, " 
Well, rnw guys who have certainly been above 
the crowd are NASA astronauts Owen Gar- 
riott W5LFL and Tony England W0ORE. 
Owen and Tony both have carried amateur 
radio into orbit aboard the space shuttle; we 
asked them to reflect a bit on their experi- 
ences, and on the past, present, and future of 
ham radio. —KWIO. 



Owen Garriott W5LFL 

KWIO: Owen, how long have you been a 
ham? 

W5LFL: A looong time? 1 was still in junior 
high school when my father came home and 
said, ' 'Son, a friend at the office is going to be 
giving code classes— would you like to go 
down and learn the International Morse code 
with mc? M So we started; I was in 9th grade. 




Owen Garriott W5LFL 
34 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



Then a little while later it was, "How would 
you like to go to theory classes?" We ended 
up getting our tickets together. . .that was 
during the latter part of World War II. 
KWIO: Was there a club at school? 
W5LFL: No, not at school . As far as I know 
there was no one else at school who was 
interested in this sort of thing. I took my 
classes at the local club in Enid. Oklahoma. 
KWIO: Did your interest in radio lead you to 
a career as an astronaut? 
YY5LFL: Yes, I think thai ham radio took me 
into electrical engineering and radio propaga- 
tion — the heart of amateur radio. After grad- 
uating from the University of Oklahoma I had 
a three-year Navy obligation, and then went 
back to graduate school at Stanford and ended 
up in the radio propagation laboratory. After 
that I stayed on the faculty doing space re- 
search based on radio propagation, sending 
satellite transmissions through the iono- 
sphere. Then NASA said they wanted people 
with my sort of skills involved in the manned 
space program, There's a pretty clear line of 
interest going from that code class to my 
present job. 

KWIO: How much trouble was there talk- 
ing NASA into letting ham radio aboard the 
shuttle? 

W5LFL: Well, it wasn't an easy job. It isn't 
so much convincing people that it's a good 
idea as convincing them that there's nothing 
wrong with the idea. There are so many peo- 
ple who can say no t and that's so much easier 
for them to do. It's simple to get someone to 
say, "Yeah, that's a great idea. I hope it 
works-' 1 It's a much tougher job to convince 
people that this great idea of yours is not 
going to cost more, or interfere with the 
schedule, or reduce the time that their experi- 
ment might gel, or set a precedent, or any 
number of objections that can be raised. And 
all along they're saying, * 'That's a great idea, 
I hope it works." There were at least a half 
dozen wickets to get through before the proj- 
ect left the ground. It's also very important 



to have people supporting your project that 
are well-respected in the system — General 
Abrams, who was at that time head of the 
Office of Manned Space Flight, and Roy Ncal 
K6DUE come to mind . 
KWIO: You used a special Motorola-built 
hand-held with a window-mount antenna 
Did Tony [W0ORE] take the same rig up? 
W5LFL: It was either physically the same 
unit, or one functionally identical. 
KWIO: How did it work? 
W5LFL: We had a little antenna that attached 
to one of the windows. Of course, the rig had 
been pretty extensively ground-checked for 
interference and soon. Overall, it functioned 
very well. 

KWIO: Would you do anything different if 
you took ham radio back into space? 
W5LFL: Well, you always try to build on 
what you've done before. I think that for the 
first effort on Spacelab 1 we did just about the 
right thing. There are a few details that 1 
might have changed, like letting people know 
not to transmit on the downlink frequency, 
but 1 think it went off pretty well. 
KWIO: You worked a heck of a lot of 
people. 

W5LFL: Yes t over 300, For the second ef- 
fort, Tony went beyond that and took up 
SSTV. For the next time we should try some- 
thing like packet, or a fast-scan TV uplink 
with a slow-scan TV downlink. Part of the 
trouble Tony had was that he couldn't hold a 
signal long enough lo get a full frame of 
SSTV. It would have been OK if only one 
person had transmitted at a time, but that's 
not a very satisfactory way to operate. With a 
fast-scan uplink you only need to hold the 
signaJ for less than a second. 
KWIO: What are you involved with at 
NASA? 

W5LFL: Tm working on the space station 
project, making sure that the station design is 
an appropriate one for the various kinds of 
activities we'd like to do on it, 
KWIO: Will there be a ham shack on the 
space station? 

VV5LFL: I would be very surprised if there 
was not. However, it is premature to start 
pushing in that direction. 1 think we'll get it 
on the basis of providing off-duty activities 
for the crew. There's a very good chance 
well have one for that purpose. We won't 
know for certain for three or four years— the 
station is scheduled for launch in 1992. 
KWIO: Sounds like you have your 
hands fill I. Is there much time for on-the-air 
activity? 

W r 5LFL: No, not really I get on the local 
[Houston) repeater now and then, but that's 
about it. 

KWIO: Well, Owen, thanks for chatting. 
And good luck with the space shack! 
W5LFL: Thanks, it's been fun. 

Tony England W0ORE 

KWIO: Tony, you've been a ham for quite a 
number of years. What got you started? 
W(K)RE: Well, 1 started when 1 was about 
twelve. A buddy of mine and I built a couple 

of "secret transmitters' that we took to 
school. We got the plans out of one of the ham 



magazines. They were small CW transmit- 
ters, and the speaker was actually a vibrator 
that you could put against your arm. 
KWIO: You must have done pretty well in 
class! 

W80RE: It certainly kept our interest up! 
But ham radio For me has been a series of 
peaks and valleys; when my professional life 
is particularly busy, hamming slides a bit, 
And when there's a lull in my professional 
life, I pick it right back up. My wife Kathi has 
always appreciated my hobby— it tends to 
keep me home, 
KWIO: Is Kathi a ham? 
W#ORE: No. she's not, I've tried, but f can't 
talk her into it. Actually, Kathi bought my 
last rig for me- When I was at school working 
on my doctorate, she thought it would help 
me keep from climbing the walls. Kathi 
thought talking on the radio was a lot of fun . 
but she just wasn't interested in getting a 
license. 

KWIO: 1 wonder if some sort of Novice 
voice privilege would appeal to people like 
that? 

W0ORE: 1 haven't been following all of the 
various proposals, but I can say that I'm very 
much in favor of some sort of digital class of 
amateur license. There are a lot of people 
who could really benefit from being ama- 
teurs, and who would bring their special 
skills to the hobby. Of course, there will 
always be people around who feet that the old 
way is the best way, 

KWIO: Have you read of Don Stoner's pro- 
posal for a consumer packet service on six 
meters? 

WiORE: Yes, I have. I'm concerned that the 
service would be outside of amateur radio. 



essentially setting up a separate system of 
ham operators. Even worse* if we did estab- 
lish a non-code digital class of license within 
the amateur service, I can see them being 
treated as second-class hams until they 
'grew up** and got a i- real' * ham license, 
KWIO: Tony, are you on the bands much 
these days? 

WftORE: Well, I have more lime than I have 
facilities. My neighborhood doesn't allow 
antennas, so I have to hide them. Most of 
them don*t work, so I put 'em up and tear 'em 
down. I had a pretty good 40- meter wire 
beam up for a while, but the last hurricane we 
had wiped out the oak tree that was support- 
ing it. I built a trap dipole, wound the coils 
and everything; it was a lot of pain and the 
antenna didn't work worth a dam. So Fve 
taken that down and my next one is another 
wire antenna with an open-wire feed, 
KWIO: You're using ladder line? 
WW) RE: Oh, no, I'm going to make my own 
feedline. I've got about 30 of those little insu- 
lators and a big hunk of wire for it. 
KWIO: You're one of a dying breed! 
WGORE: Well, Fve got some spare time and 
don*t know what to do with myself, so I 
thought I *d give it a try . 
KW'IO: I was surprised to read that your 
ham-in-space demo of slow-scan was the First 
instance of ground-to-spacecraft TV trans- 
mission. Doesn't the shuttle have two-way 
television? 

WGORE: I'm surprised too. Considering all 
of its facilities, the shuttle really should have 
two-way video. Pan of the problem is the 
way the ground stations are config- 
ured,, .they just aren't set up for video. 
We're going now to a satellite-based cotnmu- 




Tony England W0ORE. 

73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 36 








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nications system— part of it is in place right 
now— and that might handle video. We have a 
sort of FAX unit on the shuttle, but the thing 
weighs a ion; it's really low-quality. A real 
monster. 

KWIO: Since your SSTV demo went so 
well, is NASA looking into replacing the 
FAX unit with a slow-scan system? 
WiORE: No, they're not. It's not that they 
don't appreciate the good results we had with 
SSTV, it's just incredibly expensive to design 
a unit and integrate it into the shuttle. The 
most expensive part would be updating all of 
the documentation for the orbiter. . .there are 
enormous piles of manuals. 
KWIO: Had you tried SSTV before the 
flight? 

WiORE: No J hadn't. 
KWIO: It went pretty' smoothly, didn't it? 
WiORE: Yes, very smooth. There's a lot to 
it. with all of the various formats and such, I 
practiced quite a bit on the ground with the 
local club station, and that helped. We had 
about a dozen two-way SSTV QSOs from 
space. 

KWIO: Were most of those with youth 
groups? 

WiORE: Actually, no. The youth groups 
were tough for slow-scan; by the time we had 
established contact on voice and answered the 
kids T questions and so forth, the orbiter was 
out of range. The orbit was low to begin with, 
and there wasn't a lot of time for SSTV 
frames. 

KWIO: Did the kids come up with crazy 
questions? 

WiORE: No, not at all. Mostly "What is it 
like? 1 and "What does it feel like?" and 
"What do you see?" They wanted to know 
which experiments were working best, and 
what we were finding out that we didn't know 
before. They were really good questions. 
KWIO: How did the unpublished frequen- 
cies work out? Was there any trouble? 
W#ORE: No, not too much trouble. There 
were a few guys on them that shouldn't have 
been, but it worked out just fine. On the 
published frequencies, an interesting thing 
happened- 1 started out by working like Owen 
did . I would listen for a minute or so, and then 
transmit all of the calls that I had heard during 
that minute. What happened was that nobody 
was stopping to listen to me! I would get some 
callsigns, and transmit them down, and the 
next minute these same guys would still be 
calling J I said, "Hey. this isn't going to 
work/* and started doing it contest -sty le, ac- 
knowledging stations one at a time. That 
seemed to work much better. 1 also found that 
I really didn't need all of the channels on the 
radio. T think maybe two or three would do, 
so I could QSY if some ham had switched his 
receiver off. 

KWIO: Gordon Fullerton made some 
QSOs . Is he psyched up for ham radio again? 
[Gordon once held a Novice license. J 
WiORE: Well, I tried to have that happen. 
He enjoyed making the contacts, but 1 don't 
think he's going to run out and get a license. 
KWIO: Tony, it's been great talking 
with you. 
WiORE: Likewise, Perry, 73 !■ 



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Frank H, Perkins WBSiPM 
Box 13642 
Arlington 7X 76013 



Two to Ten 



Plug into the excitement of 10 FM — your HT is the key! 



T 1 en-mcter FM is a unique operating expe- 
rience. It combines the convenience of 
channelized operation with frequent DX band 
openings. Mobile operation is very success- 
ful on 10-meter FM t as just a few Watts of 
transmitter power are needed for direct DX 
contacts. Furthermore, a number of high- 
performance repeaters are now in service to 
support 10-meter FM operation worldwide. 

While many of the new HF transceivers 
feature FM as a standard or optional mode, 
the availability of inexpensive low -power 



equipment for mobile or portable operation is 
somewhat limited. A number of hams have 
successfully adapted low-band commercial 
FM rigs and CB transceivers to 10-meter FM 
operation. Often, however, one or more of 
ihe following desirable features is found to be 
difficult to implement in such a conversion: 
tuning of all 10-meter FM channels, direct 
and repeater mode selection, good quality 
audio, and clean limiting (good noise rejec- 
tion) in the receive mode. 
This article presents an alternate approach 



— 




2to10 



to 10-meter FM equipment— a 2-meter-to- 
1 0-meter transverter. **2 to I0" is designed 
to translate the operation of a 2-meter FM 
transceiver to 10 meters. All the features of 
the 2-meter transceiver (synthesized tuning, 
memory t scanning, touchtone pad f etc . ) can 
be used on 10 meters. 2 to 10 includes both 
direct and repeater offset modes. The inher- 
ent audio quality of the FM transceiver is 
preserved in its translation to and from 10 
meters, The transvener operates from 12 to 
14 V dc, making mobile and portable opera- 
tion straightforward, 2 to 10 was designed 
with 2-metcr HTs in mind, but it should work 
with any modern 2-meter FM transceiver 
with a low power output in the 1 50-m W-to- 1 - 
W range* 

2 to 10 uses low-cost components which 
are readily available from suppliers that cater 
to the individual rf experimenter. Construc- 
tion costs for 2 to 10 run about $65. not 
counting junk- box discounts. If you already 
have a 2-meter transceiver, 2 to 10 can be an 
effective and inexpensive approach to getting 
on 10-meter FM. 

Operation 

When using 2 to 10* the 2-meter FM 
transceiver is placed in the direct (simplex) 
mode and is set for low power. The 2-meter 
transceiver is operated in the frequency band 
of 146,40-146,48 MHz. 2 to 10 translates 
this frequency band to 29.60-29.68 MHz for 
direct operation and offsets the transmit fre- 
quency - 100 kHz for repeater operation. 
Note that the repeater offset is done by 2 to 
10; the 2-meter rig is always operated in the 
direct (simplex) mode. Increasing the fre- 
quency setting on the 2-meter transceiver 
increases the operating frequency on 10 me- 
ters a like amount, (Note that this is different 
from satellite Translator operation; do not get 
confused.) 



Photo A. 2 to 10 is a transvener that places your 2-meier FM rig on 1 0-meter FM. 
38 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



Block Diagram 

Let's first look at 2 to 10*s block diagram. 
Fig. 2* We will then look at the circuits in 



each block in detail. A dummy load is provid- 
ed to present a reasonable match to the 2-me- 
ter transceiver during transmit. T-R switch 
circuitry senses the presence of 2-meter rf 
power and switches 2 to 10 to the transmit 
mode. A small sample of 2-meter rf is mixed 
with the local oscillator (1 16.80 MHz for the 
direct mode or 1 16.90 MHz for the repeater 
mode) in the transmit mixer, developing a 
difference frequency at 10 meters. Tuned cir- 
cuits in the mixer and preamplifier stages 
reject other unwanted mixer outputs. The 
driver and final -amplifier stages boost the 
10-meter output to about 3,5 Watts. The rf 
output is then low-pass- Filtered and output at 
the 10- meter connector. 

In the receive mode, the incoming 10-me- 
ter signal is mixed with the local oscillator 
(always 1 16,80 MHz for receive) in the re- 
ceive mixer, developing a sum frequency 
output on 2 meters. This signal is bandpass- 
filtered and applied to the 2 -meter connector. 

The local -oscillator chain consists of a 
58.4-MHz oscillator, a doubler stage, and 
switching to route the local oscillator to either 
the transmit or receive mixer. One or two 
crystals are switched in to control the oscilla- 
tor, depending on the mode of operation. All 
T-R and rf switching is solid state. 

Dummy Load and T-R Voltages 

For the following discussion, please refer 
to the schematic diagram, Fig, 3- Rl and R2 
provide a dummy load for the 2-meter 
transceiver. When transmitting, R38 delivers 
2-meter rf to the clamp network consisting of 
CR15-CRI8. These diodes level the rf 
voltage detected by CR19 and C35 for vari- 
ous input power levels within 2 to 10"s oper- 
ating range. The detected rf switches Q8 on, 
which switches Q9 on to provide +T voltage. 
At the same time, Q8 switches Q10 and Ql 1 
off, dropping the +R voltage. During re- 
ceive, Q8 and Q9 are off and Q10 and QJ 1 
are on, so that + R voltage is provided instead 
of H-T, The diodes used in the T-R circuit are 
lN914s or equivalent. The MPS2222 and 
MPS2907 are inexpensive plastic -package 
versions of the 2N2222 and 2N2907. 

Transmit Chain 

During transmit. R3 supplies 2-meter rf to 
clamping diodes CR1 and CR2, which 
provide a leveled rf signal of about 1 .6 V p-p. 
This signal is further attenuated by the R4-R6 
network and applied to gate 1 of Q 1 , a 3N2 1 1 
dual-gate MOSFET mixer. About 
3.5 V p-p of local-oscillator voltage 
is applied to gate 2 through C2. C4 
and Tt resonate at 29.6 MHz, the 
10-meter difference-frequency out- 
put of the mixer. The signal level 
across C4-T1 is about 600 mV p-p, 
Q2, an MPS918 rf transistor, pro- 
vides about 20 dB of voltage gain, 
and C36-T2 provide additional filter- 
ing. Driver Q3 provides another 17 
dB of gain. Broadband transformer 
T3 provides a suitable match be- 
tween the collector of Q3 and the 
base of Q4. R14 helps ensure driver 
stability, as the 2N3866 is a high- 




Phoio B. Interior view of 2 to 10. 



gain device. Q4 further amplifies the 10-me- 
ter FM signal to about 3.5 Watts. The transis- 
tor chosen here is a rugged and inexpensive 
2SC1909 which is used in many CB rigs. 
Broadband transformer T4 provides a suit- 
able match between the 50-Ohrn antenna load 
and the collector of Q4. C13-C15 and L1-L2 
form a low-pass filter to attenuate harmonics 
of the 10-meter output. 



reject signals below 10 meters, CR4-CR5 
clamp the rf voltage at gate 1 of Q5 during 
transmit to avoid damaging the transistor. 
Gate 2 of Q5 is driven from the local oscilla- 
tor through C37 t Drive level is about 4 V p-p. 
The drain of Q5 drives a double-tuned band- 
pass filter consisting of L4-C21 and L5-C22, 
The double-tuned filter attenuates local -oscil- 
lator feed through and other unwanted signals 



Receive Mixer 

The incoming IO- 
meter signal is first 
low-pass-filtcred by 
C13-C15 and Ll- 
L2, which attenu- 
ates unwanted sig- 
nals above 30 MHz. 
C16 lightly couples 
the incoming signal 
from the low-pass 
filter to resonant 
circuit C17-L3, 
This type of cou- 
pling has a high 
pass-filter charac- 
teristic, which helps 



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TRAnSVERTER 



219 



*f\^ 



3 * !D METER ANTENNA 

— I2-I4VDC 



■ far ■ 



2 METER FHEQ 

I4&.4Q 
k4G 42 
146 44 

H646 
I4& 4B 



14 

IN-UNE FUSE 



10 METER fREO 
DIRECT MODE 

29 60 
Z?.ff2 



10 METER FREO IT/Rl 
REPE&TER MODE 

DO NOT USE 
,S2V 62 

54/ 64 

SG/.66 

59/ 6fl 



2 METER 
TRANSCEIVER 



WTE OPERATE THE 2 METER TRANSCEIVER 
ON LOW POWER " WATT MAX I IN THE 
DIRECT (SIMPLE* J VODE *hEH USIMC 
THE "2 TO 10* TRANSFER TEfl 



Fig. L 2 to 10 hookup. 









TRANSMIT 










DRIVER 




'fAL 








low-pass 

FILTER 






^ 


mikER 






PhtHrfir 














\ 


|l 


i 


L 


















*1 


r 






1 


} 








1 








50 GHM 
LOAD AND 

i "-C.ES 




117 UN J 

LC 
SWITCH 




DOUBLER 

IH6V- 




5H4Hrit 

osc 


JPEPE^IE* 


2V 








ru 




















* D1HECT 






7m 






J 








_t 








1 




- 












RECEfVE 










Mi 


KEfl 




„ 

























tOM 
FI4 



J 



Fig, 2. Block diagram. 



73 Amateur Radio * June. 1986 39 



— 




1 . Unless otherwise marked: resistors are ±5% carbon film or carbon composition, 1/4 W; capacitance values greater than 1 are in pF, less than 1 
are in uF; capacitance values between 1 and 82 are 500 V dc NPO ceramic, ±5%; capacitance values between 100 and 1600 are 500 V dc Y5P 
(temperature stable) ceramic, ±10%; capacitance values between .001 and .1 are 50 V dc 24V (general purpose) ceramic, + 80, -20%. 

2. Crystals are ±.001%, third overtone, series resonant, HC25flJ holder. 

3. See Fig. 8. for rf inductor and transformer data. 



Fig. 3. Schematic. 



40 73 Amateur Radio • June, T 986 



in the mixer output before they reach the 
2-meter receiver and cause intermodulation 
problems. C23 lightly couples the mixer out- 
put to the 2-meter connector, CR6-CR7 
clamp the rf voltage fed back toward the drain 
of QS during transmit, The light coupling and 
clamp circuits on each side of Q5 allow 2 to 
10 to switch from receive to transmit without 
needing isolation relays. 

The conversion gain through the receive 
mixer is about dBm . due mainly to the light 
coupling in and out. I wanted no conversion 
gain through the receive mixer to avoid over- 
driving the 2-meter receiver and creating 
interniodulation problems, I felt this was es- 
pecially necessary for HTs, as they must 
often sacrifice * fc strong" front ends for low 
power drain and compactness, On-the- 
air testing with 2 to 10 using my ICOM IC- 
2AT has demonstrated satisfactory sensitivi- 
ty and no evidence of intermodulation. A 
signal of - 11 3 dBm (0.5 u V) at the 10-meter 
input of 2 to 10 will cleanly break the squelch 
of my 2AT\ 

Local-Oscillator Chain 

Q6 operates as a grounded -base 58.4-MHz 
Colpitis oscillator. The ground path for the 
base of Q6 is through the series resonance 
(3rd overtone) of the crystal selected to con- 
trol the oscillator. Adjusting the slug in T5 
allows a slight frequency adjustment of the 
oscillator for ** netting** it on frequency; CR9 
and CR10 operate as current -controlled 
switches that select either crystal XI (58,40 
MHz) or X2 (58,45 MHz), When switch 
SWl is in the direct mode, XI is selected to 
control the oscillator in both transmit and 
receive. When SWl is switched to the re- 
peater mode, X 1 is selected for receive by the 
+R voltage and X2 is selected for transmit by 
the +T voltage (providing the needed trans- 
mit offset). 

The output of the 58.4-MHz oscillator is 
doubled by the Q7 stage. The collector of Q7 
drives a double-tuned 117-MHz filter con- 
sisting of C30-.L6 and C32-L7* which attenu- 
ates the 58,4-MHz fundamental and ihe un- 
wanted oscillator harmonics. This is 
necessary to suppress unwanted responses in 
the mixers. 

CR13 and CR14 are used as current-con- 
trolled switches to route the 117-MHz local- 
oscillator output to the transmit or receive 
mixer. In transmit. CR13 conducts, rf 
grounding the receive -mixer side of C32-L7 
through bypass capacitor C33. Local -oscilla- 
tor voltage is then routed from the unground- 
ed side of C32-L7 to Q 1 . During receive, 
CR14 conducts, rf grounding the transmit - 
mixer side of C32-L7 through C34. Local-os- 
cillator voltage from the receive side of C32- 
L7 is now supplied to Q5, C20-CR23-R22 
provide a dc sample of the receive-mixer 
local-oscillator voltage for tune-up and test- 
ing. C1-CR3-R17 provide the same function 
for the transmit-mixer local-oscillator 
voltage. 

Components 

As I mentioned earlier, the components 
used in 2 to 10 are readily available. Fig, 4 



provides a listing of mail-order distributors 
for the components in 2 to 10.1 recommend 
that you avoid substitutions. One exception 
would be C23. You can use a 2-pF silver-mi- 
ca capacitor if you have difficulty finding a 
2.2-pF NPO ceramic capacitor, 

Construction 

Above 100 MHz, the circuit board itself 
becomes an important component. For this 
reason, I strongly recommend that you dupli- 
cate the circuit-board layout shown in Fig. 5. 
Fig, 6 provides recommended hole sizes and 
corresponding number drills. Use .062"- 
thick G-10 glass-epoxy circuit board with 
1-oz. copper on one side. Be sure to fully etch 
the board and inspect it carefully before be- 
ginning construction. 

Rf Inductors and Transformers 

I recommend winding all transformers and 
inductors before you start to load the circuit 
board. The winding data is provided in Fig. 
8. All air-core inductors are wound on screw 
mandrels. You can pick up a set of screws (2» 
to 3-inch lengths) at your local hardware 
store. Radio Shack markets a packet of mag- 
net wire (278*1345) which includes one roll 
each of 22, 24 T and 30 gauge. The enamel on 
this wire can be stripped with hot solder, so it 
is ideal for rf-coil and transformer winding. 
Notice that T4 is bifilarly wound. I used a 
variable-speed electric drill (go slow!) to 
twist a pair of wires to about 5-6 turns per 
inch. Epoxy the two stacked cores used in T3 
and T4 together before winding. Use an ohm- 
meter to identify each winding of T4 at both 
ends. I painted a small dab of black enamel on 
each end of the primary winding for later 
identification. 

All slug- tuned transformers and inductors 
are wound on L43-styIe Micrometals forms. 
The primaries of these transformers and in- 
ductors are close*wound single-layer so* 
lenoids. They are wound at the bottom of the 
form. Secondary windings are also single- 
layer solenoids, wound over the primary 
windings at the bottom of the form. Note that 
there are 3 pins on one side of the L43 form 
and 2 pins on the other. A primary winding 
will always have its leads terminate on the 
side with 2 pins; the leads of a secondary 
winding will terminate on the outer posts of 
the 3 -pin side. The circuit board is keyed this 
way, so do it right. 

All air- wound coils are made from 18- 
gauge bus wire. As mentioned, the mandrels 
make winding these coils a snap. Dimensions 
arc also given in millimeters, in parentheses, 
if you are more familiar with the metric 
system. 

Circuit-Board Loading 

Fig. 7 details the component placements on 
the circuit board- Photo B will also help 
(slight changes have been made since the 
photo was taken— note that C13 is now a 
fixed-value capacitor). I prefer to first install 
the jumper wires and the coax between the 
2-meter input area and Q 1 . Note that the coax 
is RG-58 with the outer insulating jacket re- 
moved. Watch diode polarity and transistor 



Parts List 




Component 


Supplier # 


Crystals 


2 


MPS transistors 


3,4 


2SC1909 


6 


3N211 


5 


5082-2835 (MBD 101) 


3,6 


NPO ceramic capacitors 


4 J 


Y5P ceramic capacitors 


4 


Silver-msca capacitors 


3,5 


Other capacitors 


3.4,6 


Resistors 


3,4,6 


1N914 


3,4,6 


FT37-43and FT50-61 toroids 


1 


L43-6 and L43-1 COil forms 


1 


Connectors and switches 


6 


Bud CU-3O09A minibox 


5 



Note; The above components are avail- 
able from many suppliers in addition to 
those listed below. 

Suppliers: 

l.Amidon Associates, 12033 Otsego 

Street, N. Hollywood CAS 1607, (213)- 

760-4429. 

2. Jan Crystals, 2400 Crystal Drive. Fort 
Myers FL 33906, {81 3J-936-2397. 

3. KCS Electronics Corporation, Box 
33205, Phoenix AZ 85067. (602)-274- 
2885, 

4. Digi-Key Corp., Box 677, Thief River 
Falls MN 56701 , (800)-346-5144. 

5. Allied Electronics, 401 E. 8th Street, 
Fort Worth TX 76102, (81 7) 336*5401 . 

6. Radio Shack. 



Fig* 4. 

orientation carefully. Keep leads short. Be 
extra careful in installing T4. Note that it is 
hooked up as a step-up autotransformer In- 
stall Ql and Q5 in the circuit board after all 
other components have been installed. This 
will reduce the chance of damaging these 
static-sensitive parts. 

All circuit-board components are installed 
through the top of the hoard except R23, 
which is tack-soldered across L6 on the bot- 
tom (solder side) of the board. Note that re- 
sistors Rl7 and R22 are standing up as test 
points. Make a small loop in the top lead of 
these resistors. Note the ground reference 
points next to these resistors. Make small 
bus -wire loops for these points, ft is best to 
use Ik resistors as test points for the + R and 
+T voltages. This will avoid a catastrophe if 
the test points are shorted together, 

Make the hook-up wire leads going to and 
from the circuit board to SWl about 6 inches 
long. Install one end of a 4-inch length of 
RG-58 at the 2-meter input/output point on 
the circuit board. Use a half loop of 22-gauge 
bus wire to both ground the coax shield and 
strain-relief it. Install a 13-inch length of RG- 
58 at the 10-meter input/output point of the 
circuit board. Be sure to ground and strain- 
relief this coax also. 

Be sure to install a lightweight finned heat 
sink on Q4. Depending on the heat-sink de- 
sign, you may need to clip one fin off the 
bottom of the heat sink to avoid mechanical 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 19B6 41 



interference with CIO and Cll. Secure T3 
and T4 to the circuit board with RTV or 
Silastic compound if you are going to operate 
mobile. 

After the circuit board is loaded, check 
carefully for solder bridges and cold solder 
joints, I found that shining a desk lamp 
through the component side of the circuit 
board helped in looking for solder bridges. 

Enclosure 

2 to 10*s enclosure is made from a 6* wide 
by 3.5" high by 8" long aluminum minibox 
(Bud CU-3009A). Use the general layout 
shown in the photographs. I strongly recom- 
mend that you "key 1 * the 2-metcr connector 
by making it a BNC and use a 259 connector 
for 10 meters. 

The circuit hoard is held in place with 4-40 
screws, using 0.75 "-long pieces of alumi- 
num tubing slipped over each screw as 
spacers. The tubing has an inside diameter 
a little larger than 0.125 inches. Coordi- 
nate the mounting-hole locations of SW1 
and £W2 with the length of the spacers to 
avoid mounting interference between the 
switches and the circuit board. Ditto on the 
connectors. Use bus wire to ground the coax 
shields at the connectors. Dress all wiring 
down one side of the chassis so that the circuit 
board can be stood up vertically for tune-up 
and testing. 

Make a final careful check of the chassis 



wiring. Be sure all connectors and switches 
are tight. 

Test Equipment 

The equipment required to tune up 2 to 10 
includes a 12-14-V-dc regulated power sup- 
ply, a 2-mcter transceiver t a sensitive 150- 
MHz counter, a FET multimeter or DVM, a 
sensitive swr meter and dummy load, a 29.6- 
MHz signal source, a tuning dowel, and a 
plastic tuning wand. Access to a good 30- 
MHz scope is desirable, A wide-range step 
attenuator(s) is also very useful. Refer to Fig. 
9 for construction details of a suitable 29.6- 
MHz source and tuning dowel. 

(oil Knifing 

By now you may have noticed, and possi- 
bly with some concern, that there is not a 
single trimmer capacitor used in 2 to 10. This 
is deliberate. If you are going to use trimmer 
capacitors above 100 MHz. they must be 
good ones, Such trimmers are expensive and 
sometimes difficult to find. To avoid trimmer 
problems, I avoided using trimmers! 

OK, how do we adjust those double-tuned 
circuits in the outputs of Q5 and Q7? We use a 
technique called knifing. Basically, we adjust 
the value of an inductor by stretching it out or 
compressing it. While it may sound crude, it 
is an excellent technique, Knifing is used 
extensively to adjust tuned circuits in TV 
tuners, broadcast radios, VHF/UHF ham 



equipment , etc. When done correctly it is 
both precise and stable. Best of all, it*s inex- 
pensive and easy to duplicate. 

So much for the sales pitch. You need two 
tools for coil knifing— a tuning dowel and a 
stiff plastic tuning wand. A tuning dowel is a 
wooden (or plastic) stick with a ferrite slug on 
one end and an aluminum ring on the other. 
Bringing the ferrite-slug end of the dowel 
near the end of an air-core inductor will in- 
crease its inductance, whereas bringing the 
aluminunvring end near the inductor will de- 
crease its inductance. By monitoring a test 
point related to the tuning of the inductor, a 
decision as to how to adjust ihe dimensions of 
the inductor can be easily made by using the 
tuning dowel. You can think of the tuning 
dowel as a temporary inductor cone* 

Let's consider an example, the tuning of 
L6-C30 and L7-C32, the double-tuned col- 
lector load of Q7. The top end of R22 pro- 
vides a dc test point for tuning (receive). 
Preset L6 by compressing it to a length of 
0,20" (5 mm) and stretch L7 to a length of 
0.25" (6.4 mm). With oscillator Q6 running, 
some dc voltage wUI be detected at R22 (0*5- 
2,25 V dc). We will tune for peak voltage. 

Bring the ferrite-slug end of the dowel into 
the Q7 end (physical circuit-board layout) of 
L6. Note if the test-point voltage tends to rise 
or fall. If the voltage rises, compress L6 a bit 
and recheck the voltage. If the voltage de- 
creased as the ferrite slug was brought near 




Fig. 5. Circuit-board artwork. 



42 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



L6, Uy the aluminum-ring end. If the voltage 
rises, then stretch the coil a bit and recheck. 
When the coil is tuned on resonance, the 
test-point voltage will tend to decrease when 
either end of the dowel is brought near the end 
of the coil. After L6 is tuned, peak L7. The 
tuning of the two coils causes some interac- 
tion, so repeat the tuning process a couple of 
times. Once the coils are tuned closely, you 
can dispense with the tuning dowel and com- 
press and expand the coils slightly with the 
plastic tuning wand (knife) while watching 
the test-point voltage. Push the coil far 
enough past the peak to take a physical ' "set" 
and let off. After about a minute of experi- 
ence* you will be able to tune a coil by knifing 
about as fast as you could adjust a tuning slug 
or trimmer! 

Tuning Setup 

Hook up the regulated dc supply to the 
trans verier, being sure to use a I -Amp in-line 
fuse. Hook the 2-meter transceiver to the 
2-meter connector of 2 to 10. Set the 
transceiver on low power (1 Watt maximum) 
and set it in the direct (simplex) mode. Tune 
to 146.400 MHz. Hook a dummy load to the 
10-meter connector of 2 to 10 through a sensi- 
tive swr meter. Set the meter to read forward 
power. 

T-R Voltage Check 

Turn both the dc supply and 2 to 10 on. 
A lack of smoke at this point is a good 



sign, (You did gel the polarity correct?) 
Check the +R test point. It should read with- 
in one volt of the dc supply voltage. The +T 

voltage should be off at this point. Bridge a 
Ik resistor between the supply voltage and 
the junction of CR19-C35-R39. Note thai 
+T is now on and +R is off. Remove the Ik 
resistor. 

Osrillator-Douhler Tune-Up 

Back the tuning slug out of T5 so that it is 
about 0.20" (5 mm) above the top of the 
shield. Monitor the R22 test point. As the 

slug is slowly screwed in, the voltage at R22 
should "jump" on, indicating oscillation. 
Bring the counter-sense loop near Q6. Adjust 
the slug for 58 + 4O0 MHz. Now tune L6 and 
L7 for a peak reading of at least 2 V dc (this 
corresponds to about 5 V p-p of rf) as dis- 
cussed in the "Coil Knifing" section. Bring 
the counter-sense loop near L7. You should 
read 1 16.800 MHz. Fine-tune T5 as needed 
to obtain a 1 16.800-MHz reading at L7. 



References 
A 
B 
C 

D 

E 



Diameter (drill) 
.035 (#65) 
040 (*60) 
.052 (*55) 
.082(145) 
■ 125{*') 



Number 
282 

17 
40 

a 

4 



351 



Material is green G-10 epoxy-glass. 0. 062- 
inch nominal thickness. 1-oz. copper, single- 
sided. Reference hole A is unmarked, 



Receive-Mixer Tune-Up 

To adjust the receive mixer, a suitable 
29,600-MHz source is needed. If you have 
access to a commercial signal generator with 
an adjustable output (down to I uV), use it. 
Otherwise use the source shown in Fig. 9. A 
step attenuator (or set of attenuators) with a 
130-dB range is the best way to interface 2 to 
10 with the source. If an attenuator is not 
available, leave 2 to 10 hooked to the dummy 
load and put a 2 ff bus- wire antenna into the 
BNC connector on the source. Move the 
source just close enough to the transverter so 
that the 2-meter receiver noise begins to qui- 
et. (The bottom of 2 to 10's case is off tot 
tuning.) 

Remember, an increasing signal level qui- 
ets the background noise in an FM receiver* 
You adjust 2 to I0"s receive mixer by tuning 
to "quiet 1 * the noise output of the 2-meter 
receiver. 

Start by compressing L4 to a length of 
0, 15" (3,8 mm) and stretching L5 to a length 
of 0.25" (6.4 mm). Back the slug in L3 out 
until it/s about 0.05" (1.3 mm) above the top 
of 1.3 s shield. You should be able to hear the 
2-meter receiver quiet when you mm on your 
29.600-MHz source. Stan at 30 uV if you are 
using a signal generator, or switch in about 88 
dB of attenuation if you are using the source 
in Fig. 9 with attenuators. Keep reducing (or 
increasing, if necessary) the signal level until 
some quieting is heard in the 2-meter receiv- 




Fig. 6. Hole-size data. 



73 Amateur Radio * June. 1986 43 



•MOM 




2M 



6N0 



W2 

I 3.BVOC 



Fig. 7, Component placement. 



er. Now adjust the tuning slug in L3 for 
greatest quieting. Keep reducing the input 
signal level as needed so thai you have some 
noise to work against. Knife L4 for greatest 
quieting, then L5. These coils will interact 
some, so tune them in sequence several 
times. 

If you arc using the antenna instead of 
the attenuator with the 29.600-MHz source* 
simply move it to adjust signal strength. 
If you are using this method, I recommend 
that you touch up your receive-mixer tun- 
ing by hooking 2 to 10 to your J 0-me- 
ter station antenna and by moving the source 
ai least 30 feet from your transverter. Prune 
the antenna on the source (as needed) to re- 
duce signal strength, I suggest that you do this 
final adjustment after tuning the transmit 
chain. 

Transmjt-Chain Tune-Up 

Set 2 to 10 in the direct mode. While moni- 
toring the +T test point, key down your 2- 
meter transceiver (on low power!). You 
should see ■fT switch high. With your 
transceiver keyed, confirm that you have 
about LSVdc on the R 1 7 test point. You will 
have some forward power showing on the 
swr meter. Carefully peak the tuning slugs in 
Tl and T2 for maximum output power. Then 
back the slug in T 1 slightly out (counterclock- 
wise) until the power just begins to decrease. 
Expect 3,5 Watts of output power. Key down 

44 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



your 2-meter transceiver and check the 
transverter's output frequency with the coun* 
ter. It should read 29.600 ± .001 MHz. Now 
switch to the repeater mode. It should read 
29.500 ±.001 MHz. Touch up the oscillator 
tuning so both readings fall within their toler- 
ance. Notice that they tune up and down to- 
gether. (You did use .001% tolerance crys- 
tals, didn't you?) 

If things have worked out so far, welcome 
to 10-meter FM! If you run into any snags, 
review the theory of operation section for 
troubleshooting hints* 

Operation 

It is useful to tape a small card to your 
2-meter rig (or the top of your 2 to 10) listing 
the 2-meter-lo- 10-meter frequency conver- 
sions for both direct and repeater modes. It is 
also a good idea to prominently include the 
note: Operate the 2-meter rig on low power in 
the direct (simplex) mode when using the IO- 
meter transverter , Remember: Garbage in. 
Garbage out! 

2 to 10 draws about 50 mA in receive and 
less than I A in transmit. Always use a 1- 
Amp in-line fuse in the dc power lead going to 
the transverter. The 2SC1909 used in 2 to 
lQ's final amplifier is reasonably forgiving of 
temporary load mismatches. However, don't 
abuse iL There is no reason to accept an swr 
greater than 1.3:1 since operation is quite 
narrowband. The lightweight heat sink used 



on the final is fine for the 1 -minute-on, 1-2- 
minutes-off type of service that is typical of 
FM conversations. Beef up the heat sink if 
you are going to operate in transmit for long 
periods of time. 

Direct /Repeater Operation 

Most direct operation is found on 29,600 
MHz. This frequency is monitored by many 
people, and a number of VHF UHF repeat- 
ers have added crossband capabilities to this 
frequency. 

The normal 10-meter repeater pairs are 
.52/.62, .547.64, .56/. 66, and ,58/.68. Re- 
member , always leave the 2-meter rig in the 
direct (simplex) mode. Use the DIR/RPT 
switch on the transverter to change modes! 

Base-Station Operation 

Ail you need is a regulated 12-14- V-dc f 
I -A supply and a good vertical antenna, I am 
using a Cushcraft AR-10 with excellent 
results. Many people cut down CB ground 
planes with good success. As there is often 
a significant loss due to cross-polarisation 
on 10 meters, it's best to use some type of 
vertical. 

Mobile Operation 

You can run 3-4 feet of coax between your 
2-meter rig and 2 to 10, so mobile installation 

is fairlv flexible. You will want comfortable 
access to the ON switch and the DIR/RPT 



T3 



T4 



T5 



switch of the transverter I 
prefer to take dc power 
from a point thai discon- 
nects automatically when 
the motor is cranked. This 
reduces the chance of dam- 
age due to an electrical 
transient If you get a case 
of alternator whine, try a 
dc power filter such as the 
Radio Shack 270-050. 2 to 
10 was not designed for 
operation at extreme tem- 
peratures. I suggest an op- 
erating temperature range 
of 40-100° F. On very 
cold or warm days, let 2 to 
10*s temperature normal- 
ize before operating. 

Choosing a good anten- 
na is the key to success for 
10- meter mobile opera- 
tion. If you already have a 
Hustler antenna, get the 
10-meter resonator and 
use it. It's OK to trim 
down a CB antenna, but 
start with a good one! I am 
very skeptical of shon an- 
tennas. I hope some of you 
antenna designers out there will work up a set 
of effective antennas for 10-meter mobile 
FM — maybe a good DDRR roof mount. Oh 
yes, avoid using crummy CB coax. 

From Here 

Ten has always been my favorite HF band 
because it provides local rag-chewing* sur- 
prising low-power DX contacts, and many 
operating modes. 10-meter FM ices the cake, 
I hope I have encouraged you to get on IO- 
meter FM some way, If you would like to 
write and ask a question about 2 to 10, please 
include an SASE. Please hold phone calls to 
Friday evenings, 7:30 to 10:30 p.m. Central 
time. No collect calls, please! See you on 
10-meter FM,« 

Reference 

Dave Ingram , 70-Meter FM for the Radio Ama- 
teur, Tab Publication 1 189, 



Coll 


Nominal 


#of 1 


Reference # 


Inductance 


Tums-N 


L1 


.27 uH 


6 


L2 


.27 uH 


6 


L4 


+ + 05uH 


3 


L5 


-.05uH 


3 


L6 


+ .068 uH 


3 


L7 


- .068 uH 


3 


Parenthetical 


values are in 


millimeters. 



Wire Gauge 
AWG, 

#18 (1) 
#18(1) 
#18 (1) 
#18(1) 
#18(1) 
#18(1) 



L3 7 turns of #30 (.25) close-wound at the base of a MJcromet- 
als, Inc. 143-6 form, 40 uH. 

T1.T2 Primary— 7 turns of #30 (.25) close^wound at the base of a 
Mierometais, Inc. L43-6 form, + 40uH; secondary— 3 turns of 
#30 (.25) wound over primary. 

Primary —7 turns of #26 (.40) wound 75% around two 
stacked FT37-43 ferrite toroid cores; secondary— 2 turns of 
#26 (.40) wound over the middle of the primary. 
7 bifilar turns of #26 (.40) wound 75% around two stacked 
FT50-61 ferrite toroid cores; interconnect for 1:4 step-up. 
Primary— 7 turns of #30 (.25) close-wound at the base of a 
Mrcrometats lnc. t L43-10 form, .34 uH; secondary— 2 turns 
of #30 (.25) wound over primary. 



e Inside Coil 


Coil Length 


Spacing 


Mandrel 


Diameter D 


L 


S 




.45" (11.4) 


,45" (11 .4) 


N/A 


Y2-13 


.45" (11.4) 


.45" (1 1 .4) 


N/A 


VtAZ 


.22" (5.6) 


.15" (3.8) 


-2 M (5.1):L5 


V4-20 


22" (5.6) 


.25" (6.35) 


see above 


V4-20 i 


.28" (7.1) 


.20" (5.1) 


.2"(5.1):L7 


*« 


,28" (7.1) 


.25" (6-35) 


see above 


%-16 





I UV- 



Fig, & Rf inductor and transformer data. 



Qi 



MP59IG 



3*<t OT 
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When You Buy, Say 73" 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 45 



Jean Shepherd K20RS 




And then there's us 



While digging through a pile of vintage Us 
the other day, we came across this gem by 
Jean Shepherd K20RS- h originally ap- 
peared in the December, 1963 1 issue. Since 
it j already paid for and it s stilt as funny as 
the day we bought it, we thought you might 
like to see it again. —Eds. 

You know, when you really step off a 
cliff, you know you've done it. It's just 
like looking out from the observation tower at 
the Empire State Building, and suddenly 
you* re in midair and you know that there's no 
going back. 1 mean, it's a great flight, while it 



Ft's maddening. You notice that up and 
down the street, the guys in the big Cadillacs 
never get tickets? Have you ever yet seen a 
ticket on a fat Mercedes? Let me tell you, 1 
used to come back with my motor scooter 
decorated like a Christmas tree, You know, 
all those tittle green tags hanging like tinsel 
all over it. And in front of me would be a 
taglcss Cadillac, and behind me a taglcss 
Mercedes. Both parked there since last Eas- 
ter. My scooter. , .I'd slow down, and the 
fuzz would be running alongside me, tying 
"cm on* 

Well, that goes in all directions. There 
are guys who always get it you- know- where, 
and there are guys who don't. It's just 
that way- Now 1 don't know how it's set. I 
don't know whether it's predestination. 
I don't know whether it's preordained, 
but some guys from the very minute 
they 're born— and they can be born in a rotten 
neighborhood— but from the very minute 
they're born, they are preordained or some- 
thing to Make It. And there are other guys 
who are born to be Sunk , I mean just born to 
it, Your ship is leaking. From the very minute 
you start to walk. Your shoes squeak. And 

46 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



you're phony ing it up, and hoking it up from 
the time you're six. Other guys win the sack 
races. You know, legitimately. They can run 
faster. 

Well, let me tell you what happened one 
time, I'm on the air, you see. Vm a ham. and 
this is when I began to discover this principle. 
Vm a kid, and I got this paper route— rout. It 
was both a route and a rout. It's terrible to 
have to admit that even when I was a paper- 
boy, I was a paperboy for a paper that was 
about to go out of business. 

Every week you'd come around and you*d 
try to collect, and they'd tell you they want to 
drop the subscription, it's a rotten paper. It's 
awftil. I had a paper called the Herald-Exam- 
iner. Did you ever hear of it, the Chicago 
Herald-Examiner? And you know it was such 
a bad paper that they didn't even read it in my 
house, and we had a free subscription. 



'7 am catting CQ from 

9 o'clock at night 

til! 4 o'clock the next 

morning. All I am 

raising is our light bill " 



I used to go running around the neighbor- 
hood at four o'clock in the morning, deliver- 
ing this rotten paper. It was a losing battle. 
And on Saturdays, every morning, I would 
go up and I'd knock on every third door, 
trying to collect the dough, and they'd say: 

* 'Here's forty cents for last week. Please 
don + t deliver the paper any more. ' * 

Well, then I'd have to go back and tell 



George The Paper Man that they quit down 
there, on Cleveland Street, those people 
down there, and he'd say; 

* 4 Ah, they^re rotten people." 

George was fighting a losing battle, too, 
because he had the Herald-Examiner fran- 
chise in the neighborhood and he was going 
down with the ship. And all these poor little 
kids who were 12 years old and who were 
getting knobby knees from running around 
with this paper, they were going down, too. 
Whereas right across the street from us there 
were a bunch of wiseguy kids who had the 
Tribune * And this big fat guy who had the 
franchise for the Trib. And they all got fat. 
All those kids are Republicans today. And 
Cub fans . AH of the rest of us kids that had the 
Herald-Examiner t look at us. Ha! 
Democrats, following the White Sox till the 
day we die. 

So anyway, I'm a kid and 1 get my ticket, 
and E figure I'm licensed, like all the rest of 
the guys. Except, of course, the Cadillac has 
the same kind of license on it that you've got, 
you know. It's the same piece of metal on the 
back, but Boy, what a difference. 

So I gel my ticket. I'm really gonna swing. 
I'm on 40 CW for about six or eight months, 
when 1 get on phone. Now I'll tell you what I 
was doing as far as phone is concerned. I 
figure I'm gonna try and make it in the big 
leagues. And I have a single 2A5. Final driv- 
en by a 56 tri-tet osc. Do you know anything 
about the 2A5? Weil, it was a Pentode, a 
Power Pentode. Receiving type. I got ahold 
of this 2 AS, and I was using a Majestic B 
Eliminator, which 1 had found in the base- 
ment of somebody's house, to power this 
thing. And it put out 135 volts. 1 can tell you 
exactly what 1 was running, it was 135 volts 
on the plate at 10 mils. So you can figure out 
what my input was. Into an RCA mismatched 



receiving doublet SWL antenna, A special 
design they had to mismatch on everything. 
Didn't match anything. I could have done 
better with the bedsprings. 

And so V ve got this thing tuned up. and I *m 
running a cool 135 volts at 10 mils on the 
plate, I built a modulator. Oh, when I think of 
it. . .how sad. 

The modulator was another 2A5, and I am 
grid-modulating the final. Well, you can real- 
ize the kind of output I have. I'm probably 
running about 7/t0ths of a Watt, and you will 
never guess what band Vm running it on. I'm 
on 160 meters, Where a low-power guy was 
running 200 Watts and the high-power guys 
ran all the way up to, well, I would say 
WNBC standards. 

I had this poor little receiver. I don't know 
whether you ever heard 160 meters when it 
really was wild. You know what you could do 
on 160? You could tune into the band t and 
when you hit the band it was one heterodyne 
from one end to the other. One solid hetero- 
dyne, without a break. And the heterodyne 
was of such a magnitude that your S-meter 
was on the pin all die way across the band. It 
never fell off. 

So one night I'm on there, I throw my 
7/10ths of a Watt right into the middle of it 
all. I have a very vocal special sound, the 
bored sound of a high-power man. calling 
CQ, Nonchalantly: 

'Hello CQ, CQ 160. Hello CQ, hello CQ, 
hello CQ/" Then there's a little silence while 
I'm tuning. [Sound of arc being drawn by 
pencil from final plate.] 

''Hello. One Two Three. . hello. Hello 
CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ/' 

Where you really sound like a big leaguer 
is when you turn the radio in the ne*t room 
all the way up, so you sound like you've 
got so much power and so much gain, so 
much preamp gain that you can't cut down the 
background noise in your house. It sounds 
real great. 

I've got the cans on, I'm wearing cans 
monitoring myself on my receiver. I am the 
only guy who can hear me, the only guy who 
could hear my signal. 

"Hello CQ, hello CQ t hello CQ. hello 
CQ." 

It's 9 o 'clock at night, and everybody in the 
country is on. Believe me, that band was so 
insane and my rig so weak that with my signal 
on and my receiver on, I could hear the het- 
erodynes through my carrier. If you know 
what I mean . 

"Hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ 
160, hello CQ." 

I am calling CQ from 9 o'clock at night till 
4 o'clock the next morning, All I am raising is 
our light bill. That's all that's happening. So 
the next night 1 come on again. I get on the air 
again, and it's great, you know, just to throw 
on all the switches. The one thing I had that 
was heartwarming was that my BH tube was 
leaky. I had a gassy BH, Did you ever hear of 
the BH cold-cathode rectifier? Well, it was 
leaky. It was gassy; it made a beautiful blue 
light like an 866 when I talked. Made mc feel 
like I had real power. 
"Hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ. hello CQ t 



hello CQ, ' ' And I'd see that blue light flicker- 
ing. It was just great, 

ll Hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ, hello 
CQ." 

Wei I , this goes on for one sol id week , They 
can't even hear me in the next room. I haven't 
raised even a BCL. 

"Hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ. " 

Finally Friday night comes along. And my 
friend Chuck down the street is W9AHS. He 
is running 6/10ths of a Watt on 20. He has not 
worked anybody on 20 since the preceding 
spring, when he worked a guy who was mo- 
bile and who drove right past his house. So 
the two of us are in the same leaky rowboaL 

Chuck comes home from school, and he 
says: 

**YouVe on J 60, huh? How>e you do- 
ing?" And I say: 

"Ah. pretty good. Chuck. How are you 
doing on 20?" Twenty is a real Big League 
band, He says; 

"Oh, not bad. Not bad." 

We both made Class A, you see, but I 
didn't have the guts to go on 20 yet. because 
the band scared me. 

Chuck says, "What do you say we work a 
little crossband tonight?" Chuck lived 10 
blocks away from me. So I say: 

"Okay, Chuck." 

So Chuck has got his receiver tuned to 160 
and I'm listening on 20 and sure enough, 
between all the heterodynes I hear Chuck 
come in: 

"Hello, hello W9QWN, hello W9QWN, 
W9QWN. W9AHS calling W9QWN." So I 
throw on my transmitter, I'm on 160: 

"Hello W9AHS. W9AHS." And Chuck 
comes back to mef Fantastic! He could hear 
me. Right in between all the heterodynes he 
says he could hear this little squeak, this little 
thing. He says: 

"YouVe coming in. You're about an S2. 
About an S2. Readability is very low. About 
an R3* I'd say, about every 3rd or 4th 
syllable/* 

So t without thinking about it, we slip into 
crossband work, into duplex.. And I leave my 
transmitter on, Chuck leaves his on, and I'm 
talking to Chuck. We worked crossband. du- 
plex , for not more than 30 seconds. 

Illegal. 

And I'm talking to Chuck, Chuck's talking 
to mc, back and forth. It was great. Finally: 

"73 1 Chuck/' 

"Okay, Dad." 

"Hello CQ, hello CQ, hello CQ, 160 
phone— hello CQ, hello CQ." 

Six or eight weeks go by. When suddenly, 
in the mail, would you believe it? I get a card 
from the FCC. They got a listening station in 
San Diego, And they have licketed mc for 
crossband illegal operation, I am coming in 
there 599 XXXX. A ton of bricks! On 160! 

Well, I figured, you know, there's some 
guys get ticketed and then there's others that 
don't. About that time I realized that there are 
bom losers and there are bom winners. 

Oh well, it doesn't matter, It only gets 
worse. But the thing you got to keep saying to 
yourself is that it gets worse for everybody, 
simultaneously, all of the time. Maybe. I 



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More pages more products and if s 
hot off the press! Get the new 1986/7 
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When You Buy, Say 73 ' ' 



IWCJC SMITH CtECTBOHlCS tt*C 
POftoi 77 A9 Pedwood CrtyCA 940A3 
EVEimWlNG FOfi THf ELECTRONICS ENTHUSIAST! 

73 Amateur Radio • June. 1986 47 



Andrew Kiipanick K4YKZ 

PO Box 2930 

Winter Park FL 32790 



Simplex Repeaters? 

What are they? And why would you want to use one? 



CES, Inc. , and local radio amateurs in Win- 
ter Park. Florida, have been testing and eval- 
uating a simplified version of the simplex 
equipment discussed in this article. The pur- 
pose of this article is to generate more discus- 
sion and ideas on this subject, and not to set 
down any absolute standard or definition for 
such a machine. 

With the advent of low-cost digital stor- 
age for voice retransmission, a new 
product to serve special amateur needs has 
become feasible— the Digital Simplex Re- 
peater. The concept is very simple: A base 



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Fig. /. Simplex repeater configurations. 
48 7$ Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



station serves as the repeater, monitoring a 
standard simplex frequency and storing the 
received audio transmissions. Whenever a 
transmission ends, the receiver's carrier-op- 
erated relay (COR) signal goes off and the 
station transmitter will send out the previous- 
ly recorded message. In its most basic form* 
the repeater automatically retransmits every 
received message. While obviously not a 
great way to carry on rapid-fire rag<hews 
and nets, this is a simple way for a base 
station to greatly increase the range of any 
hand-held or mobile radio unit. By using only 
simplex operation, all of the costs and techni- 
cal drawbacks of full-duplex operation are 
eliminated. There is no input desensitization 
and no extra signal losses due to a duplexes 

Adding one slight refinement to the system 
makes it more than just a calling and testing 
machine: Reset On New COR. What this 
feature does is reset the digital store-and-re- 
transmit logic whenever a second transmis- 
sion is detected within two seconds of the 
first. This allows two stations to carry on 



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Fig. 2. CVSD encoder and decoder. 



direct communication without the delay or 
interference of the repeater. However, be- 
tween buildings or in some other "dead 
zone* the operator needs only to delay two 
seconds, and the lost or garbled direct mes- 
sage is repeated loud and clear. The first 
station knows immediately when it is reach- 
ing the limits of direct communication when 
it hears the retransmission. The two stations 
now have the option of continuing with the 
repeater's help, signing, or coordinating a 
switch to an available duplex machine. 

When no direct-path signals can be heard 
between two stations using the repeater, care 
must be taken to alternate turns using the 
machine so that doubling— or worse yet, both 
stations pausing for the other — does not oc- 
cur. Since this is a valid and very useful 
mode, it makes sense to limit the storage time 
to a short period to minimize the * is he reply- 
ing?* time. Fifteen seconds seems to be the 
maximum wait tolerance for "A-Type" (im- 
patient) personalities. Fifteen seconds is ac- 
tually quite a bit of time to relay information 
and ideas. The repeater, therefore, will only 
repeat the first 15 seconds of the last trans- 
mission. This may seem harsh to those who 
find two- or three-minute timeouts too fast on 
duplex machines, but it can be adjusted; it 
may even improve your operating habits. For 
a calling- frequency machine* 15 seconds is 
ideal, 

Another possible feature of a simplex re- 
peater is frequency sharing. This ts possible 
when another refinement is added to the con- 
troller: Access Code Enable. Assume that the 
repeater can be activated by a single DTMF 
tone, such as "L 1 * The tone should be re- 
quired for two seconds to activate the re* 
peater. This prevents voice ''falsing' from 
inadvertently activating the repeater. Since 
for most appl ications the range of the repeater 
should not greatly exceed the range of the 
hand-helds or mobiles calling into it, most 
simplex repeaters should be modest— 20 
Watts to a 5/8-wave vertical, not a kW to a 
200-foot-high yagt 

This modest (cellular-like) operation 
means that several simplex repeaters could be 
located on the same channel within overlap* 
ping areas, giving continuous coverage 



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r% . J* Simplified block diagram for the sim- 
plex repealer. 

throughout a major metropolitan area. If " 1 ' " 
and 4 *2** arc assigned to repeaters on the 
north end of the area, **3* ? and * i 4 11 to the 
east side of town, "5" and **6" to the south 
end, and **7** and li %* to the west, visitors 
would know which access code to try, de- 
pending on which part of town they were in. 
Multi-digit access codes could start with "9" 
and would be used for additional open, or 
private, repeaters. "0" would deactivate all 
repeaters within receiving range. With good 
planning and coordination, more than one 
repeater should be able to operate simulta- 
neously without interfering with communica- 
tions going through others. 

The fact that one activation code automati- 
cally deactivates other machines within the 
listening range facilitates changing over to 
the best machine for your area of town. So, if 
you were using repeater 1 and then sent 2 at 
the beginning of the next transmission, re- 
peater 1 would no longer repeat your message 
but repeater 2 would, if in range. This pre- 
vents two machines from repeating each oth- 
er* This ping-pong mode would have oc- 
curred if machine 2 recognized its activation 
code and machine I were out of range by the 
time the changeover code was sent. If ma- 
chine 2 sent a tone burst as part of its initial 
ID message, machine 1 would stilt be deacti- 
vated and no ping-pong would occur. Having 
as a universal deactivation code could be 
abused by pranksters, but it really is essential 
when skip conditions develop. Even the mul- 
ti-digit activation stations should use for 
deactivation. 

As with any repeater, the ID should be 
automatically transmitted every five minutes 
(when in service) and must be readable 
through the repeated transmission. The oper- 
ator should still identify at the beginning, 
end, and every ten minutes of the contact 
or test. 

One very popular use of the repeater is for 
signal checks. It is easier to believe there is a 
problem if you can hear it yourself. Many 
DTMF decoder problems are really over- or 
under -deviation problems which can be read- 
ily fixed by just hearing your signal. Also, the 
simplex repeater is probably a more accept- 
able way to test for skip conditions— rather 
than tying up the local duplex machine (and 
two frequencies) just for a kerchunk and 
an ID. 

Initial inquiries to the FCC indicate that no 
special authorization is required for the oper- 



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Fig. 4. Detailed block diagram for the simplex repeater. 



ation described. On 2 meters, repeaters and 
simplex are permitted between 146 and 148 
MHz, So 146.40-146.S8 and 147.42-147,57 
(except for 146.52) are open for simplex re- 
peaters (30-kHz splits are most common). 

Another possible use of the simplex re- 
peater is in your car, while you're out on a 
boat fishing (Fig. 1(b))* With a hand-held in 
the boat, you can hear your local repeater. 
However, without the repeater in the car, the 
hand-held is probably out of transmit range. 
If the hand-held starts making it on its own, a 
quick takes the car * * range extender' f out of 
action. Note that the hand-held is in split 
mode, and the simplex repeater is set to the 
duplex repeater's input frequency. 

For Field Day and for emergency field 
locations, the simplex repeater becomes a 
practical temporary-site repeater (Fig. 1(c)), 
The simplex repeater, whether temporary or 
part of a coordinated fixed system, could 
become a useful adjunct to amateur radio 
from 10 meters on down. 

Simplex repeaters mean less congestion on 
the standard full-duplex channels and more 
effective direct simplex communications. 
With only a little imagination, you could set 
them up to relay messages in very much the 
same manner as packet radio does (Fig, 1(d)), 
Multi-digit DTMF tone enabling would most 
likely be used to signify the repeat paths for 
forwarding. You should probably consult the 
FCC before fully exploring this possibility. 

The Circuit 

The heart of the simplex repeater is the 
voice-to-digital (encoder) and digital-to- 
voice (decoder) converter circuit. The sim- 
plest way to digitize a voice is to store a 
digital image of the change of the voice sig- 
nal , rather than store the digital value of the 
voice amplitude itself. The name for this type 
of converter is a Continuously Variable Slope 



Delta (CVSD) modulator/de modulator . This 
entire encoder/decoder function is available 
as a single 16-pin IC which operates on +12 
V dc. Since only the change information is 
stored, the amount of memory required is less 
than that required by older analog- to-digital 
conversion techniques. 

As with any sampled signal, the sample 
rate (bit rate) should be at least twice die rate 
of the highest frequency to be reproduced— 
this is called the Nyquist rate. The Nyquist 
rate implies that an 8-fcHz sample rate should 
be sufficient for male voices in the 300-3000- 
Hz range. The ability of the CVSD encoder/ 
decoder to handle amplitude variations (dy- 
namic range) is enhanced by using higher 
sampling rates, making a sample rate in the 
order of 16 kHz more desirable than the mini- 
mal rate of 6 to 8 kHz. The total digital 
memory required for storage is simply the 
amount of timer storage time multiplied by 
the sample rate. Therefore, one 64K DRAM 
would store about four seconds of CVSD 
voice information, assuming a 16-kHz sam- 
ple rate. 

Fig. 2 shows a simplified diagram of die 
CVSD encoder and decoder. The encoder 
samples the difference between the voice sig- 
nal input and the internal integrator which is 
being driven by the digital output to track the 
input signal. Each sampled output from the 
comparator drives the reference integrator 
either up or down in magnitude. This ** loud- 
er/ softer'* bit is generated every 62,5 mi- 
croseconds and is stored as one continuous bit 
stream. 

A trick is employed by the CVSD manufac- 
turers to allow an even wider dynamic range 
than that afforded by the 16-kHz sample rate. 
Motorola prefers to call this trick a "com- 
panding algorithm/* The encoder and the 
decoder use the same algorithm so that the 
analog (voice) output is equivalent to the 

73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 49 



The experimental system works on 146.4 MHz, using 17 Watts to a vertically polarized 
gain antenna at approximately 100 feel. The repeater operates under station call 
WA4HHZ. Here are a few of the comments from on-the-air users: 

• Hilory K3VMG: ++ I get a lot of calls on the hand-held I can't answer direct, With the sim- 
plex repeater, I can answer back without running over to the main rig." 

• Bob N4IMDW:"The vehicular simplex repeater will be great for me as an outdoorsman. 
The possibilities are tremendous." 

• Dave K7AFK: ,4 Every club should have one as an on-the-air test machine." 

• Jack WD4AWV: J1 U works fine, but what do you do with it?" 

• Andy K4YKZ:'1 like the built-in blooper reset feature — just release push-to-talk and 
start again/ 1 

• Al N46US: "I would much rather carry a hand-held than a radio in the car, Now my 
hand-held has the range of my home station/' 



original input. Companding consists of load- 
ing the last three bits from the encoder into a 
3-bit shift register and digital comparator. If 
all three bits in the register are l's f the refer- 
ence integrator's output will be set to ramp up 
faster; if all three bits are GTs, the output will 
be set to decrease faster than if the two previ- 
ous bits were not G*s. This simple fudge con* 
mil over the integrator's gain increases the 
ability of the CVSD to respond to rapid 
changes in amplitude without increasing the 
overall memory requirements. 

Fig, 3 shows a simplified block diagram of 
the simplex repeater. The only signals needed 
to control the system are COR from the radio 
and PTT to the radio. COR is the internal 
radio signal that disables the radio's squelch. 
Some transceivers provide this signal to a 



connector output, but the signal must be 
found from the schematic on most amateur 
radios. A few radios do not have a signal that 
is suitable for use by the repeater. For these 
radios, COR must be generated by an addi- 
tional circuit that senses background noise on 
the unsquelched audio signal . 

The receive signals to the repeater's CVSD 
decoder can be speaker audio or unsquelched 
audio. If the speaker audio is used, the vol- 
ume setting cannot be changed once it is ad* 
justed for the proper output deviation level 
for transmission. So, if the repeater is also to 
be used as a base control station, the audio to 
the repeater should come from the audio cir- 
cuitry that precedes die volume control. 

The PTT signal to the transmitter is activat- 
ed to the radio two seconds after the COR 



goes off and remains off. The timing control 
must also ignore false COR inputs that 
normally occur immediately after PTT is 
released. 

Fig. 4 shows a more detailed block diagram 
for a system that includes more bells and 
whistles. In addition to the basics shown in 
Fig. 3, the following seven functions are 
shown; (1) DTMF decoder for repeater acti- 
vation/deactivation T (2) analog pre-filter and 
post-filter for CVSD, (3) auxiliary micro- 
phone input with gain control, (4) 2-second 

* 'wait for COR' * timer, (5) 30-second deacti- 
vation timer, (6) 5-oiinute timer and ID gen- 
erator, and (7) optional ping-pong squelch 
generator* 

With the cost and complexity of the digital 
encoder/decoder and with memory no longer 
a major factor, the success of the simplex 
repeater depends on two important factors: 

* Acceptance of the concept and constraints 
by the amateur community 

* Technical improvements resulting in more 
sophisticated operation and reduced costs 

Other factors that will weigh heavily on 
the spread of the simplex repeater are the 
FCC and ARRL. The ** voice packet" con- 
cept is bound to be tried using simplex re- 
peaters. This operation most likely will re- 
quire regulatory sanction before it can grow. 
The basic one-repeater system, however t 
should be well within the limits of the current 
regulations. The challenge today is to try it. 
then improve it. and — some day — standard- 
ize it. ■ 



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Ralph Neal 
PO Box 516 
Nash TX 75569 



Messing With 
Microwaves 



Build a simple microwave transmitter and receiver 

for just pennies a MHz. 



One area of electronics that seems to be 
sadly neglected by amateurs is mi- 
crowave communication, This is due to the 
high cost of microwave components and the 
difficulties associated with microwave circuit 
construction. If this is what's holding you 
back from experimenting in this fascinating 
field, I think you'll enjoy this article on the 
construction of a simple microwave transmit- 
ter and receiver, 

The transmitter and receiver described 
here are of such simple design that it is possi- 
ble to build both in only a few hours and at a 
cost of less than $30. And since the design 
doesn't use exotic parts, you should be able to 
get all the components necessary to build both 
the receiver and the transmitter at Radio 
Shack. 



First, let's begin with the transmitter since 
it's the more difficult of the two. Begin by 
getting a square piece of single-sided copper- 
clad PC board about 8 cm in diameter. In the 
center of this board, drill a hole large enough 
to accommodate a I * 6-32 nylon screw. Be- 
fore inserting this screw, take a small brass 
tube about 3.2 cm long and about 3 mm in 
diameter and solder it to the PC board— cen^ 
tering it just below the center hole (see Photo 
A). A good source for the brass tubing is a 
ball-point pen that uses the old brass ink car- 
tridges. Once the brass tubing has been sol- 
dered to the PC board, you can insert the I * 
6-32 nylon screw in the center hole, This 
screw will be used to support the antenna 
once the components have been laid out on 
the PC board. 




Photo A. The transmitter* Vie homemade capacitor is in the center , LI is the long tube ai the 
bottom and 12 is to the left of Ql . 

52 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



The next step in the construction of the 
transmitter is to drill another hole, in line 
with the first, 2 cm heiow the brass tubing. 
This hole will help form the variable capaci- 
tor which will be used to vary the frequency 
and power of the transmitter. A thin square 
piece of copper or brass, measuring V A cm 
along each side, is used to form the top plate 
of the capacitor. In the center of this small 
square, drill a hole that matches in size the 
hole drilled below the brass tube. Place a 
square piece of mica, somewhat larger than 
the square piece of brass, between the brass 



O 



. 



o} 






33 



o 






CI -* 



f 



cr"-, 



CQUNTtR 

Sli 

MOLES 



I OP __ HOLE PATTER \ r ' TIER 




b) 



K PARTS PL AC EM t 



Fig. h (a) Drilling pattern for the transmitter 
board, (b) Parts placement. 



square and the PC board. Transistor mount- 
ing kits sold in electronic supply houses are 
one source for the mica. A nylon screw is 
then inserted through the brass square, the 
mica, and the PC board. Complete the con- 
struction of the capacitor by attaching a nut to 
the screw on the back side of the board. By 
tightening or loosening the nut you'll be able 
to vary the capacitance on the homemade 
capacitor, and thus tune the transmitting fre- 
quency and vary the power. 

After completing the variable capacitor. 
we must drill three more holes into the PC 
board to mount the four remaining pans, As 
you can see from Fig, L these holes are in 
line with two of the four edges of the variable 
capacitor. Two of these holes, 1 cm from the 
edge of the capacitor, must be drilled in a 
special way. Start by drilling two 1/32" holes 
1 cm to the right of the right-edge corners of 
the capacitor (see Fig. la). 

After these two holes are drilled, it will be 
necessary to countersink them by drilling in 
the same spot with a larger drill bit- With a 
W " bit, drill from about l A to l h way through 
the PC board. The countersinking process is 
necessary for the removal of copper from 
around the holes, which prevents short-cir- 
cuiting of the resistors to the ground plane. 
The third hole can be drilled anywhere along 
the bottom of the PC board . preferably close 
to the Ik-Ohm resistor. 

Once the holes are drilled , the resistors are 
inserted as shown in Fig. lb. On the right- 
hand lower comer of the capacitor, one lead 
of a Ik-Ohm resistor is soldered. The other 
end of the resistor is inserted through the hole 
immediately to the right. Directly to the left 
of this resistor (the lower-left comer of ca- 
pacitor) a 4.7k-Ohm resistor is soldered to 
the top capacitor plate, with the other lead 
soldered to the PC board. 

The final component, a 47 -Ohm resistor, 
is installed in the two holes drilled that 
run parallel to the right hand side of the 
capacitor. After the leads of the resistor 
are inserted, you may at this time turn 
the board over and solder the leads of the 
47- and Ik-Ohm resistors together. The other 
end of the 47-Ghm resistor is connected to a 
small inductor of your own making. It is 
formed by wrapping five turns of 30-gauge 
wire around a match stick. Once the wrap- 
ping is finished, slide it off the match and 
attach one end to the 47-Ohm resistor. The 
remaining end of the inductor is soldered to 
the emitter of the MRF 901 transistor (see 
Photo A). The base lead of the transistor is 
attached to the top plate of the capacitor, and 
the collector is attached to inductor LI (the 
3-cm-!ong tube). 

The last bit of work involves soldering 
the power leads to the transmitter and in- 
stalling an antenna. First, insert a red wire 
through the third hole, which we have not 
used as of yet, and solder it to the front of the 
PC board . Then take a black wire and solder 
it to the junction of the 47* and Ik-Ohm 
resistors* 

This just about finishes the construction 
of the transmitter except for the antenna. The 
antenna is made by taking a thin strip of metal 




Photo B> With a power source, a modulator, 
and an antenna, the transmitter is ready to 
tune, 

about 1 cm in diameter and 6 cm in length. At 
its center drill a hole to fit the nylon screw that 
formed the antenna mount described earlier. 
The height of the antenna should be adjusted 
(by the use of nuts) to a height of 1 cm above 
the ground plane for maximum signal trans- 
mission. For the antenna to function proper- 
ly, ii shouldn't touch any metal— such as the 
ground plane or inductor LI (see Photo B). 
You may ask, how does the antenna work if it 
doesn't make contact with anything? It turns 
out that the microwave signal is transferred 
to the antenna by the inductive coupling 
with L \ . 

At this point our transmitter is fully func- 
tional and could be operated simply by apply- 
ing power to it. However, I have found that 
many times it's more desirable to have the 



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A?- I3«fl 

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Fig. 2- Schematic diagram of the microwave 
transmitter and its companion modulator. 




Photo C The microwave receiver is a simple 
crvstal detector. 



transmitter modulated by the circuit shown in 
Fig. 2. This circuit is basically an oscillator 
that uses one side of an audio transformer as 
an inductor io provide the necessary feedback 
for oscillation to occur. To control the fre- 
quency of the oscillator you need only vary 
the resistance of potentiometer R2. 

The Receiver 

Once the modulator is constructed, the 
transmitter section of the project is finished. 
Now you are left with only the construction of 
the receiver. The receiver isn't far from the 
type built by most electronics enthusiasts at 
one time or another. It's the basic crystal 
radio receiver! The major difference is the 
length of the antenna and the type of diode 
used to detect the signal. 

Start by finding the wavelength of the 
transmitter by using the following formula: A 
= v/f, where f is the frequency in MHz, v is 



3.2 cm 



DI 



*- 



1,2 cm 




aJ 



W€ff0WA¥>£ fffC£**Tff 



X 



-DroDE fits 
across Hint 




UA in HOLE DRILLED IN CENTER 
t) OF PC BOARD 



h»- 



3?t 



3 2cm 



C) 




METER 



PA fits If 57 


RADIO 


2835 SCHOTTKT DlOOE 
SHADS #276-1*24 


AUDIO AMP 


-RADIO SHACK #?77 lOOfi 


M HQfttjQ 


METER 



Fig. 3. (a) Schematic diagram of the mi- 
crowave receiver, (b) Optional receiver PC 
hoard, (c) Using the receiver as a field- 
strength meter. 






73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 53 



ihe speed of light in km/ sec ( 300 k and A is the 
wavelength in meters. Using these values we 
find K = 300/2400 = 0. 125. or about 13 cm, 
Foradipolc antenna, each teg should be l A of 
a wavelength long. So divide your answer by 
4, giving you a value ot" 3.25 cm tor each leg 
of the dipote, In truth, the antenna should he 
slightly shorter than this value due to end 
effects. However, since the transmitter can 
vary several MHz above and below the stated 
frequency of 2 .4 GHz , this makes a good first 
guess. 

To detect the signal generated by your 
microwave source, you must choose a diode 
capable of operating in the microwave spec- 
trum. The diode that 1 use is the 5082 Sehott- 
ky diode, available at most Radio Shack 
stores at relatively low cost. Other diodes 
designed for microwave use should work 
equally weil t but as of this writing the onl\ 
other diode I have tested is the 1 N&2A. This 
diode worked well, but it may be more diffi- 
cult to obtain than the 5082. As can be seen 
from Fig, 3a and Photo C, construction of 
the receiver is trivial. Two stiff pieces of wire 
measuring 3.25 cm in length are attached 
to the ends of the diode to form the dipole 
antenna. A short piece of shielded cable 
is then connected across the diode. leading 
to an audio amplifier. In Fig. 3b. a PC 
board is shown for the receiver, if you wish to 
use it. 

In Fig. 3c, the receiver is shown connect- 
ed to a 1-mA meter for the purpose of peak- 



ing the transmitter output. This is done 
by first applying power to the transmitter 
and then placing the receiver at such a dis- 
tance that the meter reads about half scale. 
The capacitor on the transmitter is then 
adjusted until the meter shows that maxi- 
mum power is being transmitted. To truly 
maximize the power of the transmitter, it 
may be necessary to trim or lengthen the 
antenna, but in general the lengths given will 
work just fine. 

Applications/Experiments 

The first experiment is to measure the 
wavelength of the transmitter by a method 
called interferometry. Here wc place the 
transmitter and receiver side by side, sepa- 
rated by a flat piece of metal to reduce in- 
terference with each other, A second piece 
of metal, somewhat larger, is placed a couple 
of meters away in from of the transmitter-re- 
ceiver pair. This is done to cause the forma- 
tion of a standing wave between the second 
reflector and the transmitter-receiver pair. 
To measure the wavelength of the transmit- 
ter a small third plate is inserted between 
plate number 2 and the transmitter-receiver 
pair. This third plate is then moved back 
and forth in between plate 2 and the transmit- 
ter-receiver* As this is done, a series of high 
and low tones will rush forth from the re- 
ceiver. These tones, caused by constructive 
and destructive interference, will correspond 
to the nodes and ant modes of the standing 



wave. By simply measuring the distance that 
the plate is moved from one tow tone to an- 
other, we can get a good estimate of the 

wavelength. 

One possible use of the microwave trans- 
mitter-receiver came to me when I was 
performing the preceding experiment. As I 
was setting up the experiment, 1 noticed that 
as I walked around the room the same high/ 
low tones were generated. It seems that 
standing waves are generated in the room 
as they bounce off the wall. As 1 walked 
around the room, some of the microwaves 
were bouncing off of me and causing the 
constructive/destructive interference needed 
to produce the high/ low tones, But these 
tones were generated only when 1 walked 
about the room! So one possible use for the 
transmitter- receiver is for a very crude mo- 
tion detector. 

Another possible use is to construct a small 
radar system to measure the speed that ob- 
jects are moving away from or lowurd you! 
Then, of course, there is always microwave 
communication to keep you busy. At this 
point, it's up to you to experiment and find 
uses for it. 

One final word: The transmitter described 
here is one of low power output. However, its 
output is above the leakage level considered 
safe on microwave ovens , Do nor imtt this as 
a toy! It has great potential as a tool for 
learning about microwave radiation, but it 
should be respected at all times, ■ 



PORTABLE ANTENNA 



MODEL AP-10 

Designed for 
APARTMENTS 
MOTELS 
VACATIONS 

PRICE 

$51: 

AddS3.00 

Shipping and Hondirg 



Quick Simple Installation. Operates on % 6, 10, 15, 20, 30 
and 40 meters, All coifs supplied. Only 22-1/2 inches long, 
Weighs tess than 2 lbs. Supplied with 10 ft, RG 58 coax 
and counter poise Whip extends to 57 inches. Handles 
up to 300 watts, 
VSWR— 1.1:1 when tuned 

VWte fcf mm delate and clher 8&W products 

ALL OUR PRODUCTS MADE IN UJ 



BW 



BARKER & WILLIAMSON 

Quality Communication Products Sine© 1932 
At your Distributors write or call 
1 Canal Street. Bristol PA 1 900 7 

(215) 786-5581 




#£ 



AT tAST^ A V£Rl AFrtrftDABLE COMPUTE * 
At A VERt A* FOBDABLE PRlCt 



POWt RFl* frUllT PnOGa>UV*nif WITH JK Of HEUdAf HO*T* 

a.r -«.;« • tit mm moduli tttaUJCFi EnTRt commands - 

OllRAfiLf 40 Hi* MFWfitMHE 'tHF k| TbuAHfJ-IBD* BASED FQUP. 
Ct*|P DESIGN [fnjCATlONAl. -UNIQUfc IjVNTAX ChfC* GEPOHT 
CODES VOP ERROR IDENTITr -GRAPH DRAWING *NU ANIMATED 0*5- 
PL.Ar- ACCURATE TO&ltfOEClMAl PLACES HWFUll PANCfr MATH 
AND SOENTirfcC FUNCTIONS- AT AN AFFORDABLE PACE 

Wt CANNOT TlU TOW tME MJkPtE O* *Mt COMPUTE** &g! '* *A5 
U1HB' A FAMOUS AATO COMMA** fM£> JSfP TC; Ml-. F0H 

was 

*C BOUG«r OUT what Tn£ fACTOH* «*& lEFT m STOCK *wQ -*E> 
TO HEJMOvE ft* . *&t,S THESE W*TO *** ifN#*C**Olfl ifJS H* 
*. rtAH AOA*Tt A ANO MA**J*4 m*C*At *WS « A roCONTwH* 
ITEM THC«C f$, NO WABRAHTt 



Of t^EM 



'If iASl 



IJMITICJ 



- ■ Nrt FORS1&.SS 






AijAf - 



14 » e . 

1? *± 



See Sepldmber 196* issue of 73 few TIMEx/RTTY article 



CHIP BONANZA <at these prices they ahe a st 

2*M H« EA <i 

tf\t 12.24 EA OR tQ 

ira slo ea Oi 

J 'ft* KQC EA OH kO 

IMJ* IT0C EA OH W 

■M H* EA OH HJ 

rHEGSJSS t '3* EA OH 

<Hmtii& e» la of 



i£AZ- 

SHEC4AU 

^-c«tM»cH0*4APiNe antra * HftACFu 

TM5 «01 N V MlCHO-P P5» 

TlW WWhL IW.II..HO P'CtOC*: CfN ANO DWVfeH 

rWS BtViaANL MmIhRCJP COLOR GRAPHICS AMD DUiPLAt 

KtYB0*MDfl»*| tit KtVS MEASURE 4 * 10|r*l>TEi-.i 



LAL} 

FOfl I 9JSK 
FOR UQ.D0 
FOH WOW 
FOH U5Q0 

FOH WD* 
FOH 1«» 

WOU V: .', 

ran wane 

*OH % i ^ 

*UH J1Z» 

I i£ 
I 296 
f 59& 

I S9!i 
i 9.9!: 



APPLE |r tna APPlE Ji ■ COMPUTfA 
U A INFRA WE s I'ullf mivui*r«oi It 60 

P fH > f IuKITt -"- MPtt RAffKMftt MV* 
Mm*, a»Bitat<> Caii or V^Fi 

APPLE PGV. 

1S« 



Cassette Software: 

I tiJrfi C*S-ii1lr li:ll*Jiif 

-tend Fgi h«l cp'4 laK-Ju^; 

3 for ItafA, « Ibf 11450 
«& tv £s«r M i±r i»gg 

VHtRfl HMCI » i 



SPECIALS 
IBM CoRtpakbl* Com put»rs 
Ffcp-Too Casw. MAybovd. 
P13WM SuopfT m) Mdtr*r- 
Do«ro Up and Runmng 

«99O0LumpWi 
(plus i5 DO lor itMppng} 

CALL FDR OCTAILS 
LNA 

90 Kelvin, ^ell-con Ifljnod 
fliocironic poiorator, flnd 
IfHid horn |S9 9S flftch 

01 2 far S 1 00 00 (plus ^5 00 
tor shipping} 



SHI PFHNG INF OR UATION PLEASE f^CLUL^tO*. OF OftDffl FOR SHIP 
PING AHD HAKDLtNC CHARGES (MINIMUM %2*Q MAXIMUM tTQH CA 
N ACM AN OnOERS ADDS7 50 IN US f UNOS MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 
41* SALES TAX FOR f RE£ FLYER, SEND £fc STAMP OR SASk 



^19 



«- 



Hal-Tronix, Inc. 

P.O. BOX 1101 DEPT.N 

12671 DIX-TOLEDOHWY 

SOUTHGATE, MICH. 48195 PHONE (31 3> 281 7773 




HAL 

HAROLD C NOWLANO 
WIZXH 



54 73 Amaieur Radio * June, 1986 




For 



the best buys in town call 

212-925-7000 

Los Precios Mas Bajos en 
Nueva York , . . 




KITTY SAYS; WE ARE NOW OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK, 

Saturday & Sunday 10 to 5 P,M, 

Monday- Friday 9 to 6:30 PM Thurs. to 8 PM 
Come to Barry's for the best buys in town. 

ONV Safety 
belts-in stock 



MAY We Help You With the Best In Commer- 
cial and Amateur Radios? Jan KB2RV, Toni, 
Kitty WA2BAP, Mark K2C0N 
See You at HOSA Hamfest Queens, NWNewington. 
CT June 8th See You at W2QW Hamfest Dunellen, 
NJ June 2 1st 






[ICOM] 

MC-R71A. 75tA, 745, 28WH. 37A, 47A. R-7000, 
1271A, 271 A/H, 3200 A t 471 A/H T 735 






KENWOOD 



Antennas 

AS 




H^ton 



HUM 

METZ 

Mirn- Products 

MQgfey 

TS440S/AT, R-1000, R-2000, TS-940S/AT 

TM-201B. TR26/3600A .TM2570A/50A/30A 

TR-751A Kenwood Service/Repair 

TH21/31/41AT\ TM-211A/ ^ 

411A&TS-711A/811A 
TM-3530A 

C0MPU-RRE EXTINGUISHERS 

EJCL 5000E RTTY/AMTOR TERMINAL 



me§y 

FT-ONE, FT-98Q. FT757GX . FRG-8B00 
FT-726R, FRG^9600 FT-270/77ORH. FT-2700RH 

YAESU ICOM ^T^^aIL 

liT Trz- ,«-,^- Mid land/51 a ncaro 

FMJ2/703R IC2AT w|(ion Maxon 

FT-#7Q9FUH ICG2AT y »#tu FTC 2203, FT 4703 
FT-1903/1123 IG-04AT lcQm lC M12 (Mirintl M700 
| IC-A2/U16 T*mpoM.1 




VoCom/Mirage/Daiwa 
Tokyo Hy-Power 
Amplifiers & 
5/8XHTGain 
Antennas IN STOCK 




SMART PATCH 
CES Simple* Auiopatcri SiQ-SA Will Pate* FM 
Transceiver To Your Telephone Great fo* 
Tetephone Cans From Mobile To Base Simple 
To Use 5319 95 

PRIVATE PATCH Hi in stock 



FLUKE 77 Multimeter 



A Unco 
Power Supplies 







Nye MBV-A 3 Kilowatt Tuner 



AMERITRON AMPLIFIER AUTHORIZED DEALER 



£ 





Yaesu FTR-2410, Wilson 
ICOM IC-RP 3010 (440 MHz) 
ICOM IC-RP 1210 (1.2 GHz) 



Soldering 
Station, 



48 Watts, $68 



JBC soldering line in stock, 

MICROLOG-AIR I, Air Disk, 
SWL, Morse Coach 

KANTRONICS 

LTTU, Interface II, UTU-XT, 

Challenger Packet Co mm, u 

EfMAC 

3 5002 
572B T 6JS6C 
12BY7A& 

4 400A 



Computer Interfaces 
stocked: MFJ-1224 
AEACP-1, PK-80, DR.DX 
CP-100, PK-64 P Dr.QSO, 
Morse Univ., PM-1 




SANTEC 
ST222/UP 

ST-20T 

ST-442/UP 
HT-7 



MFJ Models 

422. 313. 969B. & 941D 




ALPHA AMPLIFIERS 



AEA 144 MHz 
AEA 220 MHz 

AEA 440 MHz 
ANTENNAS 




BIRD 
Wattmeters &, fc' 
Elements ^§^ 
In Stock 




Complete Butternut Antenna 
Inventory In Stock* 



DIGITAL FREQUENCY COUNTERS 
Tnonfr- P*o*Gcm Engineering 

Model TW-rOOO 0-1 GHz T200HH 

0-600 MHz 0-13GMZ T296HM 

Long range Wireless 
Telephone forenoon in stoev 



BENCHER PADDLES, 

BALUNS P AUDIO FILTERS, 

IN STOCK 



MIRAGE AMPLIFIERS 
ASTRON POWER SUPPLIES 
SaxtonWire & Cable 




MURCH 
Model 
2000 A, 

A-LS, B 
In stock 



SANGEAN Portable Shortwave Radios 



\T*9*>.: I f, 




EIL 
EQUIPMENT 
IN STOCK 

Tn-Ei Towers 



Hy-Galn Towers 
& Antennas, and 
Roters will be 
shipped direct to 
you FREE of , 
shipping cost 

New TEN TEC 
2591 HT, Corsair If, Argosy II, Century 22, 2510 




MAIL ALL ORDERS TO BARRY ELECTRONICS CORP. 512 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, NY 10012. 



New York City's 



LARGEST STOCKING HAM DEALER 
COMPLETE REPAIR LAB ON PREMISES 



"Aqui So Habla Eapanol" 

BARRY INTERNATIONAL TELEX 12-7670 
MERCHANDISE TAKEN ON CONSIGNMENT 

FOR TOP PRICES 

Monday-Friday 9 AM lo 6:30 P M Thursday to 8 P.M. 
Saturday & Sunday 10 AM. to 5 PM (Free Parking) 

AUTHORIZED DISTS. MCKAY DYMEK FOR 
SHORTWAVE ANTENNAS & RECEIVERS 

fRTfLEX -Spring St, Station ' 
Subways: BMT-' l Prince St. Station" 

IND' ,4 F H TrairvBwy. Station" 

Bus: Broadway #6 to Spring St. 

Path— 5th SU6th Aye. Stellon 



Commercial Equipment 
Stocked: ICOM, MAXON. 
Midland. Standard, Wil- 
son, Yaesu We serve 
municipalities, busi- 
nesses, Civif Defense, 
etc. Portables, mobiles, 
bases, repealers 



We Stock: AEA, ARRL, Alpha, Ameco, Antenna Specialists, Astatic, Astron, 
B & K, B & W, Bencher, Bird, Butternut, CDE, CES, Coliins, Communications 
Spec, Connectors, Covercraft, Cushcraft, Oaiwa, Dentron, Digimax, Drake, 
ETO (Alpha), Eimac, Encomm, HeitSounrj, Henry, Hustler (Newtronics)* Hy* 
Gain, Icom, KLM. Kantronics, Larsen. MCM (Daiwa), MFJ, J.W. Miller, Mini- 
Products, Mirage, Newtronics, Nye Viking, Palomar, RF Products, Radio 
Amateur Call book, Rockwefl Colons, Saxton. Shure, Tele*. Tempo, Ten-Tec, 
Tokyo Hi Power, Trtonyx TUBES, W2AU. Waber, Wilson, Yaesu Ham and 
Commercial Radios, Vocom, Vibroplex, Curtis. Tri-Ex, Wacom Duplexes 
Repeaters, Phelps Dodge, Fanon Intercoms. Scanners, Crystals. Radio 
PubN cations 



Experienced 

HELP WANTED 

Young or Old 




WE NOW STOCK COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED PHONE IN YOUR ORDER & BE REIMBURSED. 

COMMERCIAL RADIOS stocked & serviced on premises. 

ALL 

Amateur Radio Courses Given On Our Premises, Call sales 

Export Order* Shipped Immediately. TELEX 1 2-7670 -* 1 FINAL 







HF Equipment 

IC-735 HF transceiver/SW rcvr/mic 

PS-55 External power supply*. .,,,, 

AT-150 Automatic antenna turrer ... 

FL-32 500 Hz CW filter 

EX-243 Electronic keyer unit ....... 

UT-3Q Tone encoder 

IC 745 9 band xcvr w/.I-30 MH* rcvr 

PS- 35 Internal power supply ,*.,..* 

EX- 241 Marker unit ... 

EX-242 FM unit...... 

EX-243 Electronic keyer unit ....... 

Fl-45 500 Hz CW filter (1st IF) 

FU54 270 Hz CW filter (1st IF) 

FL-52A 500 Hi CW filter (2nd IF) 

FL-53A 250 Hi CW filter (2nd IF) 

FL-44A SSB filter (2nd I F|,..„„.„ 

SM-6 Desk microphone,..., 

HM-12 Extra hand rmcropnone 

MB-L2 Mobile mount 



Regular SALE 
889.00 76r< 
169 00 149" 
399.00 359" 

59.50 

50.00 
TBA 
999 00 799" 
16900 149" 

20.00 

39.00 

50.00 

59,50 

47.50 

96.50 

96.50 
159.00 144" 

40.00 

3950 

21.99 



89" 
89" 




1C-751 9-band xcvr/1-30 MHz rcvr 

PS-35 Internal power supply 

FL-32 500 Hz CW filter (1st IF)..... 

FL-63 250 Hz CW fitter Ust IF) 

FL-52A 5O0 Hz CW filter (2nd IF},,, 
FI-53A 250 Hz CW filter (2nd <F)_, 

FL-70 2.8 kHz wite SSB filler 

HM-12 Extra hand microphone,.... 

SM -6 Desk microphone. 

RC-10 External frequency conlroto 
MB- 18 Mobile mount... 



>«•«•«•+«' 



1399.00 999°° 
160.00 149" 
59.50 
48.50 
96.50 
96,50 
3L50 
46 50 
39.50 
40.00 
3500 
21.99 



89" 

89 -- 



IC-720A 9^band xcvr • {CLOSEOUT) • 1349,00 689" 

PS-IS 20A external power supply 149,00 134" 

FL-32 500 Hz CW filter 59.50 

FL-34 5.2 kHz AM filler ..,. 49,50 

BC-10A Memory back-up 8.50 

SM-5 Spin electret desk mit 40.00 

BB-5 Mobile mount 2L99 

Other Accessories: Regular SALE 

PS-I5 20A external power supply „.„ 149.00134" 

CM Cooling fan for PS- 15 ... 45.00 

EX-144 Adaptor for Cf-l/PS-15 .... 6.50 

PS-30 Systems p/s w/cord, 6-pin plug 259.95 234" 

OPC Opt, cord, specify 2, 4 or 6 pin 10.00 

SP-3 Exlemal speaker . 54.50 

SP-7 Small external speaker 49.00 

CR-64 High stab, ret xtal (745/751) 56.00 

PP-1 Speaker/patch (specify radio),. . 139.00 129" 

SM-8 Desk mic ■ two cables, Scan..... 69 95 

SM40 Compressor/graph EQ, 8 pin mic 11900 109" 

AT 100 iOOWB'band auto, antenna tuner 399.00 359" 

AT-500 500W 9 band auto, antenna tuner 49900 449" 




Check the Prices at AES ! 

Other Accessories com, Rfgular SALE 

AH-2 8 band tuner w/mount & whip 549,00 489"' 
AH-2A Antenna tuner system, only.... 429.00 389" 
GC-4 World clock • (C10SEGUT) • 9995 69" 

GC-5 World clock „., 79.95 

HF linear Amplifier Regular SALE 

IC-2KL 160 15m solid state amp w/ps 1735 00 1389 

6-meter VHF Portable Regular SALE 

IC 505 3/ 10W 6m SSB/CW portable 469.00 419" 

BP-10 Internal Nicad battery pack 79.50 

o r ~ i j au c n a r ger .■»*». .,,.......,, iz... du 

EX-248 FM unit ,...* 49.50 

LC-10 Leather case ,„„... 34.95 



- « - ■ ♦ ■ ♦ 



......... 



Regular SALE 
735,00 649^ 
125.00112" 

8.50 
735.00 649" 



VHF/VHF base multi-modes 
IC-551D 8DW 6-meter SSB/CW., 

EX-106 FM option... 

BC-10A Memory back-up 
IC-271A 25W 2m FM/SSB/CW 

AG-20 Internal preamplifier .., 56,95 

IC-271H 100W2mFM/SS8/CW 944.00 789" 

AG-25 Mast mounted preamplifier 34.95 

IC-471A 25W 430450 SSB/CW/FM xcvr 839.00 729" 

AG-1 Mast mounted preamplifier 89.00 

IC-471H 75W 430450 SSB/CW/FM 1149.00 989"- 

AG-35 Mast mounted preamplifier 84.95 
Accessories common to 271A/H and 471 A/H 

PS 25 Internal power supply for (A) . . . 99 00 89" 

PS-35 Internal power supply for (H). ., 169.00 149" 

PS45 External power supply ,.., 149.00 134" 

SH-6 Desk microphone 40.00 

EK-310 Voice synthesizer 41.25 

TS-32 CommSpec encode/decoder,,.. 59.95 

UT-15 Encoder/decoder interface... 12.50 

UT-L5S UM5S w/TS 32 installed 79.95 

VHF/UHF mobile multi-modes Regular SALE 

IC-290H 25W 2m SSfi/FM, TTP mic... 549,00479" 

IC-4MA 10W 430440 SSB/FM/CW 649.00 569« 



VHF/UHF ft J GHz FM 
IC-27A Compact 25W 2m FMw/TTP mic 
IC-27H Compact 45W 2m FMw/TTP mic 
IC-37A Compact 25W 220 FM, HP mic 
IC-47A Compact 25W 440 FM, TTP mic 

PS-45 Compact BA power supply 

UM6/EX-388 Voice synthesizer, 47 A 

SP-10 Slim-line external speaker .., 
IC-32O0A 25W2m/440FMw/TTP.... 

UT-23 Voice synthesizer 

AK-32 2m/440 Dual Band antenna 

Larsen PO-K Roof mount.. ... 

Larsen P0-T1M Trunk lip mount 

Larsen PO-MM Magnetic mount 

IC-1271A 10W 1.2 GHz SSB/CW Base 1049.00 

PS-25 Internal power supply....... 99,00 

EX-310 Voice synthesizer 41.25 

TV- 1200 ATV interface unit „ 115.00 

UT 15S CTCSS encoder/decoder ... 79.95 

IC-120 1W 1.2 GHz FM Mobile... 499.00 

ML-I2 1.2 GHz 10W amplifier 339.00 

flep eater* Regular SALE 

RP-3010 440 MHz. LOW FM. xtal cont 1049.00 949" 
RP-1210 1,2 GHz, 10W FM, 99 ch.synth 1259.00 1129 
Cabinet for RP-1210 or 3010........ 269 00 



Regular SALE 
389.00 349" 
429.00 379" 
449.00 349" 
489.00 429" 
112.95 99" 

31.00 

3195 
569,00 499" 

31.00 

32,95 

20.00 

20.18 

19.63 



929" 
89" 

106" 

449" 
299" 




r 


■ 


~> 


MasterCard 


l ~ 


y^ 





VISA 



Hand-held Transceivers, 
Deluxe models Regular SALE 

IC-02AT for 2m....... 369.00 299" 

IC-04AT for 440 MHz 399.00 339" 

Standard models Regular SALE 

IC-2A for 2m 239.00 189" 

IC-2AT with TTP 269.50 209" 

1C-3AT 220 MHz, TTP 299.95 249" 

IC-4AT 440 MHz, TTP 299.95 249" 

Accessories for Deluxe models Regular 

BP-7 425mah/13.2V Nicad Pak ■ use BC-35 67,50 
BP-8 800mah/8.4V Nod Pak ■ use BC-35... 62.50 
BC-35 Drop in desk charger for all batteries 74.95 
BC-60 6 position gang charger, all baits SALE 349.95 
BC-16U Wall charger for BP7/BP8 „ 19.95 

LU"1.1 V illy I Ldj" \tmt*v*-- r *.....,.,,,*,,,... iO.Hj 

LC-14 Vinyl case lor Dlx using BP-7/8 18.49 

LC-02AT Leather case for Dlx models w/BP-7/8 39.95 
Accessories for both models Regular 

BP-2 425mah/7 2V Nicad Pak ■ use BC35.... 42.50 

BP-3 rjtra Sid. 250 mah/MV Nicad Pak „„ 31 25 

BP 4 Alkaline battery case....... 13 75 

BP-5 425mah/ 10.8V Nicad Pak use BC35 49 50 

CA-5 5/8-wave telescoping 2m antenna 18.95 

FA-2 Extra 2in llembfe antenna 10.00 

CP4 Gg. lighter pfug/tord for BP3 or Dlx.... 10.75 

CP-10 Battery separation cable w/clip 19 99 

DC-1 DC operation pak for standard models 18 75 

EX-390 Bottom slide cap „ 4.95 

MB46D Mobile mte- bkt for all HTs 21.99 

LC-2AT Leather case for standard models 39.95 

RB-1 Vinyl waterproof radio bag 30.00 

HH-SS Handheld shoulder strap 14.95 

HM-9 Speaker microphone..... 39.00 

HS10 Boom microphone/headset.. 19,50 

HS40SA Vox unit tor HS-I0 I Deluxe only 1950 

HS-10SB PTT unit for HS-10 19,50 

»Lrl 2m 2.3win/10w out amplifier. ....SALE 89.95 

SS32H Commspec 32 tone encoder , ..,. 29 95 



Receivers 

R-71A 100kHz-3OMH7 t lI7VAC..... 

RC-11 Inlrared remote controller . . . 

FL-32 500 Hz CW filter 

FL-63 250 Hz CW filter (1st IF) ..... 

FL-44A SSB filter (2nd IF) 

EX-257 FM unit 

EX-310 Voice synthesizer 

CR-64 High stability oscillator xtal 

SP-3 External speaker 

CK-70(EX-299) 12V DC option 

MB-12 Mobile mount 

R-7000 25 MHz-2 gHz scanning rcvr 

RC-12 Infrared remoie controller... 

Vofce synthesizer 

AH -7000 Radiating antenna . 



Regular SALE 

689" 
49" 



- ... j ... . 



$849.00 

59,95 

59.50 

48.50 

159.00 

38.00 

41.25 

56.00 

54.50 

10.95 

21.99 

969.00 

TBA 

TBA 

89.95 



144 



9b 



849" 



(6) 



HOURS • Mon. thru Fri. 9 5:30; Sat. 9-3 

Milwaukee WATS line: 1-800-558-0411 answered 
evenings until 8:00 pm Monday thru Thursday, 

Please use WATS lines for Ordering 

use Regular lines for other info and Servtce dept 



All Prices in this list are subject to change without notice 



Order Toll Free: 1-800-558-0411 



In Wisconsin (outside Milwaukee Metro Area) 

1-800-242-5195 



MMIiU 




TiJM 



4828 W. Fond du Lac Avenue; Milwaukee, Wl 53216 

AES BRANCH STORES 



Phone (414) 442-4200 

Associate Store 



WICKLIFFE. Ohio 44092 
28940 Euclid Avenue 
Phone (21() 585-7388 

Ohio WATS 1-800-362-0290 

Oulsids i onn 111 tent 



ORLANDO. Fla. 32803 

621 Commonwealth Ave. 

Phone (305) 894-3238 

Fla. WATS I 800-432-9424 

Outside i oaa in inn 



CLEARWATER. Fla. 33575 LAS VEGAS. Nev. 8910S CHICAGO, Illinois 60630 



1898 Drew Street 

Phone (813) 461-4267 

No in-State WATS 



1072 h Rancho Drive 

Phone (702) 647-3114 

No In-State WATS 

OulSide i onn om £<\*\ 



ERICKSON COMMUNICATIONS 

5456 N Milwaukee Avenue 

Phone (312) 631-5181 



ST1-800-321-3594 K 1-800-327-1917 No Nationwide WATS U N S 1-800-634-6227 



Outside 
Illinois 



1 800 621-5802 



SAVE on these AES/KENWOOD Specials! 



FREE 




$50 

Off! 

Headphones 

$19** 



KENWOOD R 11 Receiver: II bands - AM FM 
broadcast + 13, 16. 19. 22. 25. 31. 41. 4 49m SW. Ho 
BFOI Bandspread tuning meter, 3"* speaker^ record & 
phone racks, whip & fernte antennas, 7i%r*414Ti 
*1 ! #U Carrying case & earphone, uses 4 AA' cells. 
Shown w/optionaf headphones Closeout S69 95 



FREE FM Unit! 





KENWOOD TM-201A • CLOSEOUT 

Uftia compact 1 Covers 142 149,005 MHz in 5 kHz steps. 
25W out. GaAs FET RF amplifier, dual digital VFO'S, 5 
memories plus "com" channel w/back-up. Priority alert 
scan, memory and programmable band scan. Yellow 
LEO display. LED S/RF meter, Eat. spfcr t 16 key TTP 
UP/DN microphone, mobile mount. 5% w wlV'h* 
7%% 2 8 lbs. List $329« Closeout $259^ 



with KENWOOD TS-430S 

For a Limited time - purchase a 
TS-430S at our normal Low Sale 
Price & get the optional FM-430* 
FM Unit at NO EXTRA CHARGE 

*The FM-430 option provides FM 
transmit and receive capability on 
HF bands where authorized. 



Call for our Low 
Sale Price! 



Due to changing prices and limited quantities, all 
listings on this page are subject to change without 
notice. Please check with salesperson when ordering. 





Battery! 



For a Limited time! 

Purchase a TR-2600A 
'shown) at our normal 
_ow Sale Price and 
receive an extra PB-26 
battery • FREE! 
or 

Purchase a TH-21A/AT, 
TH-31A/ATorTH-41A 

/AT at our Low Sale 

Price and receive an 

extra PB-21 180 ma, 

battery • FREE! 

Call for Sale Prices 



Only a few left! 




KENWOOD DFC-230 Digital Frequency Controller 
for TS42QS, 130S/SE. 530S, 830S. 20 H; steps, 4 

memories, scan, UP/DM mic. Closeout $169 95 



Order Toll Free: 1-800-558-0411 



in Wisconsin (outside Milwaukee Metro Ares) 

1 -800-242-5195 



iVjr<mij;i:iu»)i;ii]j|[ttiijjj* 



4828 W. Fond du Lac Avenue; Milwaukee, Wl 53216 - Phone (414) 442-4200 



Inc. 



AES BRANCH STORES 



WICKLIFFE. Ohio 44092 

23940 Euclid Avenue 

Phone (216)585 7388 

Ohio WATS 1-800-362-0290 

^ lde 1-800-321-3594 



ORLANDO. Fla. 32803 

821 Commonwealth Ave. 

Phone (305) 894-3238 

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Commonwealth Ave. 1898 Drew Street 

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Phone (702) 647-3114 

No In- State WATS 

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5456 N. Milwaukee Avenue 

Phone (312} 631-5181 

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George M. Ewing WA8WTE 
FO Box 502 
Cheboygan MI 49721 



They Threw What Away? 

Your tax dollars at work: This time it's a UHFswr bridge. 



I want to stress right at the beginning that 
this is intended to be a fairly serious arti- 
cle, not a sarcastic put-on of the * * 1 1 Uses 
for a Dead... (Transmitter, Computer, Bat- 
tery, etc.)" variety. My intent is to alert the 
ham community to a particularly useful piece 
of military surplus gear and to suggest some 
innovative applications. Granted, not all of 
these are strictly limited to amateur radio, but 
then, most active amateurs have other hob- 
bies as well . 

First to the device itself. It's called a 
* 'Transmitter Performance Monitor R.R 
Failure Alarm/ and the model number is 
LDWS 00685 AD000. It consists of an alu- 
minum rack-mount panel 1-3/4" high mount- 
ed to a 9-1/2* x 5-1 IV % 1-1/2" chassis with a 
cover plate. Inside, there are two small cir- 
cuit boards; a dc alarm buzzer; three preci- 
sion crystal -can relays: an assortment of pots, 
switches, and lamps; and the **Main Good- 
ie" (see Photo A), 



The Main Goodie is the reason I be- 
came interested in this item and purchased 
several at a surplus house near a big Air Force 
base in northern Michigan. It is a very 
high-quality UHF swr bridge with N series 
connectors mounted on the back wall of 
the chassis. The bridge is about V square 
and 4-1/2" long and is conservatively rated 
at 60 Watts @ 225-400 MHz, though 
I've used one on 2 meters with no problem 
(see Fig. 1). 

The manufacturer's label identifies the 
Main Goodie as a Directional Power Indica- 
tor, model 3023 made by Coaxial Dynamics, 
Inc, of Cleveland, Ohio. From talking to one 
of the alarm manufacturer^ employees at a 
hamfest and from the four-digit serial num- 
bers on the ones I purchased, it's my guess 
that there are at least several thousand of 
these floating around out there in the surplus 
community, so keep your eyes peeled. The 
dealer from whom I goi mine was selling 



IIjjH 



H CQHNECTQR 



DUMMY LOAD 
Oft EDlllV. 



^U 



MODEL 3023 



rwt> 




f 



-H* ADAPTER 

j — n-;59 






C72Ji> 



SHIELDED 
WfHE TO 
METER 




DWfcECTW 



HT 

I i^2-2w 

- l46MHi 



«OTi 

WET? « CASE SHOULD K 
&*OUND£D AND SHADED 
WIRE B^ASSCG 



fit 




e-io<TiA 



Fig. L Low-power 2-meter test setup. 

5t 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



them for the scrap price of the aluminum, 
about S 1 .40 a pound! 

The original purpose of the device was to 
measure the carrier output of an Air Force 
UHF transmitter and to sound the alarm if the 
output to the antenna array fell below or rose 



"The dealer from 

whom I got mine was 

selling them for the 

scrap price of 

aluminum, about 

$1.40 a pound!" 



above certain limits, preset by the pots on the 
front panel. Only the forward current side of 
the bridge was utilized; the reverse, or re- 
flected, side was not connected. Hooking the 
bridge up to a 2 -Watt Wilson 1402 HT on 2 
meters generated about 1.5 mils on the 50- 
milliamp scale of my VOM for about 1-3/4 
Wans of forward power at 146.52 MHz; re- 
verse current as measured on the other termi- 
nal was negligible. 

Besides giving a good relative F/R pow- 
er indication for tuning and matching an- 
tennas and the like, another application 
immediately suggests itself to the ingenious 
amateur on a budget, Borrow somebody 
else's high quality precision UHF power me- 
ter, such as a Bird. Put it in series with the 
model 3023* a good resistive dummy load, 
and your UHF or VHF transmitter. Using 
either a surplus meter movement or the ap- 
propriate scale on your VOM t calibrate the 
model 3023 for a useful range of forward and 
reverse power levels. Then when you return 
the borrowed meter, as you eventually must t 
you will still have a highly accurate 



power meter, adequate for most amateur 
purposes. 

I have sold or traded several of these to 
other hams at hamfest flea markets. Most 
planned to use them as swr bridges or re- 
peater monitors on 220 MHz. Besides the 
Main Goodie ami its associated expensive 
silver-plated N connectors, several other 
parts in the assembly are worth scrounging. 
There are two very nice illuminated cartridge 
fuse holders, though you need to change the 
dropping resistor for the panel lamps if you 
use the fuse at some voltage other than 28 V 
dc. As is, the indicators are very dim when 
used at 12 V dc and very bright (but short- 
lived) at 1 10 V ac! There is also a matched 
pair of 2N3819s t common values of 5% re- 
sistors, etc. 

Once you have salvaged the UHF bridge 
itself, there is one other small obstacle to be 
overcome before you put it directly into ser- 
vice. The current from the matched pair of 
diodes in the bridge is brought out to the 
alarm itself on a pair of miniature shielded 
coax connectors. Mating connectors for at- 
taching your metering circuit are usually 
gold-plated and very expensive if purchased 
new. However, the same family of connec- 
tors is used in a Lot of old avionics and other 
military surplus from the 1960s. I scrounged 
a few sets from some old Iranian terrain-fol- 
lowing radar gear that a surplus dealer was 
going to mek down for the scrap gold. If you 
don't just happen to have an F4 Phantom or 
similar jet fighter plane in your junk box, try 
the flea market at one of the big hamfests like 
Dayton or Orlando, 

As a last resort, you can get out a small 
propane torch or a hefty {200- Watt + ) solder- 
ing iron and carefully open up the cover of the 
silver-plated brass cavity of the bridge itself. 
It's perfectly possible to do this without de- 
stroying the diodes if you are careful. Once 
the plumbing is open, you can replace the 
connectors with insulated feedth roughs, 
RCA phono jacks . or some other more practi- 
cal connectors. While you're at it, you might 
want to replace the N connectors with SO- 
239s or BNC fittings, though the N fittings 
are better. Adapters to UHF or BNC hard- 
ware are readily available in most surplus 
catalogs. 

AH right. Suppose you've got your hands 
on one of these and have pried out the UHF 
bridge for that new 220 FM repeater the local 
club is going to get on the air one of these 
days. You've carefully stripped the little cir- 
cuit boards, and the miniature relays are go- 
ing into the repeater controller. The 9 -1/2" x 
5-1/2" chassis will make a nice shielded en- 
closure for a home-brew direct-conversion or 
regenerative receiver for some Novice, may- 
be using the 2N3819s for the front end, if 
they're still good. That leaves the front panel, 
a 1-3/4* x 19" strip of 1/8* aluminum with 
some holes punched in it. 

Before throwing the strip of aluminum 
away, or using it to beat the dog, reflect 
on the possible constructive applications. 
With the original chassis and shielded cover 
attached, the panel is almost a perfect fit 
for the standard 6-1/2" x 4-1/2" size circuit 




Photo A* The Main Goodie. 



board with enough room left over in one 
end of the box for a hefty power supply. This 
size card is used by a number of different 
computer, video, and robotics companies and 
also Fits several standard sizes of prototyping 
and perforated boards. It's hard to imagine a 
better way to mount a repeater controller, 
autopatch system, satellite antenna con- 
troller, etc. If you find that the 9-1/2* x 
5- 1/2" box is too small, almost any chassis up 
to about 17" wide can be installed on the 
panel utilizing the mounting holes already 
punched. 

Even if you already have an excess of rack 
panel enclosures of all sizes, most amateurs 
can think of something to do with the panel 
itself with a little effort and ingenuity, A 
heavy strip of aluminum almost exactly a 
quarter wave long on 2 meters lends itself to 
all sorts of things, from a tuned line filter to a 
heavy-duty antenna element. Many times, I 
have been frustrated when I found that I need- 
ed a ruler or straightedge that was just a Hale 
longer than the standard 1-foot kind, but not 
so long and clumsy as the yardsticks that 
lumber yards give away. Scratching or etch- 



ing metric or English measurements into a 
strip of aluminum like this takes only a few 
minutes and yields a very durable and ver- 
satile draftsman's aid. 

If you have two strips like this, you can 
bolt them together by putting a counter- 
sunk flat-head machine screw through the 
central hole, the one originally intended for 
the alarm buzzer. This makes a great ad- 
justable angle gauge for putting framing 
rafters on the new roof for a hamshack, tool 
shed, garage, etc, or for setting the angles 
when building antenna mounts, spiders for 
quad antennas, etc. 

It has been my experience that 1-3/4* strip 
aluminum like this is very versatile, as it is 
soft and narrow enough for you to bend with 
pliers and a vise to make all sorts of brackets, 
mounting hardware, gamma match capaci- 
tors, and so forth. Heating the strip slightly 
with a propane torch to soften it before bend* 
ing makes forming complex curved shapes 
like CRT mounting brackets and cable 
clamps even easier, though you should be 
very careful when doing this and take sensi- 
ble safety precautions. ■ 




16th ANNUAL 

INDIANAPOLIS HAMFEST™ 

And INDIANA STATE ARRL CONVENTION 

July 12-13, 1986 

Marion County Fairgrounds — Gates open 6:00 AM both days 




2 Full Days of: 

Commercial Exhibitors 
Large Flea Market 
Hourly Awards 
Forums 



FREE: 

Parking 
Kids Awards 
Camping 
Womens Awards 



Indiana's Largest Electronic Flea Market 
and Amateur Radio Display 

INDIANAPOLIS HAMFEST, P. 0, Box 11776, Indianapolis. IN 46201 

CALL: (317) 745-I 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 59 



Tim Wn K hi AL7DS 
PO Box 650 
Petersburg AK 99833 



Those Tantalizing Twos 

ICOM's 2-meter HTs have a secret! For about a buck your 
IC-2ATwill cover 145-155 MHz. Have an IC-02AT? It's really 
a 1 40-163-MHz scanner. And the audio can be boosted . . . 



How would you like to have a VHF high- 
band receiver and a 2-meter handie- 
talkie all in one? If your answer is yes, do 
I have good news for you. ICOM makes 
it easy. 

Several years ago I purchased an ICOM 
2AT hand-held. Being a curious type, I had 
the schematic out and the back cover off al- 
most before I goi ii out of the box (not recom- 
mended if you like the convenience of war- 
ranty service should anything go wrong). 
Upon closer examination, I discovered that 
the 2AT could be made to cover a portion of 
the 150-MHz spectrum. It's simple, and it's 
cheap — now- that should appeal to a few 
people! 

The Procedure 

First, remove the battery pack. Then re- 
move the four screws that hold the battery-re- 
taining bracket and set it aside. Remove the 
two screws that retain the rear cover, and 
carefully separate the front and rear assem- 
blies from the chassis. Carefully unplug the 
flex board going to the DTMF unit on the 
front cover, A small pick or screwdriver will 
make this easier to reach. Be careful not to 
break the small wires going to the speaker and 
the mike! Now remove the two Phillips-head 
screws on the side of the chassis nearest the 




PTT switch. The chassis will now open up 
like a book. 

Refer to the schematic and the parts place- 
ment diagram in your manual; I have includ- 
ed sections of these in Fig. 1 in case you've 



"One of the 

combinations \ hit 

upon allows the 02 A T to 

initialize at 00.00 MHz 

and range to about 

327 MHz." 



lost yours. Notice that there are some unused 
pads on the circuit board going to pin 15 of 
the TC9122 PLL divider chip. This is the Dl 
pin, in ICOM nomenclature. If it is tied high 
(+5 V), the PLL will tune from 150 to 
159.99 MHz. Another pad is ground. What 
you need to do is put a small bypass capacitor 
from pin 1 5 to ground, and a switch from pin 




Photo A . Install the range switch in the micro- 
phone jack position , 

60 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



Fig. L Pulling pin 1 5 of the PLL divider chip 
high wilt cause the PLL to tune from J 50 to 
159. 99 MHz. 



15 to the R5V line (receive +5 V since 
the object is to receive and not transmit). 
FCC rules prohibit the use of non-type-ac- 
cepted gear for transmitting on these new 
frequencies- 

Switching 

Here's where your creativity comes into 
play , You may want to mount a switch differ- 
ently than J did , so feel free to do so. Here's 
one way: Since I do not use a speaker-mike 
option with my radio, I borrowed the nuke 
jack position to mount a switch (Photo A). 
First, disconnect and tape the wires going to 
the jack. Then remove it from the radio. In its 
place you can mount a small toggle switch. 
(You will see what I mean by small when you 
open the radio and see the cramped quarters!) 
I found mine at Radio Shack. Connect a small 
wire (wire -wrap wire will do) from one 
switch terminal to pin 15 of the PLL chip. 
Connect the other terminal to the R5V line. 
See Fig, 1 for details. Use a small, low- 
wattage iron. 

There is one more wiring change if you 
have one of the earlier 2ATs, To enable all 
switch positions on the thumbwheel switch. 




Fig. 2. Remove diodes D2 and D3 from the 
IC-Q2 AT initialization matrix board. 



da this: Find the flexible board running from 
the PLL divider to the thumbwheel switch. At 
the switch end, remove the jumper wire (see 
Photo B), and at the PLL end, bridge the gap 
in the trace at C4, 

With the wiring done, you can close the 
chassis back up and replace the two Phillips 
screws. Replace the front cover. Don't forget 
to plug in the DTMF unit. Now t temporarily 
replace the battery -retaining bracket using 
two of the four remaining screws. Install the 
battery pack, Now r i^s time to tune the PLL 
free-run frequency so the PLL will track over 
the new frequency range. Locate L3 in the 
veo can and, using a soft tuning too!, adjust 
for a voltage of about 0,75 volts at the lowest 
frequency desired at the test point. The prop- 
er resistor is identified by its lack of paint on 
the top lead. 

The PLL will tune only over a i 0-MHz 
range, so you can see that to get to 155 MHz 
you have to give up 144 MHz. This is not a 
problem in southeast Alaska since we have 
only one or two active frequencies, and all are 
at 146 MHz or above. 

Receive sensitivity will be poor at the high 
end of the new frequency range but should be 
adequate for local listening. If you desire 
more sensitivity and have access to the proper 
test equipment, you can retune the receiver to 
favor the higher frequencies* 

To use the modified 1COM 2AT, think of 
the switch as toggling between 140 and 150 
MHz. Then just dial in the rest of the frequen- 
cy as normal. 

ICMJ2AT 

As you can see, there arc some limitations 
to this modification. After a year of using my 
modified 2AT 1 felt it was time to upgrade. 
Being partial to ICOM, I purchased the new 
02 AT. With the schematic in hand before the 
radio, I discovered that the microprocessor 
had an external initialization diode matrix. 
Aha. time to see what it would do! 

After some experimenting, I discovered 
that I could make the microprocessor think it 
was an aircraft-band radio, a two-meter ra- 
dio, a business-band radio, a 220-MHz radio, 
a 440-MHz radio, a 450- MHz business radio, 
a 1.2-GH2 radio, and on it went. 1COM had 
designed a universal software program that 
would make the same processor work in all 
current and future products. Now remember, 
the actual radio is limited by tuned circuits to 
operation over a specific range of frequen- 
cies. Only the processor was being changed, 
not the radio. (Before you dig into your 
02AT, check the serial number: It appears 
that rigs with numbers higher than 35,000 
utilize different software, I'm working on a 
mod for these radios.) 

One of the combinations I hit upon allows 
the 02AT to initialize at 00.00 MHz <dc) and 
range to about 327 MHz. In the middle of that 
range is two meters. 

Changes to the initialization matrix cause 
the following to happen: 

1 . Direct frequency entry from 144 MHz to 
165 MHz. 

2, Offsets of up to 20 MHz, 

The vco circuit will track over a 20-MHz 



REH0VE 










■ ? - H.' 1 



f. 



. . ' ' 



SID ■• 

■ 









r- • 



•&\ 






rv 



<*i 









ft 



''' 



Jt»#< 



in? 



Photo B, if you have an early model of the 
2AT, these two changes will enable all of the 
digits of the thumbwheel switch. 

range, but the bottom 4 MHz is not very 
linear, causing excessive deviation of 
the transmitted signal and a I -kHz tone to 
appear on the audio. Deviation in the upper 5 
MHz or so begins to fall off slowly with 
an increase in frequency, but that is of no 
matter since you won't be transmitting up 
there anyway. 

How to Modify Your 02AT 

1. Remove the battery pack, back cover, 
buttery plate, and front cover, in that order. 
The front cover does not come free, but 
is attached with a ribbon cable to the main 
chassis. 

2. In the front cover, locate the DTMF unit 
and remove the two screws holding it in 
place. Bend the metal tab of the matrix shield 
out of the way: then lay the DTMF unit over 
to the side. 

3. Take out ihe three screws holding the 
matrix shield and remove it. These screws are 
ttny:don T i lose them! 

4. Using solder wick and a small flat-blad- 
ed soldering iron, remove diodes D2 and D3 
(Fig. 2), Use an iron with a gounded tip since 
this circuitry is CMOS. Save the diode la- 
beled with a ^D," 

5. Add three silicon diodes, 1N914, 
1N4148 7 or equivalent, as shown in Fig. 3. 

6. Solder the u D tP diode you saved to the 
D5 position (Fig, 3) as shown in Fig. I, 

7. Replace the shield, taking care to look 
for solder bridges or short circuits. 




Photo C L2I 8 t the vco frequency control, is 
located in the large silver hox; the coil is 
under the lower hole. 




Fig. .1 Diode placement for steps 4-6. 

8. Replace the DTMF unit. 

9. Replace the front cover, the battery 
plate, and the battery pack. Leave the back 
cover off for now. 

10. Turn on the radio and enter 140.00 
MHz. Attach a dummy load to the BNC an- 
tenna jack. This is important as you will be 
testing out of the ham bands. 

1 1 . Key the transmitter using high power 
and adjust the vco free-run frequency so the 
display begins to flash. Adjust L218 (see 
Photo C). Usually the slug will have to be 
turned out of the can. Unkey and key the 
transmitter several times to refine the adjust- 
ment, 

12. Enter 162.80 MHz and key the trans* 
mittcr. The display should not blink (if it does 
it's not phase-locked). 

13. Replace the back cover when you are 
satisfied with the range. If you wish to favor a 
different portion of the spectrum, just pick a 
frequency 4 MHz below the lowest frequency 
you normally will warn to u*e and set the 
lower limit there. Total vco lock range is 
about 20 MHz on a typical 02 AT. But re- 
member thai the bottom 4 MHz is nonlinear 
and not really suitable if you want a clean 
signal. If you are tempted to tune for a higher 

73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 61 



range, and then expect to use the bottom end, 
beware the wrath of fellow hams, as you will 
over-deviate and splatter. 

Receive sensitivity will be adequate above 
155 MHz for local listening, but if you have 
access to a service monitor, this can be im- 
proved to better than 0,5 microvolts for 10- 
dB Sinad from 144 MHz to 161 MHz, and 
typically, 0,25 microvolts can be obtained 
over this range, I measured 0. 15 uV for tight 
squelch at 145.00 MHz, and 0.60 uV for tight 
squelch at 162.00 MHz. J also noticed lhat 
transmit power was at the rated 5 Watts over 
this same range. This is, of course* only aca- 
demic since you can legally transmit only in 
the ham bands with this radio, anyway. 

More Audio 

Now for a simple audio modification that 
will give an approximate 6-dB boost to the 
speaker volume. A quick check of the sche- 
matic will show that there is a 0.22-uF capac- 
itor across the audio right after the detector. Ii 
is CI 17. While you have the from off the 
radio for the other mods, just snip this capaci- 
tor out of the circuit. See Photo D for the 
location. 

Operation 

There are a few things you will need to 
know about your radio after you make these 
modifications: 

1 . If you reset the processor by holding the 
function switch in while turning on the pow- 
er, the display will initialize at 0.00. Thai* s 




Photo D. Snipping CI 17 (see arrow} will 
boost the audio sent to the speaker, 

right, zero Hertz. To get up to the 100-MHz 
range, enter 9999; the display will show 
99,99. Then use the up arrow to step to 
100.000 MHz. Now you can enter the fre- 
quencies you desire. 

2. You must now enter the 4 for tens of 
MHz t as well as the rest of the digits. Only 
the 1 (for 100 MHz) remains in the display. 

3, When entering offsets, you must now 
enter all the digits. For example, for 600 
kHz, enter 00,60, Offsets up to 20.00 MHz 
may be entered. 

4. Any frequency from 140 MHz to 163 
MHz may be entered into the memories to be 
scanned. 

5, When entering a frequency outside of 

the ham bands, it is best to also enter an offset 




Photo E. Vie fruit of your labor— an 02 A T 
receiving weather broadcasts on 162.55 
MHz, 

so that if you accidentally transmit, the fre- 
quency will fall in the ham bands. 

There you have Hi At least a dozen hams in 
this area have made these modifications to 
their ICOM 02ATs and all praise the mods 
and wonder how they did without. ■ 



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62 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



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RH2SO 




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TEST ANY SCANNER 

Test any scanner purchased from Communication* 
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Regency 
MX7OO0 




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HX12QO 



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Panasonic RF-2600-EA 5"crt*3ve receiver $i 79. 95 

H9tt9*EAUnfcfefl Remote mount Radar Detector St 28 95 
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R D9 ■ E A u/nrfB n " Passport" s ire Radar Detector $ 2 39 95 

BC % 1 0X W- EA Be ureal 20 cn&nnei scanner SALE £209 9 5 

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0X1OOO-EA Bearcat shortwave receiver SALE $34 9 95 

PC22-EA Vn rden remote mount CB transceiver S99 95 

PC55-EA Uniden mobile mount CB transceiver S59.95 

Rl QfrO-EA Regent? TO channel scanner SALE $92 95 

MX3O0O-EA Regency 30 channel scanner . $i 93 95 

XL156-EA Regency 10 channel scanner SALE St 29 95 



UC102-EA Regency VHP 2 en 1 Waturs":^ ■: -- $124 95 
RH250B- E A Regency "fCcn 25 Watt VHFifans $329 95 
R H600B-E A Regency tOeh 60 Watt VHF trans $454 95 
RU1 50B-E A Regency 10 Channet UHF transceiver $449 95 
RPH41Q-EA to en handheld no-0>Stai trans S399 95 
LC10-E A Carrying case h>r RPH410 transceiver $34 .95 
MAI B 1 ■ EA N t- ca d battery pack for RPH4 1 1 ran s S 34 95 
Pi 405- EA Regency 5 amp regulated power supply $69.95 
P1412EA Regency t2 amp r^g pc we r supply $164 95 
BC10 EA Batsery charger for Regency RPH41Q SS4 &5 
M A256- E A Orc^tn c nailer for HX 1000 4 HX 1200 $04 95 
MA25T-EA Cigarette lighter cord for HX12O0 St 9 95 

M A9 1 7 E A N -Cad battery pack f or H X 1 200 S34 95 

EC1 0-E A Programming tod for Regency RPH4 10 $24 95 
SMRH2S0-EA Sefvce man for Regency RH2 50 S24 95 
SMRU 1 50- EA Service man for Regency RUI1 50 $24 95 
SHRPH41 r>EA Service man tor Regency RPH4 10 S24 95 
SMMXTOOO-EASvc man forMXTOOG* 1^5000 $19 95 
SMM ^30O0-EA Service man tor Regency MX3000 519.95 
B-4 EA t 2 V AAA Ni-Cad batteries [set oi rouO $9 95 

FBE-E A Frequency Directory for Easter US- A St 2 95 
FfrW-E A Frequency Directory for West em US- A. St 2.95 
TSG'EA Top Secret Registry of US. Govt Freq $14,95 
TlC-EA Techniques lor Intercepting Comm $t4 95 

RRF-EA Railroad Ireouency directory 510 95 

CIE*EA Covert IntelligencLElect Eavesdropping $14.95 
A60-EA Magnet mount mobile scanner antenna. 535.00 
A7Q-EA Base station scanner antenna $35.00 

U SAM M-EA Mag mount VHF UHF ant w 12 cab+e 539 95 
USAKEA^ ho ie mount VHF/UHF ant w/ 17" cable $35 00 
USATLM-EA Trunk lip mount VHF/UHF antenna S35 00 
Add 53.00 shipping lor all accessones ordered at the same time 
Add 512 00 shipping per shortwave receiver 
Add 57 00 shipping per scanner and S3 00 per antenna 

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To gat the fastest delivery from CE of any scanner, 
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Mail orders to: Communications Electron- 
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inc AD *0401flf3-E^ 

Copyright - 1986 Com muni cat ions Electronics Inc. 

For credit card orders call 

1-800-USA-SCAN 




TVt 



«*59 



COMMUNICATIONS 
ELECTRONICS INC. 

Consumer Products Division 

P.O. Box 1 045 u Ann Artsor, Michigan 46 1 0€i 045 U S A 
CallB0O-USA-SCANoroutsideU.S.A.313-973'888B 



Paul a Kalttnhach WB2UVU 
PO Box 3845 
OniarioCA 9 1 761 -098 J 



Computer Rotor Control 

The first step toward automating your shack. 



Over the past few years, I have had the 
pleasure of spending many hours in the 
shack of a close friend who is a seasoned 
DXer. Watching him operate is always inter- 
esting, especially when an unusual call shows 
up on the band. Within the first minute after 
hearing the station, he has checked the log to 
see if he needs the contact, turned the anten- 
na, and quite often established contact. Over 
the summer, he added a personal computer to 



the shack to help out with beam headings and 
the log. Not long thereafter, we got to dis- 
cussing how great it would be if he could just 
type the DX station's call on the keyboard and 
have the computer rotate the antenna to the 
correct heading and display pertinent logging 
information. An interface between the com- 
puter and rotor control box was what we 
needed. An interface like this would also 
make satellite tracking easier and be a major 




The rotor control hoard, tucked neatly inside ; awaiting its next command* 
64 73 Amateur Radio ■ June, 1986 



step toward total computer control of the 
shack. 

I have constructed an interface which will 
allow any persona] computer with a serial 
port to talk to the control box of a CDE 
antenna rotor, such as the CD-45 , Ham I V\ or 
Tailtwister, The computer need only output a 
single character representing the beam head- 
ing desired- The interface will then close the 
rotation contacts of the control box, bringing 
the rotor to the desired direction. The control 
box requires no modification, functions nor- 
mally, and can be used instead of the comput- 
er to turn the antenna. Switching between 
operator and computer control of the rotor 
box is automatic, eliminating the need for the 
operator to do so. The circuit, an extension of 
K9AZG*s "Automatic Beam Aimer" (73, 
November, 1982), uses 13 ICs and can be 
constructed by anyone with familiarity with 
digital circuits. 1 suggest reading K9AZG*s 
article as it reviews the operation of the CDE 
control box. 

Theory of Operation 

The interface will begin to rotate the rotor 
as soon as a character is received from the 
computer. This character contains 8 data bits 
and can be calculated using a small subrou- 
tine or can be obtained from a lookup table. 

As shown in Fig. 1, serial data is received 
by a Universal Asynchronous Receiver/ 
Transmitter (UART) which converts the 
character to 8 parallel bits- Seven of the bits 
represent the desired beam heading and are 
transferred to the input of a digital-to-analog 
converter (D/A converter, or DAC). 

The DAC generates a precise dc voltage 
specified by the digital input. This voltage 
represents what the control-box meter should 
read when the rotor is correctly aimed. This 
voltage is applied to one input of a compara- 
tor, with the other comparator input connect- 
ed to the control-box meter. These two 
voltages arc compared and an output voltage 
is generated which is equal to the voltage 
difference between the comparator inputs. 



A negative output voltage indi- 
cates the rotor must be turned 
clockwise (CW). A positive out- 
put voltage indicates the rotor 
must be turned counterclockwise 
(CCW). Sensing the polarity of 
the voltage is accomplished using 
two comparators, one to sense 
negative polarity and one to sense 
positive polarity . 

One comparator output drives 
the CW relay and the other drives the CCW 
relay. The contacts of these relays are in 
parallel across the rotation switches in the 
control box and therefore are able to turn the 
rotor. Brake release begins as soon as a char- 
acter is received and ends shortly after the 
correct heading is reached in order to allow 
for rotor coasting. 

Construction 

I have several suggestions which will save 
a great deal of time in building and testing this 
project. I strongly recommend that those 
building this project use wire-wrap construc- 
tion. Point-to-point wiring is slow and messy , 
while design of a PC board requires a great 
deal of time- Wire- wrapping is fast, clean, 
and easy to learn. An electric wrap gun is 
cheap and will pay for itself within the first 
few hours of construction. Along with the 
gun, you will need an unwrap tool for cor* 
reeling inevitable mistakes, as well as a spe- 
cial tool for stripping the wire. 

The wire comes in different colors to make 
construction easy. Three small spools, each a 
different color, will be sufficient for this pro* 
ject. Use a different color wire for each stage 
and you will work faster with fewer mistakes. 
These items are available at Radio Shack and 
will become valued cools in the shack. [I use 
an OK wrapping pencil available for about 
$30 from Jauieco—it automatically strips the 
wire. — Ed.] 

Of equal importance is the construction 
technique. Since this circuit has several 
stages, [ built and tested them one at a time. 
This way I knew exactly what 
worked as 1 went along. The most 
important benefit of this method 
is the opportunity for the reader 
to completely understand what 
each stage does. Other people's 
designs can be tough to get work- 
ing without a logical approach. 
Build and test one stage at a time 
and you will be glad you did. In 
the following sections of this arti- 
cle, I have used this method so 
that testing can be performed as 
each stage is built. 

Power Supplies 

Four power-supply voltages 
are required, as shown in Fig. 2, 
The output of a 12. 6- volt trans- 
former is rectified and Filtered to 
produce approximately +15 
volts dc. This voltage is applied 
to the input of the positive voltage 
regulators and the relay coils. It's 
good practice to obtain relay 







































POSITIVE VOLTME DECTCCTOfl 




CCW RELAY 








SERIAL 
CUT*. 


UAHT 




DAC 






COMPUTER 






^V OUTPUT 


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Fig. L Block diagram. 



drive voltage before the regulators since the 
relay coils present a heavy load in compari- 
son to the logic and can produce transients on 
the supply lines. 

+5- and + 12-volt outputs are easily ob- 
tained using Texas Instruments regulators 
from Radio Shack, They should be heat-sunk 
to avoid thermal failure. 

The + 10- volt reference output supply may 
be obtained either of two ways. I used a 723 
regulator and adjusted R2 to obtain 10 V. 1 
had intended to use the less complicated 
LH0070 regulator, but none was to be found 
locally. If it's available, it will save some 
time and space; however, the 723 works 
equally well. 

The - 12-volt supply consists of a 12-volt 
transformer rectified and filtered to obtain 
approximately — 15 volts for driving the neg- 
ative regulator. 

In order to test the supplies, disconnect the 
outputs from any loads and apply 120 V ac to 
the transformers. Feel the four regulators to 
be sure that they are not hot (warm is OK). 
Measure the unregulated voltage at the output 
of the bridge rectifiers. It should be at + 15 or 
+20 V dc for the positive supply and - 15 to 
—20 V dc for the negative supply. 

Next, measure the +12-, +5-, and -12- 
volt regulator outputs. Finally, measure the 
output from the 723 regulator and adjust Rl 
for exactly + 10- volts output from the regula- 
tor. Any supply output which is over the 
specified output probably has a wiring error 
or a bad IC. Any supply with a low output 
voltage should be checked to see if its output 



is being heavily loaded (it would also be very 
hot). Also check the input voltage to see if it's 
at least 2 volts greater than the rated output , 

Serial-Data Port 

I designed the serial-data input shown in 
Fig. 3 to be as flexible as possible for easy 
connection to various computers. Only two 
wires are required by the interface: receive 
data and ground. The serial -data input ex- 
pects to see either EIA RS-232-level mark 
and space (-3 to - 12 and +3 to +12 volts, 
respectively) or TTL-level input (0 volts and 
+5 volts). If an RS-232 interface is used, it 
may be necessary to make the interface look 
like a modem to the computer by connecting 
pins together on the DB-25 connector at the 
interface. This is accomplished by connect- 
ing pin 5 (clear to send), pin 6 (data set 
ready) t and pin 8 (data carrier detect) to + 12 
volts. An alternate approach is to connect pin 
4 to 5 and pin 6 to 20, as shown in Fig. 3. 
These jumpers are only required tf the com- 
puter requires handshaking in order to out- 
put data. 

RS-232-level data is converted lo TTL-lev- 
el (5 volts) data with an MC 1489 line receiver 
and applied to the input of a UART. If the 
computer outputs TTL-level data rather than 
RS-232, it wiLl be necessary to check whether 
the output data is inverted . In order to do this, 
measure the voltage at the computers serial- 
data output. When no characters are being 
sent, the line should be in the mark state and 
be at +5 volts. When a character is being 
sent, the line should alternate between +5 



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Fig* 2. Power supply. 



73 Amateur Radio • Jun© t 1986 65 



♦ «.. 



♦5v »ev 



!D8-?^ C0>M*ECTOfll 



SEdwLf |T>^ Tl 

MTAt 



INPUT I 



MAY ErE 
KfOillllfD 

□ft 

WEWIT 




SQtiftBMH? 



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* TO 55^ Pi* * 



TO DACOiQi 
Ph MO 



Fig. 5* Serial data input. 



and volts . If this is the case, disconnect the 
1489 and apply the TTL-level data to the 
serial input of the UART. If the computer 
output is volts when idle, apply TTL-level 
data to the input of the 1489. 

The UART is a communications IC which 
receives , transmits, and buffers serial data. It 
is divided into two parts, a transmitter and a 
receiver. In this interface, only the receiver is 
used. Its purpose is to accept a character 
consisting of several biis sent sequentially 
and store these bits in a buffer. The bits are 
then output on pins 5 through 12 of the 
UART. For example, the transmission of 
0111 11 11 (7FH) from the computer to the 
UART is accomplished one bit at a time on 
the serial-data port. Pin 12 of the UART will 
assume the logic level of the feast significant 
bit (the rightmost bit), in this case a logic 1 , or 
±5 volts. The remaining 7 bits are applied to 
pins 1 1 through 5, with pin 5 being the most 
significant bit. 

The serial character consists of several 
parts, each of which can be varied to accom- 
modate specific purposes. The first bit sent is 
called the start bit; it is used to signal the 
UART that a character is coming in. Between 
5 and 8 data bits are used, 7 to carry the beam 
heading and one to control the brake. Follow- 
ing the last data bit is one bit used for error- 
detection; this is called the parity bit, When 
odd parity is used, the computer will ensure 
that all characters sent will include an odd 
number of 1 s. If, for instance, two data bits in 
the character are logic 1 1 the parity bit will be 
logic 1. If the three data bits are logic I, the 
parity will be logic 0. A parity error will 
occur if a bit error occurs, as the wrong 
number of Is will be received. Pin 13 will go 
to logic I . indicating the error. Finally, 1 , 
1-1/2, or 2 stop bits follow, signaling the end 
of the character. 

Since there are many possible character 
formats, pins 35 through 39 are provided for 
setting up the UART. They are pulled up to 
logic I by 1.2k resistors and can be set to 
Logic by closing a DIP switch grounding the 

66 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



pin, It is an absolute necessity that the com- 
puter and UART be set up exactly the same, 
or the characters will be incorrectly received. 
The UART is flexible, so make it conform to 
the computer. 

Parity must be disabled at the computer so 
that the parity bit is not transmitted. Open the 
switch tied to UART pin 35 so that it won't 
look for the bit. I closed the switch tied to pin 
36 in order to set the UART for 1 stop bit. 
Opening this switch sets the UART for 2 stop 
bits. Pins 37 and 38 are set to logic one by 
opening the switches. The computer must 
also be set for 8 data bits and no parity, The 
state of pin 39 is irrelevant since pin 35 dis- 
abled parity. 

As well as changing character format, it is 
possible to set the speed at which the charac- 
ter is received. Different speeds are made 
possible by applying different clock rates at 
pin 17, the receiver clock. These clock fre- 
quencies are generated by a baud-rate genera- 
tor. Selection of a particular clock rate, and 
therefore UART speed, is accomplished with 
the switch settings on pins 10 through 13 of 
the baud-rate generator. See Fig. 4 for the 
proper switch settings for the speed you will 
run. I found 300 baud to be a good choice. 

Testing the UART stage requires that 8-bit 
characters be output from the computer's 
serial-data port. Refer to the software section 
of this article and to your computer's user 
manual if you are unfamiliar with outputting 
hex characters. Testing is accomplished as 
follows: 

Apply power and check to see that the 
UART and baud-rate generator are receiving 
their proper supply voltages. Now measure 
the voltages at the programming pins on the 
UART and baud-rate generator. Plus 5 volts 
indicates a logic one and an open switch on 
the pin. If a scope or logic probe is avail- 
able, check to see that the baud-rate-genera- 
tor clock output is running. Now transmit 
0000 0000 (0OH) from the computer to the 
UART and check to see that pins 5 through 
12 are all at logic 0. Next transmit 1 1 II 1111 



(FFH) and make sure pins 5 
through 12 are at logic 1. 

If the outputs change when 
different characters are received 
but are not correct, it's prob- 
ably that the format or speed is 
incorrect. If the outputs don't 
change at all when different char- 
acters are sent, the UART is not 
receiving. This can be checked 
by disconnecting UART pin 18 
(reset data available) and typing 
it to +5 volts with a 1,2k resis- 
tor. Send a character to the 
UART and measure the voltage 
on pin 19 (data available). It 
should go to logic 1 as soon as a 
character is received and will re- 
main at this level until pin 18 is 
momentarily grounded. If pin 19 
never goes to logic 1 « the UART 
is not receiving a character; Dis- 
connect the resistor and recon- 
nect UART pin 18 when this test 
is completed. 
In operation, pin I of the 7400 goes to log- 
ic I when a character is received. On the 
next clock pulse, pin 2 of the 7400 goes to 
logic 1. At this point, both NAND-gate in- 
puts are logic I * producing a logic output on 
pin 3. This output is applied to the UART 
reset data available, which drops the data- 
available flag and allows the UART to re- 
ceive another character. Pin 3 immediately 
returns to logic I. This reset pulse on 7400 
pin 3 is extremely short and difficult to see 
without a fast scope. 

Dtgital-to- Analog Converter 

Seven of the UART output pins are con- 
nected to the digital-to-analog converter 
(DAC) input pins. As shown in Fig, 5, the 
most significant bit (MSB) from the UART, 
pin 5, is not passed to the DAC since it is used 
to tell the interface that it is allowed to release 
the brake and turn the rotor. Each character 
received by the UART is converted by the 
DAC to an output current on DAC pin 4. By 
tying pin 4 to + 10 volts through a pot, differ- 
ent voltages can be generated depending on 
the character received. Specifically, output 
voltage = 10 V -[{2 mA xR(D/256)], where 
R is the resistance of the pot (set for ap- 
proximately 5k) and D- 128(B7)+64(B6) 
+ 32(B5) + 16(B4) + 8(B3)+4(B2)+2<B1) 
+ (B0). 

What this means is that 256 different output 
voltages between and + 10 volts can be 
generated by the DAC depending upon the 
input bits. Since only 7 bits are used to indi- 
cate the beam headings in the interface, 128 
possible output voltages can occur; In order 
to keep the computer software simple, only 
120 possible output voltages wiU be generat- 
ed , OOH to 77H , Each of these output voltages 
corresponds to a specific beam heading, 
Since the rotor must turn through 360 degrees 
and 120 different output voltages can be gen- 
erated, we see that the resolution of the inter- 
face is exactly 3 degrees. In operation, the 
MSB is set to logic 1 to allow rotation by 
releasing the brake. Therefore, it is necessary 



to u*p»t 

+ IQV PIN HO 6 7 i 1 10 li l£ 



yw 




TO MOO- 



* BRAKE 

*crs 

90 * 



Fig, 5. DAC r rotation control, and brake circuit 





Pin* 






10 


11 


12 


13 


Baud Rate 














SO 











1 


75 








1 





1 to 








1 


1 


134.5 





1 








150 


Q 


1 





1 


300 





1 


1 





600 





1 


1 


1 


1200 


1 











1600 


1 








1 


2000 


1 





1 





2400 


1 





1 


1 


3600 


1 


1 





1 


4800 


1 


1 





1 


7200 


1 


1 


1 





9600 


1 


1 


1 


1 


19200 



Fig* 4~ Baud-rate-generator truth fable. 
Closed switch = logic 0, open switch — logic 
L 

to send the characters 80H to F7H to the 
interface. 

In order to test the DAC, check to see that 
its +12*, + l(K and — 12-volt supply inputs 
are operational. Now send 1111 0111 (F7H) 
to the UART and check to see that the DAC 
pins 6 through 8 and 10 through 12 are at 
logic 1 . Pin 9 should be at logic due to the 
in the input word and pin 5 should be at logic 
since it is grounded. Now measure the out- 
put voltage on DAC pin 4 and adjust R3 for 
exactly zero volts. This is the only way that 
R3 can be correctly adjusted. Now send 1000 



0000 (80H) to the UART and check to see that 
DAC pin 4 is approximately + 10 volts. Do 
not adjust R3 to set this 10-volt level. By 
setting this resistor, the DAC has been adjust- 
ed to output between and +10 volts /or 
digital inputs from 77H to 00H. 

The output from the DAC is applied to the 
inverting input of a 1458 comparator. The 
non-inverting input is connected through a 
pot to the rotor-box meter. These inputs are 
compared and an output voltage is produced 
which is equivalent to the difference between 
input voltages. The polarity of the compara- 
tor output will be either negative or positive 
depending upon which input voltage is 
greater. For example, if the DAC output is 
+2*5 volts and the meter is + L0 volts, the 
comparator output will be — 1 ,5 volts. 

Construct a test pot by connecting one side 
of a 100k pot to + 12 volts and the other side 
to - 12 volts. Connect the wiper of the test 
pot to the side of pot R4 labeled "meter 
input . * The control-box meter should not be 
connected. With the test pot* it will be possi- 
ble to simulate the voltages which appear on 
the meter of the rotor box. In order to test the 
1458 comparator circuit, first check pins 4 
and 8 to see that they are getting power. Send 
101 1 1111 (BFH) to the interface and check 
to see that DAC pin 4 is 5 volts. Adjust the 
test pot so that +5 voits appears on its wiper. 
Next adjust R44, the input attenuator pot, for 
+ S volts on its wiper so that it is not attenuat- 
ing the meter input during testing. 

Since the DAC is outputdng +5 volts to the 
comparator and the meter input is at +5 



volts, the comparator output should be 
volts. Reduce the test-pot wiper voltage to 
+4 volts and check to see that the comparator 
output on pin 1 is - 1 volt. Remember, 5 volts 
on the input from the DAC minus 4 volts on 
the input from the wiper equals — ] volt, 
Adjust the test pot for +10 volts on its wiper 
and check comparator pin 1 for + 15 volts. 

In short, the comparator output contains 
two pieces of information. First, the polarity 
of its output indicates which direction the 
rotor must be turned. Second, the magnitude 
of the output indicates how big the differ- 
ence is between the actual and the desired 
direction. 

Rotation Control 

In order to translate the 1458 comparator 
output to contact closures for the rotor-con- 
trol box, two comparators are used. One clos- 
es the CCW relay, K2, when the 1458 output 
is positive, and the other closes the CW relay, 
Kl, when the 1458 output is negative. The 
contacts of relays Kl and K2 are in parallel 
across the CW and CCW rotation switches in 
the rotor-control box. R5 is a threshold ad- 
justment which sets the maximum difference 
output on the 1458, which can occur before 
Kl or K2 is closed to rotate the antenna. In 
operation, this pot will determine how close 
to the desired direction the rotor will come 
before coasting to a stop. 

Testing of this stage should be performed 
without any connection between the interface 
and the rotor-control box. Connect a jumper 
from unregulated +12 volts to the relay pow* 

73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 67 



er wire so that Kl and K2 can be energized 
without closing K3 (see Fig. 5). This wire is 
connected to the side of the relay coil no! 
connected to the transistor. Apply power and 
check for + 12 volts on LM339 pin 3. Adjust 
R5 for approximately 1 volt on pin 4 of the 
LM339. Send 0111 1111 (F7H) to the inter- 
face and check for volts on pin 4 of the 
DAC. Vary the input voltages on pin 3 of the 
1 458 by turning the test pot from one extreme 
to the other. The output on pin 1 of the 1458 
should vary between +12 volts and —12 
volts. When this output is positive and greater 
than the threshold voltage on pin 4 of the 
LM339, approximately 0*7 volts should ap- 
pear on LM339 pin 2. This will drive Q2 into 
saturation, closing relay K2. When the 1458 
output is negative, pin 1 of the LM339 will be 
approximately 0.7 volts, driving Ql into sat- 
uration and closing Kl. Make sure that Kl 
and K2 are not closed at the same lime. 

Brake Circuit 

At this point, the interface is nearly com- 
plete, as it is capable of receiving a character 
and rotating the rotor to the desired direction. 
The only remaining requirement is that the 
brake be released when the rotor is turned. 

Looking at the schematic, one might won- 
der why so many components are used in 
releasing the brake- Consider what would 
happen if the operator wants to turn the rotor 
using the control box rather than the comput- 
er- After the rotor turns several degrees, the 
interface will defect that the rotor is no longer 
aimed in the direction last specified by the 
computer. The result would be thai it would 
energize relay Kl or K2 in order to turn the 
rotor back to the correct direction. 

This problem can be overcome by con- 
trolling Kl and K2 with the brake circuit. 
Coil voltage for these relays is interrupted 
by a set of contacts in K3, the brake relay. 
Unless K3 is energized, relays Kl and K2 
will not close, regardless of what the com- 
parators dictate. The purpose of the 555 
timer and 7476 flip-flop is to energize K3 
only for as long as is required to bring the 
rotor to the correct heading after a command 
from the computer. Once the rotor turns to 
the correct heading, the relays cannot be re- 
energized unless a character is received from 
the computer. Therefore, the rotor control 
box may be used without interference from 
the interface. 

Operation of the brake circuit commences 
as soon as a character is received by the 
U ART and the data-available reset is generat- 
ed on pin 3 of the 7400. This strobe, which 
will occur every time a character is received* 
is applied to the 555 and 7476. The 7476 
toggles to the on state, outputting a logic \ on 
pin 15 which releases the brake. It will re- 
main on until a logic reset pulse is received 
on pin 3. The reset is normally generated 
when the rotor reaches the correct direction 
and Kl and K2 de-energize, allowing 7400 
pin 10 to go to logic L Pin 8 of the 7400 will 
then go to logic 0, resetting the 7476 and 
applying the brake. 

Several pans of this stage require explana- 
tion. When a character is received from the 

68 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



UART Pin i 


Name 


Function 




35 


No parity 


Logic 


eliminates parity bit 






1 


includes parity bit 


Jv 


# stop bits 


Logic 


1 slop bit 






1 


2 stop bits 


37-38 


* data bits 


Pin 37 Pin 3d Data Bits/characler 









5 






1 


6 






1 


7 






1 1 


8 




Odd/even parity 


Logic o 


odd parity 






i 


even parity 


Table I. UART configuration options. 


Closed switch = logic 0, open snitch = logic L 



computer, the brake circuit will energize K3 
before the DAC and comparators are finished 
energizing Kl or K2. Since the contacts of 
these relays would not be closed, the brake 
circuit will assume that the rotor is correctly 
aimed. It would then de-energize K3, stop- 
ping the rotation process before it started. 
The timer prevents the reset from reaching 
the 7476 for a second after the character is 
received, ensuring that the relays have time to 
energize. 

Another function of the timer is to generate 
a reset if the computer tells the interface to 
turn a direction it is already aimed at, Addi- 
tion of one gate of a 7400 at the output of 
the 7476 adds the capability of the computer 
to cancel or disregard a rotation command. 
Bit 8, the most significant bit of the charac- 
ter received by the UART, is used as a ro- 
tate-enable bit. Il is applied to 7400 pin 13 
and prevents the 7476 from releasing the 
brake unless it is at a logic 1 , Therefore* to 
stop rotation, send any character to the 
interface with the most significant bit set to 
logic (00H thru 7FH) and the relays will 
de -energize. 

Testing of the brake circuit should be- 
gin by checking the 555 and 7476 for proper 
power-supply input. Turn the test pot to one 
extreme of its rotation and send 1011 1 100 
(BCH) to the UART in order eo produce a 
large difference voltage at the output of the 
1458 comparator. Notice the MSB is a logic 1 
to release the brake. As soon as the character 
is received, 7476 pin 2 and 555 pin 2 should 
momentarily go to logic + Pin 3 of the 555 
should go to logic 1 . After a second, 555 pin 3 
should return to logic 0, K3 as well as Kl or 
K2 should be energized due to difference- 
voltage output from the 1458. 

Slowly rotate the test pot so that both Kl 
and K2 de-energize (the interface will think 
the antenna is correctly aimed). After a short 
coasting delay, K3 will also de-energize, The 
length of this delay should be set to at least 
a second by adjusting R6. In order to check 
to see that rotation can be canceled, turn 
the test pot to one extreme and send 1011 
1100 (BCH) to the UART, K3 and either 
Kl or K2 will energize in order to rate the 
antenna. Send 0000 0000 (00H) to the UART 
and sec that the relays drop out since the 
MSB is logic 0, 

Installation and Adjustment 

Before connecting the interface to the rotor 
control box, it is necessary that the interface 



be properly operating as outlined thus far. 
Disconnect the test pot but leave in the test 
jumper supplying +12 volts to Kl and K2. 
Open the rotor control box and locate the PC 
board which is attached to the back of the 
meter. Connect the positive lead to either side 
of the fuse on the PC board which is attached 
to the meter. Rotate the rotor back and forth 
and note that the dc voltage on the fuse varies 
with rotor direction, The voltage at this point 
tells the interface which direction the rotor is 
aimed. Connect the side of R4 labeled "to 
meter" to either side of this ftise. (Not the 
120-vott powerjuse!) Connect terminal #1 on 
the interface terminal strip to terminal #1 on 
the rotor box. Measure the resistance be- 
tween interface ground and the control-box 
chassis. It should be about zero Ohms. 

Apply power to the interfaced and turn to 
the rotor control box. Adjust R5 to obtain 1 
volt on pin 4 of the LM339. Send 11110111 
(F7H) to the interface and adjust R3 for ex- 
actly volts on pin 4 of the DAC0801 . Send 
1000 0000 (80H) to the interface and check 
that the voltage on pin 4 of the DAC is be- 
tween + 8 and 4- 10 volts. Using the control 
box, rotate the rotor fully clockwise to the 
south. The meter output voltage should be 
between +8 and +10 volts* With the rotor 
turned clockwise to the south, adjust R4 so 
that is wiper voltage is exactly the same as the 
voltage on pin 4 of the DAC080L An easy 
way to do this is to measure the difference- 
voltage output on pin 1 of the 1458 compara- 
tor. Adjust R4 so that this voltage is exactly 
volts. These adjustments have set the DAC 
and meter outputs to operate over the same 
range of voltages, 

Instruct the interface to turn the rotor north 
by sending 10 1 1 1 100 (BCH) to the interlace, 
K3 and K2 should energize. Turn the rotor 
north using the control box and note that K2 
followed by K3 will drop out at some point 
during the rotation. The exact point at which 
K2 will de-energize is dependent upon the 
threshold setting of R5. This adjustment set 
how much before the desired heading is 
reached the rotor will begin to coast to a stop, 
Setting too tight a tolerance will cause the 
interface to hunt back and forth for an exact 
heading. 1 found a tolerance of about 5 de- 
grees works reliably. The adjustment is made 
by turning the rotor 5 degrees clockwise 
from north using the control box and then 
sending 1011 1100 (BCH) to the interface. 
Adjust R5 so that K2 is just on the border of 
de-energizing. 





RQTOR MEAD iHQ OH CONTROL 


BOX 


METER 


[S3* ZiO* 24 D* 


270* 


3go" 


330 560 SO 


&0* 


90* fZC* 150* <B0* 


1 1 
F? EE E4 


— J — 
DA 


1 

DO 


■ i i 
C5 &C B2 


AS 


1 ■! 

9E -l Si flO 




HEX 


CHARACTER SENT TO INTERFACE 


Rotor 






Hex 




Decimal 


Direction 






Character 




Character 









BC 




188 


3 






BB 




187 


6 






BA 




186 



AT !MTiALtZ*TfOH OF VAth #&£/TWf 



START 



1 



* 


* 


i 


* 


■ 


- 


■ 

180 


w 

80 


128 


183 


FT 


247 


186 

■ 


F6 

■ 


246 

■ 


i 

* 

354 


BE 


4 
* 

190 


357 


BD 


189 


300 


ec 


188 



DATA 18 B, IB 7. 106 

I 

FOR 1 - 1 TO 120 - 

i 

READ A a> 



". 



ENO 



SUgfKHjrmg TO OUTPUT €M*#ACT£R 
MTCGCft DEGREES. CHAR 

\ 

INPUT DEGREES 



I 



I * DEGREES-* 

J 

CHAR -A f I J 
OUTPUT CHAR 



Fig. fr Matrix look-up table. 



Fig. 7. Flowchart for look-up table in Basic. 



Disconnect the lest jumper and connect ter- 
minals 2, 5, and 6 on the interface terminal 
strip to terminals 2,5, and 6 respectively on 
the rotor control box- Do nor disconnect the 
wires already on these terminals. Relay K3 
has two wires connected to its normally-open 
contacts labeled 1Hl to brake relay/' These 
wires should be connected in parallel across 
the contacts of the brake-release switch in the 
rotor box. This will release the brake when 
K3 energizes, 

Apply power to the interface and the rotor 
control box and send 1000 0000 (80H) to the 
interface and note that K3 and Kl will ener- 
gize, turning the rotor clockwise to the south. 
After rotation has stopped, send 1011 1100 
(BCH) to the interface and note that K3 and 
K2 will close, turning the antenna to north, 
where it will stop. Send 1 U J 01 1 1 (F7K) to 
the interface and the rotor will turn counter- 
clockwise to the south. Finally, test the stop 
function by sending the interface a command 
to turn followed by a 0000 0000 (G0H), This 
will stop the rotation. 

Software 

Before reviewing the program which will 
send data to the interface, it is necessary to 
understand the software requirements. Nor- 
mally, rotor direction is expressed as 360 
points on a circle (called degrees)* Zero de- 
grees is north and the number of degrees 
increases with clockwise rotation. The inter- 
face uses a different system, however. This is 
due to the design of the meter circuit in the 
rotor control box. In this system there are 120 
directions, each of which is 3 degrees in 
width. The software is able to control rotor 
direction by telling the interface to go to one 
of these direction. 

Communication between the computer and 
the interface is in a binary string of Is and 0s. 
Seven binary bits are required to specify 120 
rotor headings, and the 8th (MSB) bit is used 
for brake control. The way the program 
specifies the string of bits varies with differ- 
ent computers and software packages. 

In the hexidecimal system, 4 bits are 



grouped together to form a hex digit. Since 4 
bits can form 16 different combinations, the 
hex digit must be able to represent all possi- 
bilities. This is accomplished by counting as 
follows: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 f 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B f C, 
D, E, F, Since we need to represent 8 bits, it 
will be necessary to form a word containing 2 
hex digits. For use with the interface, the 
range of the word will be from 80 hex (1000 
0000) to F7 hex ( 1 1 1 1 0111), as shown in 
Fig, 6. Those that are writing the program in 
assembly language will send a hex word to 
the communications port of the computer. 

A different method is used when running 
Basic. In this system, the decimal value of the 
output word is placed on the serial port. The 
decimal equivalent of the output string is cal- 
culated by assigning values to bit positions. 
The value of the 8 bil positions is as follows; 
128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 . For instance, 
the equivalent of 1000 00 10 is 128 +2 or 130. 
Only 128 and 2 were counted since these 
were the positions where Is occurred in the 
bit string. The decimal outputs correspond- 
ing to different directions are shown in Fig. 
6, Check your software manual to determine 
how to send the character to your serial port, 

I will describe two ways which the output 
character can be generated in software. Re- 
gardless of which method is chosen, 1 suggest 
that the program be implemented as a subpro- 
gram or subroutine. This way the software 
for driving the interface can be accessed at 
multiple points in a main program. The soft- 
ware will also remain constant regardless of 
which main program it is used with. 

A simple program to implement is one 
which uses a look-up table to obtain the char- 
acter to be sent to the interface. The table 
contains either hex or decimal output charac- 
ters associated with different directions. The 
most elementary way of using the table would 
be for it to consist of 360 entries, each associ- 
ated with a rotor heading in degrees. If, for 
instance, the software must turn the rotor to 
70 degrees, it would go to the 70th entry in 
the table, obtain the character at that loca- 
tion, and send it to the interface. The output 



character for 250 degrees would be con- 
tained at the 250th memory location and so 
on. This system is easy to use because there is 
no need to relate rotor heading in degrees to 
the direction number and then convert to an 
output character. This is done when the table 
is written. 

Since there are only 120 different direc- 
tions, and therefore output characters, a table 
of this type would have each output character 
repeated 3 rimes in 3 adjacent memory loca- 
tions. Since no purpose is served by wasting 
memory, the table can be reduced to 120 
entries. The flowchart in Fig. 7 shows how a 
look-up-table program can be implemented 
in Basic. When the main program is started, 
the variables A(0) to A(120) are loaded with 
the decimal-output characters in the look-up 
table of Fig, 6, A(0) is loaded with 188, A( I ) 
with 187, etc- 

Also shown in Fig, 7 is a subroutine which 
retrieves output characters from the look-up 
table. When a rotor heading is received by 
this routine, an integer division is performed 
to obtain *T T — which is used as a subscript 
for A(I), The decimal-output character 
stored in A(I} is then output to the serial port. 
For example, suppose the rotor is to turn 
south to 180 degrees. The routine receives 
180, then divides by 3 to obtain the integer 
60, The decimal stored in A (60) is loaded 
into the variable * 'char 1 * and sent to the serial 
port. 

It is also possible to write this routine in 
assembly language, If this is done, the value 
of F is used as an offset from the base 
address of the look-up table. 

Another way to generate the output charac- 
ter is to calculate it. Although more time will 
be required to run this routine, it requires less 
memory than the look-up table method. Fig, 
8 shows the flowchart which creates the char- 
acter through successive substations. 

Regardless of which method is chosen, the 
software can be tested for proper output by 
inputting a rotor heading in degrees. Have the 
program print the character it would output to 
the interface. This way the software can be 

73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 69 



tested without spinning the rotor back and 
forth. 

Conclusion 

When completed, the interface can be 
mounted in a case or inside the rotor con- 
trol box on the bottom side of the chassis. If 
this is done, it will be necessary to fit the 
transformers and relays on top of the chas- 
sis. I experimented by using miniature re- 
lays instead of those specified and found 
that they can work for a limited time before 
the contacts melt. DorTt waste time and mon- 
ey on them. 

For those who would like the interface 
to notify the computer that the proper head- 
ing has been reached, all that needs to be 
done is to add a line driver on the serial output 
of the UART, Let the reset that goes to the 
7476 trigger the UART transmitter. The 
character that the UART sends to the comput- 
er can be selected using the UART transmit- 
data pins. 

Another idea that Fve been thinking about 
is an improved brake circuit that detects 
when the rotor has coasted to a stop (rath* 
er than waiting several seconds and applying 
the brake). A differentiator could be con- 
structed so that it outputs a logic 1 as long as 
there is a change taking place on the meter* 
When the meter stops changing, the circuit 



DECftElS * 101 TD 360 



[ 



IttPUT HCAOIItfS 1*1 DEGREES 

1 

0Ee»£E3.«i& TO ISO 

1 



c-CGflEES > tec ? 



4 



HEXCHAR;&C HE* 



DEGREES £ 181 ? 

I 

DEGREES "DEGREES -3 

J 

HEXCHAR~HEXCHAR-01 HEX 



T£S 



•ft* 



f 



DEGREES < ? 



I 



DEGREES- DEGREES -3 



1 



HE XC H AR • HC XCH&R - 01 HE X 



OUTPUT HExCHAfi 



L 



DEGREES- ROTOR f£ADtN& <N DEGREES (0 TO 3*0! 
Hi XCMAR - HEXIDECJU4L DUmiT CHARACTER 



Fig. 8, Calculation of output character. 



would output a 0. Therefore, when the rotor 
coasts to a stop, the differentiator output goes 
to logic and the interface applies the brake. 
If the differentiator output were then connect* 
ed to a circuit which Looks at the comparator 
output voltage from the 1458, it would be 
possible to detect a stalled rotor. Stalling 
would be indicated if the comparator had a 
difference voltage present on its output but 
rotor motion was stopped, 1 did not include 
this in the article as it wasn't essential to 
Operation. 



A final thought regarding the computer 
software. There are numerous applications 
for this circuit which can be implemented in 
the main program: rotation linked to a great 
circle program, direct heading entry via key- 
board, timed rotation slaved to the computer 
clock (satellite tracking), etc. Who will be the 
first to implement total computer control of 
the shack? All the pieces are available: com- 
puter-interfaced HF rigs, CW/RTTY read- 
ers/generators, and now an antenna. 

Good Luck, and happy rotoring! ■ 







Parts List 










ICs 






3 


1 megohm, 1/4 W 






10 


1 T1781 2 regulator (12v) 
1 T17805 regulator (5v) 


RS276-1771 
276^1 770 


$1 59 
1.59 


Variable Resistors 








1 j4a723 regulator 




2.79 


2 


1k mini-pot 




271-0333 


.49 


1 LM337 regulator 


276-1 1 79 


3.99 


1 


20k mini-pot 




271-0336 


.49 


1 DAC0801 D/A converter 


276-1791 


3,49 


4 


100k mini-pot 




271-0338 


.49 


1 MCl458opamp 
1 LM339 op amp 


276-1712 


1.69 
1,59 


Capacitors 








1 NE555 timer 


276-1723 


.99 


1 


100 pF 




272-123 


1.39 


1 7476 JK flip-flop 




1.59 


1 


.01-uF,16-Vdisc 




272-131 


.39 


1 7400 N AND gate 


276-1801 


.59 


10 


,1HJFD,16-Vdisc 




272-135 


.49 


1 1469 line receiver 


276-2521 


1.79 


2 


1-uFtaritallum, 15 V 






1.59 


1 AY-3-101 5-D or equivalent UART 


276-1794 


J . "3 


1 


1-uF, 1 6-V electrolytic 




272-996 


,79 


1 COM 5046 or eq u i valent ba ud -rate 






1 


10-uF nonpolarized electrolytic 


272-999 


.99 


generator 




3.00 


1 


47-uF electrolytic 




272-1 027 


.69 


IC Sockets 






1 


470-uF, 35-V electrolytic 




272-1 081 


.99 


5 14-pin, wire-wrap 




,30 


Miscellaneous 








3 16-pin, wire-wrap 




.30 


1 


Female DB-25 connector 






3.00 


3 8-pin, wire-wrap 




.30 


1 


Data cable from computer to interface 






2 40-pin , wire-wrap 




1.75 


4 


Diodes (pkg. of 50) 




276-1620 


1.39 


Resistors 






4 
3 


2N3904 transistors (pkg, i 
DP0T12-vort relays 


Df 1 S) 


276-1603 
276-206 


3.99 


1 1 20 Ohms, 1/4 W 




.10 


1 


8-switch DIP switch 




275-1301 


1.99 


1 1 30 Ohms, 1/4 W 




-10 


1 


4~switch DIP switch 




275-1304 


1,99 


1 560 Ohms, 1/4 W 




,10 


1 


12-V, 1 .2-A transformer 




273-1505 


3,99 


1 620 Ohms, 1/4 W 




,10 


1 


12-V, 0.2-A transformer 




273-1785 


3.29 


4 1k Ohms. 1/4 W 




.10 


2 


Bridge rectifier packs, 50 V, 2 A 


276-1151 


1,59 


5 1. 2k Ohms, 1/4 W 




.10 


1 


5.0688-MHz crystal, 


(Northern Engineering Labs. 


3.00 


1 2JkOhms, 14W 




,10 




HC-18/UorHC-25U, 


Burlington Wl, 


(414)-763- 


$75.61 


2 5k Ohms, 1/4 W 




.10 




AT cut 50-Ohm series 


3591 ; Or Bulova Frequency 




4 10k Ohms, 1/4 W 




.10 




resistance, series reso- 


Control Products, Woodside 




6 100k Ohms, 1/4 W 




.10 




rtertt ,01% tolerance 


NY.{212)-335-6000.) 





70 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



COM-SHACK 64 

SIMPLEX AUTO-PATCH 
& REMOTE H.F. BASE 



MODEL CS-64 




Includes 

Software 

(Program Disk], 

Hardware Interface 

& Instruction 

Manual 



Telephone 
(714) 671-2009 



Remote H-F* 

lUouu available for 

ICOM-IC735 and Yaesu FT757. 



TOUCHTONE- DECODER KIT 



"DECODE-A-PAO" 



rrpM^UTER 




MODEL TTK 
Si 





• SSI 201 DTMF Receiver • Receive 
all 16 DTMF digits • No additional 
filtering • Output BCD or hex for- 
mat • Low power [29 ma @ 12V] • 
Kit includes 3.58 Mhz crystal. 22 pin 
IC socket resistor, capacitors, data 
sheet and schematics 



4-DIGIT SEQUENCE DECODER 



rviuucL UM 

*89 




WIRED & TESTED 
MODEL TSD 

$C ft 95 



59 



TOUCHTONE' DTMF 

to RS-232-C 

300 8AUD INTERFACE 

• Use your computer to decode DTMF 
touchtones • Receive all 16 digits as 
fast as they can be transmit- 
ted • Easily program your computer 
in BASIC to decode multidigif 'strings" 
display digits, sound alarms, observe 
secret codes, control relays • Sim- 
ple to use; just provide +12 VDC and 
audio, hook two wires to the RS-S32-C 
serial input on your computer, enter a 
simple BASIC program and begin to 
decode • Sample BASIC program 
and instructions included » Data 
indicator • Wired and tested 



• Simplex autopatch and H.F. remote 
base with clear voice messages • 
Control your Yaesu FT 757 transceiver 
or ICOM~IC735 with your VHF/UHF 
portable or mobile • Switch between 
the H.F. remote and the autopatch 
with DTMF tones • Voice ID & all con- 
trol functions & H.F. frequency are voice 
announced with your programable 
access codes • Autopatch works on 
any telephone line— tone or dial pulse • 
Call waiting compatability— after beep 
answer second incoming call while on 
the patch! • Automatic redjal last 
number [in dial pulse mode) • Ring 
detect & automatic voice alert of in- 
coming telephone cat! • Jnactivityti- 
mer turns off system [user program- 
abie) * StoreS KF. memory frequen- 
cies + shift VFQ*s& change bands • 
Fast scan & slow scan + dial up any 
frequency with DTMF tones all from 
your handheld VHF/UHF portable or 
mobile • Use the autopatch or the 
remote base both for the price of one! 

• User defined timing window, ac- 
cess codes, call sign ■ Simpfe to in- 
stall hardware interface cables, con- 
nectors supplied • Hook mic input, 
PTX spkr outputs & FM squelch con- 
nection 3 pin H.F, data cable and you 
aremcontrol • You supply— 1 Com- 
modore 64 or 128 & 1 disk drive + 
base station • No additional power 
supply required • With human voice 
synthesized by Covox". 

REPEATER OWNERS/HAM CLUBS 

The CS-64 will function in the 

simplex or duplex mods. 



ICOM IC-02AT USERS 
AUDIO BLASTER " MODULE 



1000's of Now Available for 

Satisfied Customers * I 

MODEL AB-1 



IC-MAT 




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Pit* W d . nmfto 
Mor * Aurfra Pwnch 



• Module installs inside the radio in 
10 minutes • Boost audio to nearly 
one watt! • Low power drain [4 ma 
stand-by} • Complete step-by-step 
instructions included • Corrects the 
LOW audio problem! • Drive external 
speakers to full volume, even signals 
with low deviation! 



• Completely wired & tested • 
User programable * LED status 
indicator • Open collector out- 
put • Control relays; mute audio • 
Control link on/off • Custom IC In- 
sures high reliability & small size! • 
Fits inside most rigs; runs on 12 VDC 
[35 ma] • All 16 digits eilow more 
than 50,000 combinations • Makes 
excellent private call on busy repeat- 
ers! • Use it to turn on audio or 
sound an alarm • Momentary and 
latching outputs 

Mastercard and Visa accepted 

Prices include postage & handling, U.S.A 

California addresses add 6%, 




TUNE THE WORLD FROM YOUR HANDHELD VHF/UHF RADIO 



FOUR 



149 



Model RAP-1 * 
REMOTE-A-PAD 

• Audio tones from any source, are 
converted to so/id state switches which 
control any 1 6 digit keypad of aradioor 
other device • Some examples you 
can control include the Pro- Search* 
Rotator [rotate beam remotely): Re- 
mote controls: ICOM IC-701 or ICOM 
IC-211 when using the RM-2 eon^ 
troller; Kenwood 7950, JC751 ; Azden 
PCS 4000: handhelds such as Yaesu 
FT-20a : FT-7QB; ICOM IC-02AT; and 
many more... • Two [four-digit) pro- 



DTMF DECODERS, PLUS 16 DIGIT KEYPAD CONTROL 

grammable access codes are used to 
operate relays or other on/off func- 
tions • LED decoder status indica- 
tors and momentary plus steady state 
decoder outputs are provided • All 
CMOS low power drain [30ma); &S.I. 
201 Decoder • Hook eight wires [4 
rows and 4 columns] in parallel with 
the existing keypad of the radio you 
wish to control remotely- Connect 
audio from any source 12 volts D.C. 
and you are in control » The dual 4 
digit decoders will turn your links on 
and off using your programmable ac- 
cess code. 



Qty. 



Name 



Address 
City 



I 

MC/VISA Na 



uEd Lc 



Zip 



Exp. _ 

ENGINEERING CONSULTING 

583 CANDLEWOOD ST., BREA. CA 92621, (714) 671-2009 



l ^k^ 


V 


r ' 1 

Ma «CQ«1 

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VT5A 


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m 



Modal No. 

CS-64 

TTK 

TSD 

OAP-1 

AB-1 

RAP-1 

Tax [CA) 

Total 



Total 



Contests 






Robert W. Baker WB2GFE 
15 Windsor Dr. 
Aico NJ 08004 

ARRL VHF QSO PARTY 
Starts: 1800 UTC June 14 
Ends: 0300 UTC June 1 5 

The object of this ARRL-spon- 
sored contest is to work as many 
amateur stations in as many 
different ARRL sections and 
countries as possible using au- 
thorized amateur frequencies 
above 50 MHz. Note that these 
rules were taken from previ- 
ous year's contests, with 902 
MHz now counting 3 points, No 
other changes were anticipated. 
Check QST for any last-minute 
changes- 
Operating categories include 
single operator using multi- or 
single band, or multi-operator. 
Single-operator stations must 
use one person for all operat- 
ing and logging functions. Sin- 
gle-operator stations may sub- 
mit single-band scores for 50, 
144, 220. 432, and 1296-and-up 
categories, Contacts may be 
made on any and all bands with* 
out jeopardizing single-band entry 
status. Such additional contacts 
are encouraged and should be 
reported. 

Multi-operator stations must 
locate all equipment (including 
antennas) within a 300-meter 
circle, 

Stations may be worked once 
per band regardless of mode. 
Each QSO must be acknowl- 
edged: one-way exchanges do 
not count. Foreign stations may 



work only stations in the U.S., 
Canada, and U.S. possessions for 
contest credit. 

Retransmitting either or both 
signals, or use of repeater fre- 
quencies is not permitted. Con- 
test entrants may not transmit on 
repeaters or repeater frequencies 
on 2 meters to solicit contacts. 
Use of the national cailing fre- 
quency, 146.52, or immediate ad- 
jacent guard frequencies is also 
prohibited. Only recognized sim- 
plex frequencies may be used, 
such as 144 90-145,10; 146.49, 
.55, and .58; and 147,42, .45, ,48, 
.51 , .54, and .57. Local option sim- 
plex channels and frequencies 
adjacent to the above that do not 
violate the intent of the contest 
rules or the spirit and intent of the 
band plans as recommended in 
the ARRL Repeater Directory may 
be used for contest purposes. 

All operation must be fixed, 
portable, or mobile and under one 
call from one ARRL section. A 
transmitter used to contact one or 
more stations cannot be used un- 
der any other call during the con- 
test period, with the exception of 
family stations where more than 
one call is assigned to one loca- 
tion by FCC/DOC. Also, one oper- 
ator may not give out contest 
QSOs using more than one call- 
sign from any one location. 

Only one signal per band at any 
given time is permitted, regard- 
less of mode. While no minimum 
distance is specified for contacts, 
equipment should be capable of 
real communications {i.e., able to 
communicate over at least a mile). 



Multi-operator stations may not in- 
clude OSOs with their own opera* 
tors except on frequencies higher 
than 2,3 GHz. Even then, a com- 
plete, different station must exist 
for each QSO made under these 
conditions. 

Above 300 GHz, contacts are 
permitted for contest credit only 
between licensed amateurs of 
Technician class or higher using 
coherent radiation on transmis- 
sion (e.g., laser) and employing at 
least one stage of electronic de- 
tection on receive. 

EXCHANGE: 

Name of section, VE province, 
or DX country. Must be acknowl- 
edged by both operators for credit 
by either. 

SCORING: 

Count one point for each com- 
plete 50- or 144-MHz QSO, 2 
points for a 220- or 420-MHz OSO t 
and 3 points for 902-MHz or 1 2 1 5- 
MHz-and-above QSO. Crossband 
QSOs do not count, 

Mutipliers count once per band: 
each ARRL section in the contigu- 
ous 48 states (63 max.), each 
Canadian province (12 max.). and 
each DXCC country (excluding W 
andVE). 

REPORTING: 

Entries must be postmarked no 
later than July 11th and sent to; 
ARRL Headquarters, Newington 
CT 061 1 1 . Official entry forms are 
available from the same address 
foranSASE. Usual ARRL disqual- 
ification rules apply. Usual 
awards to top scorers in each AR- 
RL section, some limited to where 
significant effort or competition is 
evidenced. Muttt-operator entries 
are not eligible for single-band 
awards. 



WORLDWIDE SOUTH 

AMERICA CW CONTEST 

Starts: 1500 UTC June 14 

Ends: 1500 UTC June 15 

Sponsored by Electronics Pop* 
ular magazine of Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil this contest will be held an- 
nually on the second complete 
weekend of June. Use all bands 
from 160 through 10 meters on 
CW only; crossband contacts are 
not valid. Work stations world- 
wide. Entry classes include single 
operator/single band oral! bands, 
and muHi-operalorfeingte trans- 
mitter (multiband only). 

EXCHANGE: 

RST and consecutive QSO 
number starting with 001 . 

SCORING: 

Bach QSO within your own 
country counts zero points — it on- 
ly counts as a multiplier. QSOs 
within same continent are 2 
points; QSOs outside your conti- 
nent are 4 points each, Contacts 
with South American stations (on- 
ly for outside South America) 
count 9 points per QSO, Multipli- 
ers are the number of different 
DXCC countries and different 
South American prefixes worked 
on each band. Final score is the 
total QSO points multiplied by the 
sum of total multipliers in each 
band, 

AWARDS AND ENTRIES: 

Certificates will be awarded to 
the three top-scoring stations in 
each class for each country with a 
reasonable score provided. Aser> 
arate Jog for each worked band 
must be sent no later than August 
31st to WWSA Contest Commit- 
tee, PO Box 18003, 20772 Rio de 
Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Include a self- 



CALENDAR 


Jun 14-15 


ARRL VHF QSO Party 


Jun 14-15 


Worldwide South America CW Contest 


Jun 28-29 


ARRL Field Day 


Jul1 


CARF Canada Day Contest 


Jul 12-13 


IARU Radiosport Championship 


Aug 2-3 


ARRL UHF Contest 


Aug 16-17 


New Jersey QSO Party 


Aug 16-17 


New Mexico QSO Party 


Sep 13-14 


ARRL VHF QSO Party 


Oct 11-12 


Rio CW DX Party 


Nov 1-2 


ARRL Sweepstakes— CW 


Nov 15-16 


ARRL Sweepstakes — Phone 


Dec 5-7 


ARRL 160-Meter Contest 


Dec 13-14 


ARRL 10-Meter Contest 


Dec 28 


CARF Canada Contest 







ZERO BEAT 



I ■ j n 1 1 ■ j 1 1 1 m 1 1 ■ ■ g I ■ n j I a ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 J 1 1 ■ i ■ I ■ i ■ 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 j I ■ i__| 1 1 



tJ Li 



illi 



t 



NEWSLETTER OF THE MONTH 

This month's winner is Zero Beat, the newsletter of the Hamp- 
den County (Massachusetts) Radio Association. Most of the most 
recent issue is taken up with a reprint of an article from 73 (that 
isn't why it won-we're trying to make a point here). If you see 
something in 73 that you'd like to reprint in your newsletter, drop 
us a note saying what you'd like to do. Thai's what Zero Beat did f 
and we were only too happy to help 'em out. 

To enter your club's publication in 73*s Newsletter of the 
Month Contest, send it to 73 Magazine, WGE Center, Peterbor- 
ough NH 03458, Attn: Newsletter of the Month. 



72 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



addressed envelope with IRCs tor 
a copy of the results, (Note: See 
Brazil column in 73 International .) 

ARRL FIELD DAY 

Starts: 1800 UTC June 28 

Ends: 2100 UTC June 29 

Note that these rules were tak- 
en from previous years' contests 
and no changes were anticipated 
other than the availability of the 
24-MHz band. Check OSTfor any 
fast-minute changes. 

Sponsored by the ARRL, the 
contest is open to all amateurs in 
the ARRL Field Organization plus 
Yukon and NW7\ Foreign stations 
may be contacted for credit, but 
are not eligible to compete, The 
object is to work as many stations 
as possible under less-than-ideal 
conditions. Operating times are 
limited depending on your operat- 
ing class; check rules below 

Entry categories are classified 
by the maximum number of simul- 
taneous transmitted signals, fol- 
lowed by the designation of the 
nature of the individual or group 
participation. Below 30 MHz, a 
transmitter must remain on a par- 
ticular band for at least 1 5 minutes 
once used for a contact on that 
band. During this 15-minute peri- 
od, the transmitter is considered 
to be transmitting a signal (even if 
it is not) for purposes of determin- 
ing transmitter class. Switching 
devices are prohibited. 

Class-A consists of club and 
non-club portable stations specifi- 
cally set up for Field Day. Such 
stations must be located in places 
that are not regular station loca- 
tions. They must use neither facili- 
ties installed for permanent sta- 
tion use nor any structures 
installed permanently for FD use. 
Stations must be operated under 
onecallsign and under the control 
of a single licensee or trustee for 
each entry. All equipment (includ- 
ing antennas) must lie within a 
300-meter circle. All contacts 
must be made with transmitters 
and receivers operating indepen- 
dently of commercial mains. En- 
trants who, for any reason, oper- 
ate a transmitter or receiver from 
commercial mains for any con* 
tacts will be listed separately at 
the end of their class, 

Any Class-A group whose entry 
classification is two or more trans- 
mitters (non-Novice) may also use 
one Novice/Technician operating 
position (Novice bands only) with- 
out changing its basic entry classi- 
fication. This station (including 
antennas) should be set up and 
operated by Novice and Techni- 
cian licensees and should use the 



caiisign of one of these operators. 

Cfass-B consists of non-club 
portable stations set up and oper- 
ated by not more than two li- 
censed amateurs. Other provi- 
sions are the same as for Class-A. 

Class-C consists of mobile sta- 
tions in vehicles capable of opera- 
tion while in motion and norrnaJly 
operated in this manner, including 
antenna. This includes maritime 
and aeronautical mobiles. 

Class-D consists of stations op- 
erating from permanent or li- 
censed station locations using 
commercial power. This group of 
stations may count only contacts 
made with Class A, B, C, and E 
Field Day groups for points. 

Class-E stations are the same 
as Class-D except they use emer- 
gency power for transmitters and 
receivers. They can work stations 
in all classes. 

Operators participating in FD 
may not contact for point credit 
the FD portable station of a group 
with which they participate. Any 
station used to contact one or 
more FD stations may not be used 
under any other call during the FD 
period, except for family stations. 

Each phone and each CW seg- 
ment is considered a separate 
band. All voice contacts are equiv- 
alent, and RTTY/ASCII is counted 
as CW. A station may be worked 
once on each band; crossband 
contacts are not allowed. The use 
of more than one transmitter at the 
same time in a single band is pro- 
hibited, except that a Novice/ 
Technician position may operate 
on any Novice band segment 
at any time. No repeater con* 
tacts — but the 24-MHz band may 
now be used. 

EXCHANGE: 

Stations in any ARRL section 
send Field Day operating class 
and ARRL section. A four-trans- 
mitter station in NJ would send 
"4A NJ/" Foreign stations send 
RSfOandQTH. 

SCORING: 

Scores are based on the num- 
ber of valid contact points times 
the multiplier corresponding to 
the highest power used at any 
time during the FD period, plus 
bonus points, Phone contacts are 
one point each; CW contacts are 
two points each. Power multipliers 
are: 5 for using a dc input power of 
1 W (20 W PEP) or less (or 5-W- 
dc output/1 0-W-PEP output) if a 
power source other than commer- 
cial mains or motor-driven gener- 
ator 15 used; 2 for using a dc input 
power of 200 W or less on CW and 



400 W PEP or less on SSB; 1 for 

using anything higher. 

Batteries may be charged while 
in use for Classic entries only. For 
other classes, batteries charged 
during the FD period must be 
charged from a power source in- 
dependent of the commercial 
mains. 

Bonus points will be added to 
the score (after the multiplier is 
applied) to determine the final 
score. Only Class-A and -B sta- 
tions are eligible for bonuses: 

1) 100% Emergency Power — 
100 points per transmitter for 
100% emergency power. All 
equipment and facilities at the FD 
site must be operated from a 
source independent of the com* 
mercial mains. 

2) Public Relations — 1 00 points 
for public relations. Publicity must 
be obtained or a bona fide attempt 
to obtain publicity must be made, 
or operation must be conducted 
from a public place (such as a 
shopping center). Evidence must 
be submitted in the form of a 
clipping, a memo from a BC/TV 
station that publicity was given, 
or a copy of material that was 
sent to news media for publicity 
purposes. 

3) Message Origination— 100 
points for origination of a mes- 
sage by the club president or oth- 
er FD leader, addressed to the SM 
or SEC, stating the club name (or 
non-club group), number of oper- 
ators, field location, and number 
of ARES members participating. 
The message must be transmitted 
during the FD period, and a fully 
serviced copy of it must be includ- 
ed with the FD report. The mes- 
sage must be in standard ARRL 
message form or no credit will be 
given. 

4) Message Reply— TO points 
for each message received and 
relayed during the FD period, up 
to a maximum of 100 points. 
Copies of each message, property 
serviced, must be included with 
the FD report. 

5) Satellite OSO— 100 points 
can be earned by completing at 
least one QSO via satellite during 
the FD period. The repeater provi- 



sion is waived for satellite QSOs 
and a satellite station does not 
count as an additional transmitter. 
Show satellite QSOs as a sepa- 
rate band on the summary sheet. 

6) Natural Power — FD groups 
making a minimum of 5 QSOs 
without using power from com- 
mercial mains or petroleum 
derivatives can earn 100 points. 
This alternative power source also 
includes batteries charged by nat- 
ural means (not dry cells). The 
natural-power station counts as 
an additional transmitter If you do 
not want to change your entry 
class, take one of your other trans- 
mitters off the air while making the 
natural-power QSOs. A separate 
list of natural-power QSOs should 
be enclosed with your entry, 

7] WiAW Message — A bonus 
of 100 points will be earned by 
copying a special ARRL FD bul- 
letin sent over WIAW on its regu- 
larly announced frequencies Just 
before and during FD. This mes- 
sage can be received directly from 
WIAW or by any relay method. An 
accurate copy of the received 
message should be included in 
your FD report, 

REPORTING: 

Entries must be postmarked by 
July 24ih; no fate entries can be 
accepted. A complete entry con- 
sists of a summary sheet and a list 
of stations worked on each band/ 
mode during FD, plus bonus 
proof. The list of stations worked 
on each band or mode may take 
the form of official ARRL dupe 
sheets or an alphanumeric listing 
of callsigns worked per band and 
mode. This list may be computer 
generated, Incomplete or illegible 
entries will be classified as check 
logs. A copy of FD logs should be 
kept by your FD group but should 
not be sent in unless specifically 
requested by ARRL. Normal AR- 
RL disqualification rules apply. 

All entries and requests for 
official forms should be ad- 
dressed to: ARRL, Newington CT 
06111. Include a 9 x 12 self-ad- 
dressed envelope with 3-oz. 
postage for a complete Field Day 
entry package.! 




AM HELP 



Does anyone know where I can 
get two of the vinyl cases that 
were available in Canada for 
awhile for the ICOM 2AT and 4AT 
with BP-5 batteries? I'm also look- 
ing for information on SSTV— 



right now I can only receive. I need 
active frequencies to monitor. 

Scott Harvey KA7FVV 

N.5011 Idaho Rd. 

Newman Lake WA 99025 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 73 




TTY L 



III 



P 



Marc /. Leawy, M.D. WA3AJR 
6 Jenny Lane 
PikesvUieMD 21208 

Ahem, now, if you all will just 
kind of hum along. . , 
Old Macintosh had some disks, 

E-t-E-l-0 

And on each disk was a program. 

E-l-E-l-0 

With a spreadsheet here, 

And a data base there, 

Paint a house. 

Click a mouse, 

Even programs for his spouse; 

Old Macintosh had some disks, 

E-l-E-l-0 

But when he wanted TTY, 

E-l-E-l-O 

There was no program he could 

buy; 
E-l-E-l-0 



So he checked on CIS, 
And the BBS, 

Log on in. 

Search around, 

Not a damn thing he has found! 

Then Old Mac had one last 

hope . . . 
Write to RTTY Loop! [Lope?-Ed] 

Only one problem, I am hard 
pressed to find anything either? I 
have received several letters in 
the last few months, all of which 
are asking for help in putting a 
Macintosh computer onto RTTY. 
Agust Bjarnason TF30M in Gard- 
abaer, Iceland, is just one of the 
hams trying to get onto MacRTTY. 
Sorry to say, but I have asked 
around to all my usual sources, 
including HamNet on Compu- 
Serve, and have come up blank. 



As of today, even (he sysop on 
that system acknowledges that 
MacRTTY programs have been 
few and far between. 

Well, are any of you out there 
willing to share your secrets? 
There must be someone who has 
interfaced a Mac to RTTY. I know 
there are many more who want to 
find out Please drop me a line at 
the above address, and I will pass 
along the Information to the mass 
MacMultitudes (sorry!), 

One system I have obtained 
some recent information on is the 
''expanded" CoCo, A few months 
ago, I reviewed several accessory 
boards available for the Radio 
Shack Color Computer* which 
added a true serial and parallel 
interface. reaMirne dock, and 80- 
column display. All of these 
boards were produced by PBJ, 
Inc., and appeared to represent 
real improvements to an already 
fine machine. 

With the introduction of the new 
version of the OS-9 operating sys- 



tem, several changes have sur- 
faced with these boards, and I 
would like to quote you from a let- 
ter received from Donald Beane of 
PBJ. In a press release, he states, 
f 'effective February 1, 1986, we 
started shipping a new version of 
the WordPak, It is being manufac- 
tured for Radio Shack's new 
version of OS-9, Rev. 2.0. and is 
available through their Express 
Order Catalog. In order to con- 
form with Radio Shack's planned 
expansion devices, the new 
WordPak has been relocated to a 
new address (HFF76-79). This 
was required to avoid conflict with 
existing and/or planned devices. 
The cartridge is essentially the 
same as the original WordPak, ex- 
cept that it provides the larger 
character matrix of the WordPak 
II, and inverse video is implement- 
ed in the same manner as on the 
WordPak IL The price of the Word- 
Pak-RS is $99,95 and it is sup- 
plied with the OS-9 driver. 11 
Mr. Beane indicated that nei- 



FREQ SB 5H 3D SVC 



CALL 



202* 
40*3 
4515 
4620 
5435 
5*feG 
oBI4 
6B53 
&941 
b983 

7442 
7478 
7534 
7784 
7970 

gooo 

8022 
8029 

bus 

8182 

8192 

8506 

9050 

9053 

9070 

9080 

9102 

9120 

9214 

9259 

9285 

9349 

9381 

9397 

9405 

9855 

10134 

10185 

10410 

104 n 

10460 
L0543 
10595 
10616 
10643 
10785 
108 79 
10880 
10882 
10905 
10958 
10960 
10972 
10985 
11004 
11048 
11170 
11539 
115*0 
11599 
1 1622 
12085 



U 

u* 

V 

L« 
U' 

u* 

IT 
U' 
U» 

ir 

u* 

L 

c 

u 1 
u 

L 

L' 

U 1 

,■ 
L* 
U 

U 

U' 

U' 
LF' 
IT 
U 1 

:■ 
u 1 

V 
IT 

L 

L' 

U" 

U' 
L 1 

U' 
L' 
U* 
V 
U* 
U' 
L' 
U* 

U" 

r 
u 

g* 

U' 
V 

u' 

L 
0* 

." 
L 



fil SUM 
85 5 
IS SOM 
85 50« 
425 74 
425 74 

85 50H 
425 50 
170 74 
425 50 

85 50M 
425 7m 
425 74 
fl5 5GM 
85 50M 
425 5u 

85 50M 
425 50 
85 SUM 
85 50M 
425 50 
425 50 
85 SOM 
85 50ft 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
85 50M 
85 SOM 
as SOH 
425 50 

85 SOM 
42 5 50 

85 SOM 

425 74 

85 SOM 

*2 5 50 

425 74 

85 50M 

W5 74 

425 50 

425 50 

^25 50 

425 50 

425 50 

425 50 

425 74 

425 50 

85 SOH 

425 50 

425 50 
425 

425 50 

85 sow 

85 5UH 
425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 



AP/UPt 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

VQA 

VOA 

AP/UPi 

REUTER 

VOA 

AP 

AP/UPI 

VOA 

VGA 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

PI 

AlVUPl 

.\K,' 

AP/UPt 

AP/UPI 

up: 

PAP 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPi 

ANSA 

tEDTll 

REUTER 

REUTER 

REUTER 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

AP 

AP/UPJ 

AFP 

AP/UPI 

VOA 

AF/UPI 

AFP 

VOA 

AP/UPI 

U.tf. 

AI>N 

VNA 

At* 

ADN 

TASS 

VOA 

RtUTER 

AP/UPi 

REUTER 

REUTER 

VOA 

8AK 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

KCNA 

AP/MPI 

REUTER 

AP/UPI 

PAP 

BAK 



AFRTS 

AFRTS 

A FITS 

AFRTS 

VOA 

YD* 

AFRTS 

GPE26 

VOA 

ClC2*a 

AFRT5 
VOA 
VOA 
At HIS 
AFRTS 

AFRTS 

AFRTS 

AFRTS 

PDK68 

SQI31 

AFRTS 

AFt 

ISI90 



GP829 

AFBTS 

AFRTS 

AFRTS 

6IC29B 

AFRTS 

FTJ39A 

AFHTS 

VOA 

AFRTS 

FpKA 

VOA 

AFRTS 

4UZ 

VNA25 
FTK6X 
GIC30B 
¥2V*3B 

VOA 

AFRTS 

GPE30B 

CPE 30 

VOA 

RCB53 

AFRTS 

AFRTS 

AFRTS 
GPE30B 
AFRTS 
SOU 6 
RCB55 



12128 
12185 
L2224 
122*0 
11238 
13- 
124J8 
13460 
L3487 
13490 
13493 
13504 
13563 
13 580 
13598 
13612 
13623 
13625 
I ib.'t. 
1J&28 
11648 
13652 
13676 
13730 
70 
13895 
13898 
139/5 
13995 
14360 
14366 
1*36? 
1**20 
14420 
14469 
14490 
14513 

14523 
14525 
14547 

>62 
U5&S 
U568 
14572 
14631 
1463S 
14698 
14716 
14720 
1*762 
1*796 
1*800 
1-625 
14812 
L4901 
14901 
1^928 
14974 
15462 
15*80 
15*82 
15506 
15693 
15694 
15743 



L' 
13' 

L' 

U 

t 

L 

L' 

U 1 

L - 

U 

U 

L 

V 

L' 

L 



U» 

U 1 

U l 

U 

L' 

U" 

U 1 

L* 

L p 

L 

L* 

L' 

U 
U' 

u* 

u* 

u 
u 
u 

V 

I 

u* 

u* 

L 

U' 

L' 

L" 

U" 

u 
u 

L' 

L 

L' 

U 

L 1 

L* 

L" 

U* 

L f 

L* 

I' 

L* 

L* 

L' 

V 

u* 



Mi3 SO 

425 50 

7* 

1X5 50 

85 50fl 
*25 50 
425 50 
50 
-.5 50 
*25 50 
425 50 
425 50 
&50 50 
W5 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 

BS 50M 



425 50 
425 74 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 74 
*25 50 
425 50 
65 son 
b5 50* 
85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 
*25 50 
425 50 
425 74 
425 50 

85 50M 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 74 
425 50 
4 25 50 
*J3 50 
5 50 
y 50 
425 50 
*25 50 
42 5 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
.5 50 
425 50 
.5 50 
425 50 
85 74 



ANSA 

JASA 

VOA 

AP 

AP/ 

VIA 

DPA 

VHA 

ARSA 

DAI 

TASS 

CHA 
KCNA 

REUTER 

REUTER 

REUTER 

REUTEK 

REUTEK 

CETERA 

MENA 

AP/UPI 

AFP 

VOA 

ADS 

AMSA 

ANSA 

VOA 

PAP 

XINHUA 

AP/UPI 

AERO 

AP/OPI 

TAS5 

TASS 

REUTER 

REUTER 

VOA 

KVODO 

AP/UPI 

PL 

KCNA 

JAN A 

AKSA 

ARF 

TASS 

KYODO 

BAK 

CNA 

AFP 

AUN 

AOM 

KUtfA 

PL 

TASS 

PL 

AP 

JAMA 

KCSA 

APS 

CETEKA 

ANSA 

ANSA 

VSA 

VOA 



IRJJl 

VOA 
CftU32 
AFRTS 
V1TAI6 

M6 

1SX35 
RCC77 
HCG77 
MVS19 

M.-519 



SUA50 
AFRTS 

VOA 
Y2V47 

ISXL9 
VOA 



AFRtS 
AFRTS 

AFRTS 

RQLM 

CPN34 
PIS 
JAL44 
AFRTS 

HML61 



WKK54 
REW24 

RKB5H 



DKV2* 
Y2V25 

CLN450 

CLN- 
CBW34B 



15750 

15S65 

15665 

13375 

L5R96 

I5S96 

15930 

1597? 

159 BO 

15992 

15996 

1S055 

16092 

16108 

16133 

16135 

16149 

16223 

16247 

1633b 

16342 

16347 

1&34R 

1634S 

163B0 

163B* 

16401 

16415 

17210 

1721U 

17370 

17390 

17393 

17415 

17475 

17509 

17519 

17525 

17545 

17552 



U 1 

U 

B 1 

L' 

u 1 
L* 
U 
V 

o» 

L* 

U 

U' 

L' 

U" 

U' 

u 
u 

U 1 

u' 

e 1 

u' 

If 1 

u 

L' 

L 

L 

U 

U 



L' 

L 

t 

U 

u 

L 

L* 

U 



LSJC56 
1SX56 

VOA 



17555 
1 7 V6* 
17565 
1S005 
16012 
18050 
18101 
18159 
18193 
18193 
18205 
18245 
1B261 
18272 
18292 
1S307 
1S331 
18333 
18335 
18384 
18392 
18414 
18519 
13540 
1854J 
18547 



IT 

u 

L 
U 

u 1 
u* 
u 
u* 

U' 

u 

L* 
U 

u 

U 

U' 

u 
IJ. 

y 

L + 

u 



IS 

425 50 

50 

425 74 

85 SOH 
425 50 
425 50 
4 25 50 
425 50 
425 50 
415 50 
425 50 

85 50M 
425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 
850 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
425 50 
425 50 
170 7* 
425 50 
415 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
425 50 
~:5 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 

85 SOM 

425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 
h25 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
85 SOM 
85 50M 
425 SO 
74 

425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
35 50* 
85 5 OH 
85 
425 50 
425 74 
425 50 



VOA 

HAS. 

TASS 

VOA 

AP/UPI 

CETEKA 

BAK 

AfP 

AFP 

1NDF0 

DPA 

ItfDFO 

AP/UPI 

AFP 

AF/UPI 

XINHUA 

NEWS 

CNA 

PL 

PL 

TAN JUG 

TASS 

PL 

TASS 

PL 

infA 

ADS 

IBM 

AFRTS 

XINHUA 

8AI 

PL 

PL 

PL 

PL 

TASS 

TA 

CETERA 

AFP 

AP/UPI 

MAP 

AF/UPI 

AP 

PL 

PL 

TASS 

REUTER 

TASS 

PL 

PL 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

KUNA 

VOA 

PL 

KUNA 

REUTER 

REUTO 

REUTER 

TASS 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

AFP 

PL 

ARF 

AP 



VOA 
BBE 79 
RRG26 
VOA 
AFRTS 

tfttH 



UER26 

VER45 
AFRTS 

AFRTS 
BZP54 

3MA3S 



YZJ4 



VNA30 
Y2V57 



RBI 7 3 
CLKSbS 

RFD53 
0LV3 

AFITS 

CNM73 
AFRTS 

GIU37B 
CLN603 



GPU30 
RTU(i7 
CLN603 

AFRTS 
AFRTS 

VOA 



,?E38B 
GPE3R 
£££24 
AFRTS 

0-» n 4 ^ 



WFK4 3 
G1Y36B 



18671 

18675 

18682 

IS 700 

18787 

1H,S2* 

18S35 

3 88 71 

18988 

191«*8 

191 . 

19171 

19280 

19395 

19525 

19565 

1981 fe 

19825 

19865 

1997 5 

19961 

20008 

200SO 

20085 

20100 

20105 

20110 

20152 

20155 

20204 

20312 

20386 

20420 

20421 

20430 

20%83 

20*9^ 

20506 

20559 

20625 

20728 

20776 

2OS0* 
10837 

21784 
217b7 
21801 
21839 
227&Q 
227B1 
22762 
22790 
22813 
22885 
22909 
22918 

22955 
315 
23499 
23542 
23751 
2 3770 
24029 
24089 
24790 
25377 



L l 
L 

. 

L' 

U' 

L* 

U' 



L 

U 

u 1 

U' 
L' 

u 

L 

L* 

U» 

L 

U' 

U 

u 

u" 
V 

L* 

L 

L' 

L 



L 1 

C 

L" 

U' 

L" 

V 

L* 

V 

. 

U 

u* 
u* 

L 1 

U' 

u 
u 

L" 

u' 

L 

IJ 
U' 

a 

L* 

U f 

L' 

L* 

U 

U' 

L 

U 1 

0* 

u* 

L 

L' 

U* 

u 
L 
V 



425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
a25 50 
425 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 

85 SOH 
425 50 
*25 7-* 
425 SO 
425 50 
425 50 

65 50M 
425 50 
425 74 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 SO 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 
425 SO 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
--5 74 
425 SO 
425 SO 
425 50 

85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 

<t25 50 

85 5QK 
425 50 
425 50 
85 74 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 74 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 
425 50 

85 5 
425 SO 
S5 50M 
85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 
425 7* 
85 SOK 
85 SOM 
425 50 
425 50 



AFP 

UNA 

REUTER 

DPA 

SUVA 

ADS 

TASS 
XINHUA 

cn *>a 

XIMMJA 

AP/UPI 

HAP 

UN 

JIJ1 

CETEKA 

ANA 

AP/UPI 

DANA 

TANJUG 

LPS 

PARS 

B*K?AR 

AFP 

RJfSA 

REUTER 

D1PLO 

AFP 

AP/UPi 

KUNA 

TAN JUG 

AFP 

REUTER 

ADS 

U H 

ANSA 

VOA 

PAP 

KUNA 

JANA 

AP/UPI 

ANSA 

INOINFO 

KUNA 

AP/UPI 

KUNA 

KUNA 

TASS 

AP 

TASS 

AftF 

TASS 

AW 

I0H 

KUNA 

AP/UPI 

ANSA 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

REUTER 

AFP 

ARF 

AP/UPI 

AP/UPI 

ANSA 

ANSA 



FTS67 



r2V3BA 
HtfN74 



&AJ29 

AFRTS 
OIM8S 
4UZ 

0LO4 

AFRTS 
Y2J4 



15X20 
HSF2L2 
AFRTS 
YZJ 

Y2V20A 

IR£2* 

PIS 

S0V249 



AFRTS 
IRS27 



AFRTS 



VOA 

DZR79 
RDD73 

UTWb2 

Y2V29 



ATRTS 

AFRT5 
AFRTS 
CX£43 

WFG93 
AFRTS 
AFRTS 
15X2* 
IRX23 



Table i 



74 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



ther the original WordPak nor the 
newer WordPak I J will be pro- 
duced any fonger t and that "own- 
ers of WordPaks, WordPak lis, 
and WordPak-RSs should contact 
the individual software houses 
with respect to specific applica- 
tions software," 

While there will be updated driv- 
ers to install older WordPaks and 
PC-Paks into newer systems, 
"there will be no driver module or 
update for the 2SP-Pak. The rea- 
son for this is that the driver is built 
into 05-9 Ver. 2.00.00." 

I cannot speak as to any of the 
new drivers; I have yet to see any 
of them myself. 1 am aware of sev- 
eral posted in the data libraries of 
CompuServe but have not looked 
at those yel, either. If you are a 
user of one or more of these 
boards, you might want to drop 
PSJ a line at their new address* 
503 East 40th Street, Paterson N J 
07504, attention Mr. Donald 
Beane. Be sure to tell him you are 
interested in the information print- 
ed in this column. 

Hardly a month goes by thai 
one ham or another does not write 
me and request information on 
press wireless frequencies that 
can be copied on RTTY. Often, my 
response has been a reference to 
one of the several books on the 
market that provide extensive lists 
of such frequencies. This time is 
different. Thanks to Scott, the 
sysop of CompuServe's Ham Net, 
Table 1 is a rather extensive list of 
some of the signals he has logged 
over the last few years. This list is 
from personal monitoring over the 
last 10 years and is not copied 
from any other lists. These press 
stations alt transmit in English — 
some all the time, others just 
occasionally. 

In the table, the "SB" column 
indicates USB or LSB to be select- 
ed for normal copy. The apostro- 
phe next to the L or U indicates 
that the station is still on the air as 
of the beginning of last year. 

The "SH" column indicates the 
shift (MarMo-Space frequency 
difference) used. Note that most 
use 425*Hz shift. 

The "BD" column indicates the 
baud rate, not words per minute. 
This is standard Baudot RTTY 
code. Most foreign stations use 
"FIGS J" as the bell and "FIGS 
S s f as the apostrophe t which is the 
reverse of American machines. 

The "M M in the BD column indi- 
cates thai the station is a frequen- 
cy-division multiplex (FDM) trans- 
mission, usually with 16 sub- 
carriers, The shift is usually 85 Hz, 
and many terminal units will not 



copy this. Receiving these FDM 
stations with the bfo off sounds 
like a buzz-saw. These stations 
are the best source of AP/UPI 
news, quite similar in format to the 
wireline press service sent to ra- 
dio stations. The best way to tune 
these in is to select USB and tune 
onto the station from the high-fre- 
quency side to the uppermost 
su bear her. This subcarrier is usu- 
ally the one carrying the news. 

The "SVC" column shows the 
abbreviation of the news service. 
The "CALL" column is obvious. 
Not all stations give identify with a 
callsign. Some use the same call- 
sign on all frequencies at once, 
and some have calls for each fre- 
quency in use, but do not Indicate 
which call is for which transmitter. 
Mot all stations of a particular 
service carry the same text. The 
VOA, for example, carries as 
many as four different "pro- 
grams" at the same time, The 
ARF, however, has the same text 
on all four frequencies at once. 

I have not given times of trans- 
missions* That is too difficult to pin 
down accurately. Many stations 
are on continuously. 

The frequencies given are with- 
in 2 kHz. Some stations do slide 
up or down a iittle and reverse 
their mark and space frequencies 
on occasion. My receiver readout 
also does not include the amount 
of bfo offset (about 1 .5 kHz). 

Happy tuning deK9EUIf 

Now, if all of my stateside read- 
ers will forgive me, let me stay 
overseas for awhile. Jose Vargas 
HP1 XJZ has been trying to get on- 
to RTTY from Panama City. Pana- 
ma, with his friend Peter 
HP1 XPM. He has a few questions 
about specific items of equipment 
advertised for RTTY and packet 
interlacing. I know I have said this 
before, Jose t but l try to print what- 
ever information I receive. If you 
have not seen a particular piece of 
gear mentioned here, it is be- 
cause I have not received any- 
thing — not personal experience, 
users' input, or even a manufac- 
turer's biurb— on that item. I try 
not to review from ads. Check 
through some back issues and 
see if what you're looking for is not 
there; be sure to let the manufac- 
turers know that you would appre- 
ciate reading about their products 
in RTTY Loop before plunking 
down hard-earned money. 

Bill Pearson writes from Upper 
Hutt, New Zealand, (I have a der- 
matologist friend by that name, 
who happens to be a ham as well , 
here in the Baltimore area) asking 
about several RTTY programs for 



<ut 


Turkey press 


KCNA 


N, Korea press 


AAP 


Australian press 


KUNA 


Kuwait press 


km 


K. German press (DDR) 


KY0DG 


Japan press 


AFF 


French pros a 


LPS 


London Press Svc 


AFKTS 


U.S. Armed Forces 


MAP 


African press 


ACER 


Rumanian press 


MEN A 


Egypt press 


AKA 


Yemen press 


MFA 


E* German diplo 


AUGOP 


Angolan press 


MlffREX 


Cuban embassy 


ASS 


Argentine press 


MOM 


Mongolian press 


ASSA 


Italian press 


HTI 


Hungary press 


AMI 


Indonesia press 


MA 


Argentina press 


AP 


Associated Press 


N5F 


Nat. Science Found. 


APA 


Austrian press 


PAP 


Polish press 


APS 


USSR press 


PET 


Jordan press 


APS 


Algerian press 


PL 


Latin Press (Cube) 


ARF 


LLS, State Dept« 


PTI 


Indie press 


ATA 


Albanian press 


REUTER 


British press 


AZAP 


Zaire press 


SANA 


Syrian press 


BAK 


USSR press 


SAP 


Algerian press 
Sri Lanka press 


BTA 


Bulgaria? pfcttfti 


SLfiC 


CETEKA 


Czech, press 


SPA 


Saudi press 


CNA 


China press 


SUNA 


Sudan press 


»mo 


diplo/eabassy 


TAJUUC 


Yugoslavia press 


DPA 


IT, German press (FIG) 


VP 


Tunisia press 


DYK 


Argentine press 


TASS 


USSR press 


Eri 


European file 


TELAH 


Argentina 


FRC 


Firestone Co. 


U.N. 


United Nations 


CNA 


Ghana press 


UPl 


United Press Int'L. 


ILNA 


Italian press 


uses 


Coast Guard 


IH A 


Iraq press 


VfNP&ES 


Venezuela press 


IKDINF0 


India press 


VNA 


Vlutnam press 


IftNA 


Iran press 


V0A 


Voice of America 


J ANA 


Libya press 


wx 


Weather 


JiJl 


Japan press 


XINHUA 


Chins press 


JSA 


Jordan press 


YON HAP 


£. Korea press 


JUEGOS 


Latin America 


ZAKA 


Zambia press 



Table 2. SVC abbreviations. 



the Apple 11+ computer. I men- 
tioned the new source for one of 
them, SuperRATT, a few months 
back but have heard nothing 
about the so-called "Galfo" pro- 
gram. He relates that one of the 
difficulties he faces is that a pro- 
gram which costs $140 here sells 
for NZ$280 (here, and he has to 
pay for it before even seeing if he 
likes the way it works. Anybody 
around willing to stick a hand out 
and help a brother on the other 
side of the world? 

Another reader in yet another 
corner of the globe is Gilbert 
Marazzini in Milan, Italy. Gilbert 
relates his enjoyment with the ma- 
terials presented in this column 
and appears to be interested in 
learning more about some of the 
RTTY basics. Don't go anywhere 
else, Gilbert, there will be more to 
come, right here. 

Dr. Gihsh Shah, in Ahmedabad, 
India, has been trying to put a O 
64 computer onto RTTY, and it 
seems that this column and the 
magazine that contains it are 
about the only sources for RTTY 
information available to him. I do 
hope that some of the material 
presented here over the last few 
months has helped, and I look for* 
ward to hearing about your suc- 
cess on the Green Keys. 

"Green Keys." I wonder how 
many of you newcomers know 
where that one comes from? I 
think I'll just let it dangle for now, 

Another Apple user in another 

land is Geoff Dover G4AFJ in 

Leicestershire, England. I am 

sending Geoff the current reprint 

list, at his request, which details 



some of the materials gleaned 
from past columns. The list can be 
yours, as welt; just send a me a 
self-addressed, stamped envel- 
ope to the address at the head of 
this column and ask for the cur- 
rent reprint list. Naturally, other 
comments, questions, and prods 
are welcome at the same time. 

The last ham on this whirlwind 
trip around the world is Alex Deli- 
giannis SV8QG in Chios, Greece. 
Alex is the proud owner of a CoCo 
and believes he is the only one in 
SV-iand trying to put one on the 
air, Well, again, I hope that some 
of the material I have presented 
here helps. I have planned some 
specific programming help for the 
CoCo if there is sufficient interest. 
With the paucity of programs com- 
parable to those on other sys- 
tems, there should be some de- 
mand here for a CoCo RTTY 
program that would be able to ac- 
cess disk functions and have a 
few bells and whistles to boot. Let 
me hear all of your opinions 

Now, take a deep breath folks 
and hear this- This month begins 
the tenth year of this column in 73 
Magazine* That's right, TEN 
YEARS! Wow! I do want to take a 
moment to thank Wayne Green, 
without whose foresight many of 
the developments we take for 
granted might not have come to 
pass and who helped me get this 
column started— back in the dark 
ages. And my sincere thanks to 
each and every one of you, the 
readers of 73, who have pushed 
our hobby to the technological lim- 
it, then broken even that limit, only 
to push ahead to a new future. 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 75 



As always, I remain available 
to you. erther by mail at the ad- 
dress at the top of the column or 
on CompuServe, with my user 
number 75036,2501. If you want 
to get to me on CIS* EasyPlex (E- 
mail) is the best way. Messages 



left on HamNet or the CoCo or 
OS-9 SIGs may get to me as well, 
but they depend on my being 
there to see them before they 
scroll off the system. Remember, 
for those of you who send ques- 
tions via the USPS, a self-ad- 



dressed, stamped envelope is re- 
quired if you would like a personal 
reply; otherwise, watch the 
column for a reply. Don't forget 
that I write each column about two 
to three months before you see it. 
though. 



Summer's coming, with Field 
Day, picnics, and swimming 

parties. Who's going to be the 
first with a terminal at poofside? 
Send me a picture, then look 
for it in next winter's RTTY 
LooplH 




K6K> PACKET 



Harold Price NK6K 
1211 Ford Ave. 
Redondo Beach CA 9Q278 

COMING ATTRACTION 

Wake the kids and call the 
neighbors. The August issue of 73 
is going to be all packet! And no, it 
won't just be this column with a 
thyroid condition. Nine or ten 
packet people will address such 
topics as: Intro to Packet, Intro to 
Networking, Better HF Opera- 
tions, Packet Common Sense Op- 
erating Guide, Packet in Space, 
How to maintain digipeaters up 
where the air is thin, How to be a 
bulletin board/mailbox sysop, and 
more. For those of you who are 
worried that the inmates have fi- 
nally taken over the asylum, don't 
worry; 73 will return to its regular 
fare the next month. 

Packet Basics 

For this section, I take as my 
text 73 Magazine, April 1986, 
page 82, RTTY Loop column. 
I'll review the question "What 
does packet provide to justify 
the cost?" and touch on some of 
the differences between RTTY. 
AMTOR, and packet. We know 
that packet is used to move char- 
acters between ham stations — 
something RTTY and AMTOR al- 
ready do. What makes packet 
different? 

Digression one. It is not my 
goal here to rate one mode over 
the other. Comparing the three 
modes is a bit like comparing 
apples to oranges to pears any- 
way. Each was designed for a 
different purpose— to solve dif- 
ferent problems at widely sepa- 
rated points in history. More im- 
portantly, the actual implemen- 
tation of each mode by the hard- 
ware and software in whatever 
device youVe chosen to use can 
have a far greater effect on per- 
formance than the mode itself. A 
poorly implemented version of 
AMTOR software, or a packet 
controller with an inferior modem, 
will result in less data, or more bad 



data, than a well executed RTTY 
package. 

Digression two. If you like using 
RTTY, don't let anyone talk you 
out of using it just because he 
says the mode is outdated. 
Whether it is or isn*t is not the 
point, and that topic will not be 
debated here. Even though many 
in the RTTY world have changed 
over to the quiet tube-based RTTY 
systems, people still like using the 
old moving-parts gear for the chal- 
lenge of bringing it up and keep- 
ing it running. The RTTY Loop 
column still carries information on 
how to get vintage electrome- 
chanical teleprinters on the air. If 
it's fun, I'm all for it. Some folks 
like whirring gears, others Like 
flashing lights. While Part 97 tells 
us to provide emergency commu- 
nications, extend the radio art, im- 
prove our skills, and enhance in- 
ternational goodwill, nowhere 
does it say that we can't have a 
good time doing it. 

Recall the question "What does 
packet provide, and what is the 
cost?' Let's look at the easy 
part first: What does it cost? To 
get an idea of what the RTTY- 
expehenced ham would consid- 
er cost-effective, I went to see 
my friend Lee Hallin WB7SND. 
He has managed to stay single 
and hasn't been forced to throw 
away things he'd rather save. 
His archives of 73 t therefore, 
are much larger than mine. We 
went back to the issue contain- 
ing the first appearance of the 
RTTY Loop column, June 1977. 
This was a time when comput- 
er-based RTTY was just gather- 
ing steam. HI compare RTTY 
prices in that year to the price 
of getting on packet in the year 
that this packet column first 
appeared, when packet was be- 
ginning to gather momentum. In 
the June 1977 issue. \ found two 
references to the price of RTTY 
gear. The column intra said, M a 
complete RTTY station can be as- 
sembled for under $100," An ad 
near the middle had recently new 



TTY-33S (usable on RTTY by 
the strong-willed) for $650. Com- 
paring the purchasing power of 
the dollar between 1977 and 
June 1985 (I got this data from 
the 1986 World Almanac and 
Book of Facts, page 51. the clos- 
est I could find in '86), you'd need 
at least $158 in 1985 money to 
equal $100 in 1977: $850 in 1977 
is $1347 now. 

Can you get on packet for $158 
now? Sure can! A $50 surplus Xe- 
rox 820 board, a $10 keyboard, a 
$15 monitor, a FAD board from 
TAPR, the FADPAO software from 
FADCA, a $20 surplus modem, 
and you're on the air. In 1986, this 
is known as "the hard way." 
There are several complete TNC 
kits available in the $180 range. 
Put it together, plug it into the 
computer you probably already 
have, and you're on the air, Don't 
have a computer? Check the next 
swap meet; you should be able to 
pick up a gtass-TTY {dumb termi- 
nal) for way under $100. Com- 
modore C-64s are around $99, 
Don't like kits? Some assem- 
bled and tested TNCs are only 
$30 more. 

If you already have a C-64 T $21 9 
gets you CW/RTTY/AMTOR and 
packet with AEA's PK-64 (re- 
viewed in February's 7$). That's 
$129 in 1977 money. The same 
price or less gets you a packet-on- 
ly unit that will work with any com- 
puter that draws less than 30 mA. 
You can run your TNC from the 
same 9-volt cell that you use to run 
your flashing LED caNsign badge, 
A manufacturer new to the packet 
market has been advertising an 
assembled and tested packet 
controller for a price in the low 
hundred dollar range, but since I 
haven't seen one yet (3/31^86), I 
can't comment on it. 

The price for a good packet 
unit and the price of a good 
RTTY or AMTOR unit are about 
the same. Depending on the 
features you can live without 
and how hard you are willing to 
work to scrounge parts, packet 
can be had for less than $158. 
Hole that the above discussion, 
like the one in 1977; assumes you 
already have a radio. Just as RT- 
TY would soon boom after 1977, 
packet is in a rapid growth phase 



now. Expect to see minimum fea- 
tured TNCs available for less than 
$100 soon, while TNCs with more 
features wil I be i n the $ 1 50 to $300 
price range. All of the prices men- 
tioned here may be different by 
the time you see this, so check 
around. 

Now to the more interesting part 
of the question, ' 'What does pack- 
et provide? 1 ' Last month's column 
gave references to technical infor- 
mation on what packet provides. 
This month, I'll discuss some of 
the major obvious features the op- 
erator sees. 

The most obvious differences 
stem from "packetizing," break- 
ing up your data into chunks. 
Packet controllers (TNCs) move 
your data around in chunks of 80 
to 128 characters on the average, 
This process goes on in the back- 
ground. In most cases, you need 
not be aware that it is happening; 
you just keep feeding characters 
to the TNC. 

There are several methods 
you can use to control the packet- 
izing process. One way is by 
the use of a special character 
that tells your TNC to take up all 
of the characters youVe entered 
to that point and make them in- 
to a packet. The special end- 
of-packet character can be spec- 
ified by the user (with a com- 
mand called SENDPAC on TAPR- 
like TNCs). Most users select 
the return key, <cr>. This caus- 
es a packet to be sent each 
time you hit <cr> as you type. 
A second way is to specify a 
maximum Length for a packet 
(PACLEN), The best length to 
pick depends on several factors— 
the mode (HF, VHF, OSCAR 10), 
the number of digipeaters you're 
using, the load on the channel, the 
signal strength, etc. When you 
have entered the specified num- 
ber of characters, a packet will be 
sent. A third way is based on time. 
You can tell your TNC to send a 
packet every "n** seconds or after 
you have stopped typing for ,J n" 
seconds. You can use these three 
methods in any combination on 
most TNCs. 

The end effect is that you just 
type on your keyboard, and the 
TNC takes care of sending the 
packets. Because of the packet- 



76 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 



ization process, there is always an 
occasional gap in your transmis- 
sions on the air. During these 
gaps, packets from the other sta- 
tion can be received. You can- 
choose to see characters from 
the other station as soon as they 
are received, although most 
people use the FLOW ON com- 
mand to get the TNC to hold 
characters from the other station 
until you have entered a com- 
plete line. What you then see on 
the screen are lines that you 
have entered interspersed with 
lines transmitted from the other 
station. 

At least one TNC automatical- 
ly performs a split-screen func- 
tion. This gives you maximum 
flexibility in how you want to 
conduct your conversations. You 
can still talk in a paragraph mode, 
in which you finish a complete 
thought before the other station 
begins to respond. Or, you can 
rapidly trade short comments 
without having to make sure that 
the other station has dropped 
its carrier before you turn yours 
on and without having to use 
procedural signals such as 
OVER, K, AR, BK, or SO HW 
CPY OM. The TNC is taking 
care of that automatically, Full 
break-in RTTY is a joy to oper- 
ate. We've all sat helplessly as a 
three-minute 60-wpm transmis- 
sion has come in, answering a 
question we didn't ask. Packet 
gives you the opportunity to say, 
"Wait, you misunderstood the 
question, 11 

A second benefit of packet- 
ization is more positive control 
over computer bulletin board 
systems (BBS), If you're an ac- 
tive RTTY mailbox user, how 
many times have you accidental- 
ly initiated a far longer dump 
from a mailbox than you intend- 
ed? RTTY mailboxes can't hear 
while they 1 re transmitting. A pack- 
et BBS can, once every 128 char- 
acters or so. You can write RTTY 
software that will turn off the trans- 
mitter and listen for a "go ahead'' 
command, but that takes more 
software and will slow down 
someone who is getting what he 
asked for 

The third benefit of packets 
zation I'll discuss this month is 
channel sharing. Digital devices 
can send characters faster than 
most hams can type. Whether 
you're sending on RTTY at 60 
to 100 wpm or on packet at 
360, 1,440, or more wpm, you 
can't keep the pipe full by 
hand, and sooner or later your 
type-ahead buffer runs dry. On 



RTTY and AMTOR, dead space 
between entered characters is 
filled with idtes, diddles, or 
straight tone. The frequency is 
Ir in use'* even though no useful 
information is being sent. If your 
typing speed is 30 wpm and the 
channel speed is 60 wpm f 50% 
of the channel time is being 
wasted. 

On packet, all characters are 
queued up in the TNC until a 
packet is sent. Only then does 
your station go on the air. If 
your typing speed is 30 wpm 
and the channel speed is 1,440 
wpm t your station will only be 
on the air 2% of the time, or ac- 
tually closer to 4% counting over- 
head. This leaves 96% of the 
channel free for other conver- 
sations, even though you are 
"using the frequency/ Thus, 
there is room for 24 other 30- 
wpm typists on the same channel 
at the same time. Federal law 
requires me to tell you that, just 
as with EPA mileage, your rates 
may differ, The mechanics of 
sharing the channel tend to eat 
up some of the time. Future 
columns wilf discuss this matter 
in detail. To answer the first 
question that always comes up 
when channel sharing is dis- 
cussed, your TNC takes care of 
showing you only those packets 
being sent to you. But yes, you 
can choose to see packets that 
aren't directed at you (reading the 
mail), and yes, there is a way to 
send CO, 

So, there we have three things 
packet provides that have nothing 
to do with linked digipeaters or 
error-free communications. !*ll 
name a few more and save de- 
tailed discussion for future 
months, 

Packet uses the full 8-bit ASCII 
character set Thai means you 
can use all of the special char- 
acters, as well as lowercase. This 
tends to make conversations 
more expressive, since shout- 
ing is usually done in upper- 
case, LIKE THIS, As a more 
practical matter, it also makes 
connecting computers to ra- 
dio easier, since you don't have 
to worry about mapping a 7- 
or 8-bit code set to a S-bit one. 
You can use the control*C char- 
acter to abort a message in prog- 
ress on BBS systems, for in* 
stance. It is easy to connect 
other computer-based devices 
to packet, such as SSTV convert- 
ers, because the TNC is taking 
care of all of the communications 
aspects. 
Packetization makes nondi reel- 



ed round-tables possible. That's 
where everyone on the channel 
taiks to everybody all at once, as 
in a Dayton hospitality suite. A du- 
plex packet repealer is used for 
that purpose out here, and until 
youVe actualfy taken part in a 28- 
way simultaneous conversation, 
you won't understand why you'd 
want to. 

One last thing for this month 
that packet provides: fun. As I 
was writing this. Utah hams 
were putting up a new digipeat- 
er or two so that it was possible 
to get to Salt Lake City from 
southern California. One of the 
southern California packeteers, 
AA6TN, was having such a good 
time he didn't know which to 
do, work Utah or contact other 
local hams to let them know 
what was happening. He used 
packet to Utah with one hand and 
passed the news on a local voice 
repeater with the other. Although 
an eight-digipeater path is tenu- 
ous, it does establish future net- 
working sites. The hard part of a 
nationwide VHF network is getting 
all the antennas, radio, TNCs, and 
Forest Service permits in place. 
Once the hardware is running, 
software improvements like those 
announced at the Orlando confer- 
ence in March will provide the 
solid performance that packet 
promises. 

Orlando 

The 5th Amateur Radio Com- 
puter Networking Conference, 
sponsored by the ARRL, was held 
in Orlando, Florida in March. 
These conferences attract hams 
from all over North America and 
abroad to discuss packet radio 
issues and plan for the future. 
They are scheduled at rough- 
ly one-year intervals and usually 
trade coasts each year. During 
the conference, there were sev- 
eral demonstrations of software 
that wilt provide the next level 
of network linking. These "smart 
digipeaters" will spring up like 
wildfire as soon as final testing 
is complete. As is usual t there 
is more than one way to skin a 
cat. Two different methods of 
networking were shown, and each 
method had a camp of loyal 
followers. The whole topic of 
networking will be discussed in 
an article in the August issue 
of 73, so reserve your copy now. 
The technical papers that were 
presented at the conference have 
been bound and published by the 
ARRL and are available from the 
League, as are the Proceedings of 
the 5th Networking Conference. 



Up To Date News 

Due to the publication delays in 
large magazines, you won't see 
many news-breaking items here 
first. I'll try to provide background 
and commentary for major news 
items, though. The job of this 
column is to take a more leisurely 
look at things, to answer your 
questions, and to fill in the gaps. 
There are several excellent ways 
to keep track of the fast-moving 
world of packet as things happen, 
however. 

The best way is to take the 
plunge and get on packet. Even 
if you primarily want to rag- 
chew, the various BBS systems 
in your area carry the latest 
news, One of the newsletters 
you usually find on packet BBS 
systems is the GATEWAY news* 
letter. The ARRL publishes this 
newsletter every two weeks and 
permits the reproduction and 
dfsserni nation of the information 
on packet systems. The newslet- 
ter is also available by subscrip- 
tion, if you do read it on a packet 
system, please drop them a line to 
let them know so they can contin- 
ue to justify the expense of releas- 
ing it "for free." Another way to 
get current information is via 
CompuServe's HAMNET. This 
will cost you some bucks, but 
most of the news and technical 
information finds its way to HAM- 
NET sooner or later. Vm on HAM- 
NET, and so are the Fun! and 
RTTY Loop columnists and the 
73 Editor, but don T t let that dis- 
suade you. 

For international packet users, 
as well as focal folks, the UoSat- 
OSCAR-9 and UoSat-OSCAR-1 1 
spacecraft carry plain-text ASCII 
bulletins that include major pack- 
et news. A future column will con- 
tain information on how to copy 
the digital satellites. I have at least 
a year's backlog of things to talk 
about, so I hope no one catches 
me having a good time and shuts 
me down before then. The AM- 
SAT publications provide satellite 
information. Ask an AMSAT mem- 
ber for a peek at his back issues, 
or better yet, become a member 
yourself. There will be two packet* 
related amateur satellite launches 
this year, 

That's all for this month, next 
month Pll discuss FCC RM 85- 
105> the automatic control order, 
plans for an STA request for auto- 
matic control of HF store-and-for- 
ward message systems, and the 
Dayton packet activities. Until 
then, see you on packet. ■ 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 77 




PECIAL EVENTS 



Listings in this column are pro- 
vided free of charge on a space- 
a variable basis. The following in- 
formation should be included in 
every announcement: sponsor, 
event, date, time, place, city, 
state, admission charge (if any), 
features, talk-in frequencies, and 
(he name of whom to contact for 
further information. Announce- 
ments must be received by 73 
Magazine by the first of the 
month, two months prior to the 
month in which the event takes 
place. Mail to Editorial offices, 73 
Magazine, WGE Center, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458-1 194. 

PICCOLO SPOLETO FESTIVAL 
MAY 24-JUN 7 

The Trident ARC will operate 
N4EE to commemorate the Pic- 
colo Spoleto Festival's ninth sea- 
son of presenting local and south- 
eastern regional taJent from every 
artistic discipline, as follows: 1400 
UTC to 2400 UTC on May 24-25. 
May 31-June 1. and June 7. 
SSB— 7.249, 14.240, 2t .340, and 
28.540; CW— 7.120 and 21.120. 
Certificate for OSL and Large 
SASE to TARA. PO Box 73, Sum- 
merville SC 29484-0073. 

BLOSVALE NY 
JUN1 

The Rome (New York) Radio 
Club, Inc., witl sponsor its 34th an- 
nual Ham Family Day on June 1, 
beginning at 9 a.m., at Becks 
Grove, BJosvale, New York. Talk- 
in on 146.28/88 and 146.34/94. 
For more information or for reser- 
vations, write the Rome Radio 
Club, inc., Box 721, Rome NY 
13440, or call William Effland at 
(315^853-5700. 

HUMBOLDT TN 
JUN1 

The Humboldt ARC wiK sponsor 
its annual hamfest on Sunday, 
June 1, at Bailey Park, 22nd Av- 
enue, Humboldt, from 8 a.m. to 4 
p.m. Admission is $1 . Talk-in on 
,37/.97. For further information, 
contact Ed Holmes W4IGW, 501 
N. 18th Avenue, Humboldt TN 
38343. 

CHELSEA Ml 
JUN1 

The Chelsea Communications 
Club will sponsor its ninth annual 
Swap 'N* Shop on June 1, from 8 



a.m. to 2 p.m., at the Chelsea Fair- 
grounds, Chelsea, Michigan. Ad- 
mission is $2.50 in advance and 
$3 at the door. YLs, XYLs. and 
kids under 12 are free. Table 
space (8 feet) is $8; trunk sale 
space is $2. Talk-in on 147,255. 
For more information, call (517)- 
764-5785, or write William Al- 
tenberndt, 31 32 Timbertine, Jack- 
son Ml 49201 . 

MILESTONES OF MEMORIES 
JUN 



The Wichita (Kansas) ARC will 
operate special-event station W0 
SOE from Lewis, Kansas, on June 
5-8 to help celebrate its centenni- 
al. The Milestones of Memories 
operation will be on approximately 
3,875, 7,250 t 14.250, and 21,325 
MHz. QSL via W0SOE, Wichita 
ARC. 707 N. Main, Wichita KS 
67203, 

LIGHTSHIP PORTSMOUTH 

JUN 6-8 

The Portsmouth (Virginia) ARC 
will operate W4POX on June 6-8, 
1500-0800 UTC daily, from the 
Lightship Portsmouth at the 
Portsmouth Seawall Festival. Fre- 
quencies are 7.230 and 14.290. 
For a commemorative OSL, send 
a OSL and an SASE to W4POX. 
4800 Manor Avenue, Portsmouth 
VA 23703. For a QSL and a certifi- 
cate, send your card and a 9 x 1 2 
envelope with 44 cents postage. 

GUELPH ONT 
JUN 7 

The Kitchener-Waterloo ARC 
will sponsor the 12th annual Cen- 
tral Ontario Amateur Radio Flea 
Market and Computerfest on Sat- 
urday, June 7, from 8 a.m. to 2 
p.m., at the Col. John McRae Le- 
gion Hall, Guelph, Ontario. Ad- 
mission is $2. Inside space is $8 
(table included). Outside space is 
$3. Talk-in on 147.960/.360 and 
.52. For more information, write 
the Kitchener-Waterloo ARC, PO 
Box 812, Kitchener, Ontario. 
Canada N2J 402, or call Paul 
VE3CHM at (519)-579-3057. 

NORTH GEORGIA 
JUN 7 

The John Ross ARC will spon- 
sor the fourth annual North Geor- 
gia Hamfest on Saturday. June 7, 
beginning at 8 a.nru at Lakeview 
Fort Oglethorpe High School, five 
miles south of Chattanooga, Ten- 



nessee. Admission is $1; flea- 
market spaces are S6; targeting 
spaces are $2. Exams will be 
given. For more information, 
write the John Ross ARC, PO Box 
853. Rossvdle GA 30741 . or call 
Mure! Winans KA4LMG at (404)- 
867-7739. 

ST. PAUL MN 
JUN 7-8 

The North Area Repeater Asso- 
ciation will sponsor its Amateur 
Fair on the weekend of June 7 and 
8 at the Minnesota State Fair- 
grounds in St. Paul, Minnesota. 
Admission is $4 in advance or $5 
at the Fair. Amateur license ex- 
ams wifl be given. Giant outdoor 
flea market, exhibits, commercial 
dealers. Free overnight parking 
June 6 and 7 for self-contained 
campers. Talk-in on .25/.85or .16/ 
.76 repeaters. For dealer in- 
quiries, tickets, and further infor- 
mation, write Amateur Fair, PO 
Box 857, Hopkins MN 55343, or 
call{612)-566-4000. 

OHIO WINE MONTH 
JUN 7-8 

WINO (Wireless Institute of 
Northern Ohio), an organization 
sponsored by the Lake County 
Amateur Radio Association, will 
be on the air from a winery in 
Madison, Ohio, with the call 
K080, to commemorate Ohio 
Wine Month, Operation witl be on 
3.860 and 7.235 from 2300 UTC to 
0300 UTC, Saturday, June 7, and 
on 7.235 and 14.235 from 1500 
UTC to 1900 UTC on Sunday. For 
a special 8-1/2 x 11 certificate, 
send a legal-size SASE to K080 
WINO Weekend, 7126 Andover 
Drive, Mentor OH 44060. 

25TH ANNIVERSARY 

FAIR LAWN NJ ARC 

JUN 7-8 

The Fair Lawn ARC will operate 
the club station under founding 
member Frank Leonard's call, 
W2NPT, to commemorate the 
25th anniversary of the club. Op- 
eration witl be from 1300 to 2200 
UTC on the 7th and from 1400 to 
1500 UTC on the 8th. Frequen- 
cies: CW— 7.050, 7.1 10, 14.050, 
and 21.050 (±10 kHz); phone— 
7.285, 14.285, and 21.385 (±10 
kHz), For a certificate* send a QSL 
and an SASE to Frank Leonard 
W2NPT. 17-12 Well Drive. Fair 
Lawn NJ 07410. 

LOVEL AND CO 
JUN 7-8 

The Northern Colorado ARC 
will sponsor Superfest Vltl on 
June 7-8, beginning at 9 a.m, f at 



the Larimer County Fairgrounds, 
Level and, Colorado. Admission is 
$3; tables are $5; tailgating is 
$5. For more information, contact 
Cliff Baker W0ITD, 2623 52nd Av- 
enue, Greeley CO 80634; (303)- 
330-3548. 

ERLANGER KY 
JUN 7-8 

The Northern Kentucky ARC 
will sponsor Ham*0-Rama "86 on 
June 7-8, beginning at 8 a.m., at 
the Best Western Vegas Conven- 
tion Center, Erlanger, Kentucky, 
Admission for both days is $5; 
children under 13 are free. Indoor 
and outdoor flea market — contact 
AF4Y or WD4PBF at the gate for 
spaces and prices. Talk-in on 
147.855/.255. For more informa- 
tion, call Joe Dunnett WA4WNF at 
(606)-371-2255 or wrile NKARC at 
PO Box 1062, Covington KY 
41012. 

SJRA 70TH 
JUN 7-16 

The South Jersey Radio Associ- 
ation, the oldest radio club in the 
U.S., wilt operate special-event 
station K2AA from 1200 UTC on 
June 7 until 1200 UTC on June 16 
in celebration of the club's 70th 
birthday. Frequencies: phone — 
3.890, 7.240, 14.280, 21,360. 
28.600; CW— 3 590, 7.050, 
14.050, 21.090, 26J50; two me- 
ters; Novice bands. For a com- 
memorative QSL. send an SASE 
and a QSL (or log info) to the 
South Jersey Radio Association, 
PO Box 1026, Haddonfield NJ 
08033. 

LEWISBURG PA 
JUN 8 

The Milton ARC will hold its 
12th annual hamfest on Sunday. 
June 8, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., at 
the Winfield Firemen's Fair- 
ground, four mites south of Lewis- 
burg, Pennsylvania. Admission is 
$3; women and children are free. 
Talk-in on 146.37/.97 or 146.025/ 
.625. For more information, con- 
tact Jerry Williamson WA3SXQ, 
10 Old Farm Lane, Milton PA 

17847; (71 7)-742-3027. 

ROANOKE VOYAGES 
JUN 8, 10 

The Raleigh Amateur Society, 
in conjunction with the hams of 
North Carolina and in cooperation 
with the North Carolina Stale De- 
partment of Cultural Resources, 
wilt celebrate the 400th anniver- 
sary of Sir Walter RaJeigh's 
Roanoke Voyages by operating 
special-event station W4DW. Op- 
eration will be on 3.905, 7.250, 



78 73 Amateur Radio • J une , 1 986 



and 14.335 MHz (±QRM) from 
1500 to 2100 UTC on both Sun- 
day, June 8, and Tuesday, June 
10. For a commemorative QSL 
card and historic literature, send 
your QSL card and a #10 SASE to 
W4DW RARS, PO Box 17124, 
Raleigh NC 27619, Your card and 
our logs will become a permanent 
part of me log of Elizabeth II, a 
sailing replica of the original craft. 

QUEENS NY 
JUN8 

The Hall of Science ARC will 
sponsor a hamfest on June 8, 
from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. , at the Hall of 
Science Parking Lot, Flushing 
Meadow Park, 47-01 1 1 1th Street, 
Corona. Queens, New York. Ad- 
mission is $3 for buyers; $5 for 
sellers. Talk-in on 144.300 sim- 
plex link, 223.600 repeat, and 
445,225 repeat. For more infor- 
mation, call John Powers KA2AH J 
at (71 8)-B47-8007 t or Arnie Schiff- 
man WB2YXB at (718J-3430172. 

GRANITE CITY IL 
JUN8 

The Egyptian Radio Club will 
hold its 57th annual hamfest on 
Sunday, June 8, from 8 a.m. to 3 
p,m +l at the ERC clubhouse and 
grounds. Admission is $1 in ad- 
vance: $2 at the door. The first 
flea-market space is free: each 
additional space is $5. Directions: 
I-270 to IL Route 3 South, turn 
right at Chain of Rocks Road, then 
follow signs. Talk-in on 1 46,1 6Z.76 
or 146,52. For tickets or more in- 
formation, send an SASE to the 
Egyptian Radio Club, PQ Box 
562, Granite City IL 62040. 

DREXEL HILL PA 
JUN8 

The Delaware County ARA will 
sponsor its seventh annual ham- 
fest on June 8, beginning at 8 
a.TTh, at the Drexel Hill Middle 
School, Drexel Hill PA. Admission 
is $3, Indoor tables with power are 
$3; outside tailgating is free. Ex- 
ams will be given. Talk-in on 

147 96/36, 224.5 , and 146.52. 
For more information, write to 
Hamfest, DCARA, PO Box 236 T 
Springfield PA 19064, or call Bar- 
bara N3DLG at (21 5)-535-1 61 6. 

NEWINGTON CT 
JUN8 

The Newington ARL will hold its 
third annual flea market on Sun- 
day, June B, from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., 
at Newington High School, 
Wlllard Avenue (Route 173), New- 
ington, Connecticut. Admission is 
$2. Tables are $10; tailgating is 
$5. Talk-in on 146,52, 144.85/ 



145.45, and 223.24/224.84. For 
more information, send an SASE 
to Les Andrew KA1 KRP, 23 Grove 
Street, West Hartford CT 06110; 
(203)-523-0453 J 

WRIGHTSTOWN PA 
JUN 8 

The Warminster ARC wilJ spon- 
sor its 12th annual hamfest on 
Sunday. June 8, beginning at 7 
am., at the Mtddfetown Grange 
Fairgrounds, Penns Park Road, 
Wrightstown, Pennsylvania. Ad- 
mission is $3; XYLs and children 
are free. Outdoor tailgating 
spaces are $5; indoor spaces with 
8-foot table and power are $5 (pre- 
registration suggested). Talk*in 
on 147.69/.09 and 146.52. For in- 
formation or pre-regisfration, con- 
tact Chuck Dunn KA3FQQ, 1414 
Bradley Lane, Warminster PA 

18974; (215)674-8567. 

LOUSMLLE KY 
JUN 11-14 

The Antique Radio Club of 
America will hold its annual na- 
tional convention on June 11-14 
in Louisville, Kentucky. All inter- 
ested people are invited. ARCA 
has about 1 000 members who col- 
lect and restore antique wireless 
and radio equipment and who 
study and record the history of 
early radio, For more information 
on the convention or ARCA mem- 
bership, contact ARCA, 81 
Steeplechase Road, Devon PA 
19333: (215)-688-2976. 

CORTLAND NY 
JUN 14 

The Skyline ARC will sponsor a 
hamfest and flea market on Satur- 
day. June 14, from 8 am to 5 
p.m., at the Cortland County Fair- 
grounds, Cortland, New York. Ad- 
mission is $3; under ^2 free. Out- 
door flea-market spaf e is $1 ; an 
indoor table is $5. For more mfor- 
mation, call Billy N2AGF at (607)- 
749*3766. Or Bud K2ZER at (607)- 
753-3994. 

BSA SCOUT-O-RAMA 
JUN 14 

The Chicago Suburban Radio 
Association will operate its third 
annual special-event amateur-ra- 
dio station, N9BAT, from Ihe 
Brookfield Zoo. Brookfield, Illi- 
nois, on June 14 T from 1500 to 
2300 UTC t as part of the West 
Suburban Council. BSA. annual 
Scout-O-Rama, Frequencies; 
7.250 and 14.250 MHz. A special 
full-color QSL card available for a 
QSL card and business-size 
SASE to N9BAT Special Event, 
PO Box 88, Lyons IL 60534. 



TWIN FALLS ID 
JUN 14-15 

The Magic Valley Chapter of the 
Idaho Society of Radio Amateurs 
will sponsor a swap meet on June 
14-15, from 10 a.m. to 5 p,m. on 
Saturday and from 8 a.m. to 12 
noon on Sunday, at the Moose 
Lodge, 835 Falls Avenue, Twin 
Falls. Idaho. Admission is free. 
Talk-in on 146.16/.76, For more 
information, write the Idaho Soci- 
ety of Radio Amateurs, Magic Val- 
ley Chapter, PO Box 294, Twin 
Falls ID 83303. 

CROWN POINT IN 
JUN 15 

The Lake County ARC will 



sponsor its 14th annual Fathers* 
Day Hamfest on Sunday, June 1 5. 
from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m., at the Lake 
County Fairgrounds Industrial 
Building, Crown Point, Indiana, 
Admission is $3. Tables will be 
available. Talk-in on 147.84/.24 or 
146.52. For more information, 
write Bill DeGeer W9TY. 3601 
Tyler Street, Gary IN 46408. or 
call (219J-887-5413 after 6 p.m. 

FREDERICK MD 
JUN 15 

The Frederick ARC will hold its 
9th annual hamfest on June 15, 
from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., at the Fred- 
erick Fairgrounds, Frederick, 
Maryland. (Gates open tor ex- 




ATELLITES 



USING THE AO-10 PREDICTIONS 

Apogee predictions for the month of June are provided for three 
sections of the United States: Washington, DC; Denver, Colorado: 
and Los Angeles, California. Times are in UTC and apogee in this case 
is mean anomaly 128 rounded to the nearest whole hour. Use the chart 
as a guide in aiming your antenna, then fine-tune the azimuth and 
elevation values to peak the satellite's beacon signal. If you require 
more accurate orbital predictions, contact AMSAT at PO Box 27, Wash- 
ington DC 20044. 

AMSAT-OSCAR 10 APOGEE PREDICTIONS 

June 1986 







WASH 


DENVER 


LA 


DAY 


TIME 


AZ 


EL 


AZ 


EL 


AZ 


EL 


1 


1301 


172 


19 


146 


10 


134 


7 


2 


1220 


163 


18 


138 


6 


128 


2 


3 


1139 


154 


15 


131 


1 






4 


1058 


145 


11 










5 


1017 


138 


6 










6 


0936 


131 


1 










o 


1954 










234 


1 


9 


1913 










228 


6 


10 


1832 






230 


1 


221 


11 


11 


1751 






223 


5 


213 


16 


12 


1710 






215 


10 


204 


21 


13 


1629 


230 


1 


207 


14 


195 


24 


14 


1549 


223 


6 


198 


17 


185 


25 


15 


1508 


215 


11 


188 


18 


174 


25 


16 


1427 


207 


15 


179 


19 


164 


23 


17 


1346 


198 


18 


169 


18 


155 


21 


18 


1305 


188 


20 


160 


16 


146 


17 


19 


1224 


178 


21 


151 


14 


138 


12 


20 


1143 


169 


19 


142 


9 


131 


6 


21 


1102 


159 


17 


135 


5 


125 





22 


1021 


150 


14 


128 









23 


0940 


142 


10 










24 


0859 


134 


5 










« -■* 


0818 


127 













27 


1836 










233 


3 


28 


1755 










226 


9 


29 


1714 






228 


3 


219 


14 


30 


1633 






221 


8 


211 


19 



73 Amateur Radio * June, 1966 79 



hibitors at 8 p.m. on the 14th. 
Overnight security and parking 
provided.) Admission is S3 P lail- 
gaters $2 additional; exhibitor ta- 
bles are $10 for the first, $5 for 
each additional table. YLs and 
children admitted free. For addi- 
tional information, write Jim Ka- 
suntc KA3LPC, 9419 Highlander 
Court, WaSkersvilte MD 21793. 

DUNELLEN N J 
JUN21 

The Raritan Valley Radio Club 
will hold its 15th annual hamfest 
on Saturday, June 21. beginning 
at 8 a.rm, at Columbia Park, 
DuneJIen, New Jersey. Admission 
*s $3; spouses and children are 
free. One selling space is $5; S10 
for multiple spaces. Tables are 
not supplied. Talk-in on 146.025/ 
,625 and 146.52, For more infor- 
mai*on T call Dave KA2TSM at 
(201}-763^849 or Bill N2AZX at 
(20< i 467-7342. 

ARGONNE LAB 
JUN21 

The Argonne ARC will operate 
special-event station W9QVE 
from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. CST on 
June 21 to commemorate the 40th 
anniversary of the establishment 
of the U.S. National Laboratory 



System (Argonne was the first). 
Operation will be on 144.59/ 
145,19 and the phone portion of 
the 20-meler General band. Send 
a OSL and an SASE to AARC. PO 
Box 275, Argonne IL 60438. 

MANCHESTER NH 

Jim 2i 

The New Hampshire FM Asso- 
ciation will sponsor an amateur ra- 
dio/electronics flea market on Sat- 
urday, June 21, beginning at 9 
a.m., at the Manchester Municipal 
Airport, Manchester, New Hamp- 
shire. The rain date is Sunday, 
June 22. Admission is $1: $5 for 
sellers— tables not provided. 
Talk-in on 146.52 FM, For more 
information, contact Pete Henrrk- 
sen WA1 RCF, 1 23 Woodlawn Cir- 
cle. Portsmouth NH 03801; (603)- 
431-5432— or call Doug Aiken 

K1 WPM at (603}-622-0831 - 

TWIN VALLEY 100TH 
JUN 27-30 

Special-event station KEflDJ 
will be operated on June 27-30 to 
commemorate the centennial of 
Twin Valley, Minnesota, Opera- 
tion will be primarily on 1 5. 20, and 
40 phone, as well as available 
satellites. QSL with #10 SASE to 
KEMXJ. c/o Dale Gary WDGAKO, 



1318 34th Avenue S. #301 , 
head MN 56560. 

GRAND RAPIDS Ml 
JUN 28 

The Independent Repeater As- 
sociation will sponsor its annual 
IRA Hamfest, "The Amateur Ex- 
travaganza/ 1 on June 28, from 8 
a.m. to 4 p.m., at the 44th Street 
Armory, Grand Rapids. Admis- 
sion is $3,50; tables free. Take 
U.S. 131 south of Grand Rapids to 
44th Street and go west 1 mile. 
Talk-in on 147.765/-165. For table 
reservations and further informa- 
tion, write the Independent Re- 
peater Association, 562 92nd 
Street. Byron Center Ml 49315. 
or call Abe W8HVG at (616)- 
455-3915. 

LINCOLN BIRTHPLACE 
JUN 28-29 

The Lincoln Trail ARC will oper- 
ate speciaUevent station W4BEJ 
from the Abraham Lincoln Birth* 
piace National Historic Site near 
Hodgenville, Kentucky, during 
Field Day, June 28-29. For a 
commemorative certificate, send 
a QSL and an SASE (Note: 
LTARC log will show only Field 
Day calls— be sure that you in- 
clude that information) to LTARC, 



PO Box 342, Vine Grove KY 
40175. 

VANCOUVER 100TH/ 
VARC 50TH 
JUN 28-29 

The Vancouver ARC is cele- 
brating its home city's centennial 
and its own 50th anniversary by 
operating two Field Day stations 
on June 28-29, In cooperation 
with the Expo '86 Amateur Radio 
Committee, the cfub will operate 
station VE7 EXPO and station VC 
1 00, Those who contact either sta- 
tion will receive a special QSL 

ACB 50TH 
JUN29-JUL5 

The ACB Radio Amateurs, a 
special-interest affiliate of the 
American Council of the Blind, will 
operate special-event station 
KW4U from 0000 UTC on June 29 
until 2400 UTC on July 5 from the 
Hilton Hotel in Nashville TIM, the 
sight of the ACB's silver anniver- 
sary convention. Operation will be 
80 through 10 meters: 30 kHz 
from the bottom of CW bands; 5 
kHz from the bottom of phone 
bands (±QRM). For a commemo- 
rative certificate, send a QSL to 
John McCann K4WU 2105 W. Illi- 
nois Street, Arlington VA 22205. 



FEEDBACK 



In our continuing effort to present the best in amateur radio features and columns, we've decided to go 
directly to the source— you r the reader. Below, the articles and columns in this issue are assigned numbers. 
These numbers correspond to those on the "Feedback" card opposite this page. On the card, please check 
the box which honestly represents your opinion of each article or column, 

"What's in it forme?" comes the cry from our faithful readers. Besides the knowledge that you're helping us 
find out what you like (and don't like), we'll draw one Feedback card each month and award the lucky winner a 
free one-year subscription (or extension) to 73. 

To save some money on stamps, why not fill out the Reader Service card, the Product Report card, and the 
Feedback card and put them in an envelope. Toss in a damning or praising letter to the editor while you're at it. 
You can also enter your QSL in our QSL of the Month contest. All for the low, low price of 22 cents! 



Feedback # 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 



Title 

A Walk Through the VHF/UHF Spectrum 

Hams in Space 

Two to Ten 

Some Guys Make It . . . 

Digital Simplex Repeaters 

Messing With Microwaves 

They Threw What Away? 

Those Tantalizing Twos 

Computer Rotor Control 

Review: ICOM's IC-471A versus 

Kenwood's TS-811 A 
Review; The MFJ-1270TNC 
Barter 'N f Buy 



13 


Contests 


14 


Dealer Directory 


15 


Fun! 


16 


Letters 


17 


Looking West 


18 


Never Say Die 


19 


New Products 


20 


NK6K> Packet 


21 


Propagation 


22 


QRP 


23 


QRX 


24 


RTTY Loop 


25 


73 International 



60 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



ADVERTISERS 



H»Vi* 



1 

2 



4 
74 

18 

• 

7 
S3 
41 




46 



10 

85 
11 

12 

■ 

15 
87 



158 

* 

58 

17 
72 
19 
20 



22 

157 
159 
56 



161 

152 

24 

89 

25 

47 

153 

28 

70 

91 

80 

84 

1SS 

50 

154 

28 

29 

44 

30 
31 

33 
32 
34 



160 
35 
$1 
77 

n 

00 

79 
38 
39 
40 



AEA 

Advanced Computer Controls 

All Electronics , 

Aline© Electronics, Inc 

Amaieur Corom . , Etc 
Amateur Electronic Supply 4 . . 

Amitfon Associates 

Antique Electronic Supply 
Astron Corp, . , 



■ • ■ j 



36 
...11 

. 109 
103 
...90 
56,57 
...45 
.108 
51 



■ ■ + ■ 



The At lan la Hamfestival 32 

BJX Supply Co 47 

Barker & Williamson 54 

Bar ry Electronics .55 

Bill Ashoy & Son .81 

Britl's 2-Way Radio 12 

CES.Inc* 107 

Cfiarge-flita 110 

Com m un ic at ions E lect ron Lcs 63 

Communications Specialists 99 

Comprad 81 

Computer Trader ,..*>. + ,*.*, 95 

Connect Systems, Inc. . , 2 

47 

* * » - 81 

9 

105 

18 

.71 

45 

62 

108 



tf « i'hi| m ****** * ■ m 



■ ■*,■■ 



Dick Smiih Electronics 
Ooppler Systems 
ENCOMM. Inc. 
ENCOMM. Inc. 
Etron RF Enterprises 
Engineering Consulting 
FoK-Tango ........ 

GLB Electronics 

Glen Martin Engineering 

Hal-Tron«x 54 

Ham Radio Outlet , 1 

The Ham Station 32. 50 

Hamtronics, NY 37 

ICOM America, Inc Cov. II. 18 

Indianapolis Hamfest 59 

Jan Crystals .36 

Jensen Tools ... 18 

Kakjlo 16 

Kantronics 111 

Kenwood 5,6,20,Cov. IV 

The Laser Press , 108 



I 4 ■ ■ t 1 I 



■< » ' 



H P » 1 1 » . . 1 > t-' ■ 



w w m . 



.... 



18 
24 
14 
15 
29 
19 



La rsen Antennas 

MFJ Enterprises 

MFJ Enterprises 

MFJ Enterprises 

Madison Electronic Supply 

Maggiore Electronic Lab 

Medford Specialized Services . 18 

Micro Control Specialties . 107 

Mcroiog Corp. 3i 

Mirage/KLM . . . . . 16 

Missouri Radio Center 112 

Multi-Botics 62 

Nemal Electronics 19 

Nemal Electronics ,.,,, + ,..., 93 

Ovonic Thermo Electric Co ,18 

P.C Electronics , 23 

The PX Shack 95 

Pac-Comm Packet Radio Systems, 

Inc , .93 



h i L ■ i 



QEPS 

Radio Amateur Cadbook. Inc 

Radiokit 

Radio Engineers 

Ramsey Electronics 

73 

Subscriptions 

Sweepstakes 

Silicon Solutions 

Simpson 

Spoc-Com Journal 
Spectrum Communications . 

I %JF%JM „__.... 

Ten-Tec 

Thomson Software , 108 

Vanguard Labs 90 

W9 INN Antennas ,.,,106 

Western Electronics 90 

Yaesu Electronics Cov. Ill 



108 
13 
81 

108 
87 

.33 

.97 

25 

19 

36 

.13 

106 

101 



■ Please correspond with this company directly. 



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0304A 

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PACKET RADIO 



PAC/NET SYSTEM 




ASCII-USA/AX.25 
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USA/AX.25 is the AM RAD approved digital 
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73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 81 




ARTER 'N' BUY 



Individual (noncommercial) 25c per word 

Commercial . , . . , 60c per word 

Prepayment by Check or money order is required with your ad. No 
discounts or commissions are available, Please make your payment to 
73. 

Advertising must pertain to amateur radio products or services. No 
special layouts or positions are possible. All advertising copy must be 
submitted typewritten {double-spaced) and must include full name and 
address. Copy limited to 1 00 words- maximum. Count only words in text. 
Address, free. 

73 cannot verify advertising claims and cannot be held responsible for 
claims made by (tie advertiser. Liability will be limited to making any 
necessary corrections m the next available issue. 

Copy must be received in Peterborough by the 5th of the second 
month preceding the cover date. 

Make checks payable to 73 Magazine and send to: Mope Currier* 73 
Magazine, W6E Center, Peterborough NH 03458-1 194. 



MILITARY TECHNICAL MANU- 
ALS for old and obsolete equip- 
ment. 60-page catalog, $3.00. Mil- 
itary Technical Manual Service, 
2266 Senasac Ave>, Long Beach 
CA90815. BNB045 

HAM RADIO REPAIR, tube 
through solid state. Robert HaJI 
Electronics, PO Box 8363, San 

Francisco CA 94128; (40SJ-729- 
E200.BNB219 

QSLs to order, Variety of styles. 
colors, card stock. W4BPD QSLs t 
PO Drawer DX, Cordova SC 
29039. BNB260 

THE DX'ERS MAGAZINE. Up-tCK 
date, informative, interesting. 
Compiled and edited by Gus 
Browning W4BPD. OXCC Honor 
Roll Certificate 2-4, Send for free 
sample and subscription informa- 
tion today. PO Drawer 0X P Cor- 
dova SC 29039. BNB261 

INDIVIDUAL PHOTOFACT 
FOLDERS, #1 to #1400, S3 post- 
paid. Loeb, 414 Cheslnut Lane, 
East Meadow NY 1 1554. BNB312 

I MR A— International Mission Ra- 
dio Associatfon. Forty countries, 
800 members. Assists missionar- 
ies with equipment loaned, week- 
day net 14.280 MHz, 2:00-3:00 
p.nt- Eastern. Brother Bernard 
Frey, 1 Pryer Manor Road, Larch- 
mont NY 10538. BNB326 

ELECTRON TUBES: receiving, 
transmitting, microwave— all 
types available. Large inventory 
means next-day shipment in most 
cases. Daily Electronics, PO Box 
5029, Compton CA 90224; (213)- 
774-1255. BNB330 



RADIO TRANSCRIPTION DISCS 
WANTED, Any size, speed. 
W7FIZ, Box 724-WG, Redmond 
WA 98073-0724. BNB347 

CABLE CONVERTERS, Lowest 
price. Deafer inquiries accepted. 
Quantity discounts. Free catalog. 
P,G, Video Corp., 61 Gatchell St., 
Dept. 73, Buffalo NY 14212. 
BNB349 

ELECTRON TUBES— Radio and 
TV types. 80% off list price— huge 
inventory! Also, industrial types. 
Send for free catalog today or call 
toll-free (800)-221-5602. Box SC, 
Transleteronics, Inc., 1365 39th 
St., Brooklyn NY 11218. BNB370 

CABLE TV CONVERTERS and 

equipment. Plans and parts, Build 
or buy. For information, send 
SASE to C & D Electronics, PO 
Box 1402, Dept 73, Hope AR 
71801. BNB383 

QSL CARDS: 100 for $6.25 and 
500 lor $20.00 postpaid— SASE 
for a sample: Ken Hand WB2EUF r 
PO Box 708 t East Hampton NY 
11937. BNB388 

SURPLUS AND MORE SUR- 
PLUS. Thousands of items, free 
bargain-packed flyers, ETCO 
Electronics, Pittsburgh NY 
12901. BNB399 

XEROX MEMORYWRITER— 

parts, assemblies, boards, manu- 
als. Free help with service prob- 
lems. W6NTH, Box 250. Benton 
AR 72015; (501)-778-0920. 
BNB404 



82 



HAM TRADER YELLOW 
SHEETS, in our 24th year. Buy, 

73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



swap, sell ham-radio gear. Pub- 
lished twice a month. Ads quickly 
circulate— no long wait for results. 
SASE for sample copy, $1 0.00 for 
one year (24 issues). PO Box 
2057, Glen Elfyrt IL 60138-2057. 
BNB412 

ROHN TOWERS— Wholesale di- 
rect to you. 34% discount from the 
Rohn dealer price. All products 
available. Also, very low prices on 
Antenna Specialists antennas 
and Andrews Heliax. Write or call 
for catalog and price list. Hill Ra- 
dio, 2503 G E Road. Bloomington 
IL 61701*1405; (309) -663- 21 41 . 
8NB417 

DIGITAL AUTOMATIC DIS- 
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UN! 



John Edwards KI2U 

PO Box 73 

Middle Village NY 1 1379 

THE SIXTH TIME AROUND 

Is the Fun! Poll an institution or 
does its supervisor just belong in 
one? 

Let's see — in ham radio three 
qualifications are required before 
something can be considered an 
institution. Most important, you 
have to be old. Well, I'm 31 and 
the poll is six. That's not old. it's 
just "getting there." 

Next, ham institutions have to 
be serious. I guess we flunk there, 
too. After all, how can you take 
anything called a Funf Poll seri- 
ously? 

Finally, to be an amateur radio 
institution you have to be outdat- 
ed. We can*! qualify under that 
category either, since more peo- 
ple notice the poll and respond to 
it every year. 

So there you have it: The Funf 
Poll is definitely not an institution. 
That's this year's first conclusion. 

As usual, we had a lot of fun 
tabulating the results. This year, 
computers helped us in a big way: 
two Apple lie's and an Apple He. 
plus a 20-megabyte hard-disk 
drive enabled us to handle the cal- 
culations. That's a lot of comput- 
ing power for a non-institution. 

I'd also like to thank WB2LWJ 
for entering all of that data and 
downloading the responses from 
CompuServe, The Source, and 
MCI Mail. 

The en veto pes, please... 

ELEMENT 1 
BACKGROUND 

1)Sex: 

A) Male— 98% 

B} Female— 2% 
Ham radio, like Mars in that ofd 
8-movie, needs women. 

2) Age: 



A) 15 or below— 2% 

B) 1 $-21 —0% 

C) 22-39—42% 

D) 40-59—40% 

E) SO or above— 1 6% 

The graying of amateur radio. The 
kids are gone! 

3) License class: 

A) Novice — 4% 

B) Technician— 10% 
CJ General— 8% 

D) Advanced— 46% 

E) Extra— 32% 

Fun! obviously attracts a very edu- 
cated audience. 

4) Number of years licensed: 

A) 1 year or less— 8% 

B) 1-5 years— 16% 

C) 6- 10 years— 28% 
0)11-20 years— 8% 

E) 21 years and up — 40% 
A ve(eran crowd, indeed. 

5} Do you have a new (post-March 
78) call? 

A) Yes— 56% 

B) No— 44% 

Next year, we'll have to ask, "Do 
you have an old (pre-March p 78) 
call?" 

6) How many hours a week do you 
devote to amateur radio? 

A) 0-1 hour— 20% 

B) 2-5 hours— 36% 

C) 6-1 hours— 22% 

D) 11-20 hours— 16% 

E) 21 hours or more — 6% 
That '$ a fair amount of activity, 

7) Which HF band do you use 
most? 

A) 60-75 meters— 30% 

B) 40 meters— 18% 
C} 20 meters— 26% 

D) 15 and/or 10 meters— 12% 

E) Don't operate HF— 14% 
Who says the tow bands are obso- 
lete? 

8) Which VHF/UHF band do you 
use most? 

A) 6 meters— 2% 

B) 2 meters— 64% 

C) 220 MHz— 8% 



D) 420 MHz and/or up— 6% 
E} Don't operate VHF/UHF— 
20% 
Hey, guys! Spread out! 

9) Which mode do you use most? 

A) SSB— 44% 

B) CW— 26% 

C) FM— 24% 

D) RTTY— 2% 

E) Other— 4% 
CW holds its own. 

10) How much money have you 
spent on amateur radio within the 
past year? (Include QSL expens- 
es, magazine subscriptions, club 
dues, and other incidental ex- 
penses,) 

A) 0-$250— 42% 

B) $251 -$500— 20% 

C) $501 -$1,000— 18% 

D) $1,001 -$2,500—1 2% 

E) $2,501 and up— 8% 
Compared to many other hobbies, 
that's not a heck of a lot of money 
spent. 

ELEMENT 2 
SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS 

1 1} On the whole, hams are: 

A) too young — 0% 

B) too old— 58% 

C) just the right age— 42% 

At feast the age problem is getting 
some recognition. 

12) Do you like rock music? 

A) Yes— 54% 

B) No— 46% 

Not Lawrence Welk? Not on 2 me- 
ters? 

13) Politically, how would you de- 
fine yourself? 

A) Conservative — 52% 

B) Middle-of-the-road— 30% 

C) Liberal— 18% 
K7UGA must be happy. 

14) Should we get rid ol the 
ARRL? 

A) Yes— 10% 

B) No— 90% 

/ guess that puts me in the minori- 
ty. Vm for attacking Newington 
with a rettysnitch. 

15) How old were you when you 
first became a ham? 

A) 15 or be low— 26% 

B) 16-21—28% 



C) 22-39—32% 
0)40-59—12% 
E) 60 or above— 2% 
See Question 2 and groan* 

16) Should the FCC increase the 
speeds on amateur CW examina- 
tions? 

A) Yes— 6% 

B) No— 94% 

How about increasing the speed 
on the written exam? Give those 
VEs a break. 

17) Do you own a home comput- 
er? 

A) Yes— 74% 

B) No— 26% 

I'd like to meet the hams who 
don*t own one. Probably don't 
even use a digital display, heaven 
forbid. 

18) If you answered "yes" to 
question 17, which brand? 

A) Apple— 20% 

B) IBM— 14% 

C) Radio Shack— 12% 

D) Commodore— 34% 

E) Other— 20% 

Imagine if these figures reflected 
the computer market as a whole. 
Golly. 

19) Do you think that home com- 
puting is siphoning people (in* 
eluding youngsters) away from 
amateur radio? 

A) Yes— 62% 

B) No— 38% 

Those kids have to be doing 
something. 

20) Are hams getting dumber? 

A) Yes— 42% 

B) No— 58% 

Could have fooled us. 

21 ) Do business interests deserve 
some of our virtually abandoned 
bands? 

A) Yes— 10% 

B) No— 90% 

Use it or lose it t I say. 

22) Should ham licenses have a 
minimum age requirement? 

A) Yes— 12% 

B) No— 66% 

We have a de facto one anyway, 
right? 

23) Should ham licenses have a 
maximum age requirement? 



73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 83 



A) Yes— 4% 

B) No— 96% 

How about too years old as a Urn- 
it, or would that eliminate too 
many hams? Only kidding, guys. 

24) Should hams be subject to pe- 
riodic retesting? 

A) Yes— 30% 

B) No— 70% 

Why not? Could be fun. Imagine 
theARRL board of directors flunk- 
ing. 

ELEMENT 3 
OPERATING HABITS 

25) If the users were restricted to 
data communication only (no 
phone or CW operation), would 
you be in favor of a no-code 220- 
MHz digital-class license? 

A) Yes— 74% 

B) No— 26% 

What happened? A few years ago 
we would have been clobbered for 
even asking this question. 

26) Would you be in favor of a 
no-code 220-MHz digital-class 
ticket if it permitted phone opera- 
tion in addition to data transmis- 
sion? 

A) Yes— 52% 

B) No— 48% 
Ditto, 

27) Have you ever used a person- 
al computer in connection with 
your amateur radio activities? 

A) Yes— 66% 

B) No— 34% 

Down 6 percent from fast year, 

28) Is it time to completely deregu- 
late amateur radio by having the 
FCC turn overall responsibility for 
ham operation to the amateur 
community? 

A) Yes— 18% 

B) No— 84% 
Moderation T moderation! 

29) What do you think of people 
who view pay television services 
with MDS converters and satellite 
dishes that are not approved by 
broadcasters? 

A) They're skunks— 2% 



B) They're within their rights — 
96% 
As a dish owner, t agree. 

30) Should we get rid of. or reduce 
in size, the CW subbands? 

A) Yes— 28% 

B) No— 72% 

Let's rename them as "data 
bands. " 

31) Do you think DX nets have a 
ptace in ham radio? 

A) Yes— 76% 

B) No— 24% 

A small place, f think. 

32) Oo you think nets in general 
have a place in ham radio? 

A) Yes— 88% 
B)No— 12% 
As long as they're not DX nets. 

33) The next time a ham operates 
from space, which band should 
he/she use? 

A) 2 meters— 52% 

B) 220 MHz— 14% 

C) 450 MHz— 14% 

D) An even higher band— 6% 

E) Shouldn't bother to oper- 
ate— 14% 

How about 160 meters? They'd 
nave to carry the antenna on an- 
other orbiter* 

34) If, while tuning across a band, 
you heard a net called "Jammers 
International" in progress, would 
you: 

A) Jam it— 2% 

B) Ignore it— 48% 

C) Complain to the FCC or 
some other organization — 
18% 

D) Listen— 26% 

E) Join it— 6% 

Hams are getting mellower in their 
old age. 

35) if required, could you solidly 
copy CW at the speed at which 
you were licensed? 

A) Yes— 82% 

B) NO— 38% 

Sure, and all aspirins are alike. 

36) If required, could you pass the 
FCC theory test for your license 
class? 



A) Yes— 88% 

B)NO— 12% 
But didn't Dick Bash go out of 
business? 

37) Have you ever purposely oper- 
ated in an amateur subband you 
weren't licensed to use? 

A) Yes— 4% 

B) No— 96% 
Oops, the dial slipped. 

38) Are you fluent in any computer 
language? 

A) Yes— 66% 

B) No— 34% 

Of course everyone probably has 
his own definition of "fluent. ' 

39) If you answered "yes** to 

Question 38, which language? 

A) Basic— 50% 

B) Pascal— 8% 

C) Assembler— 10% 

D) Machine— 10% 

E) Other— 22% 

Basic wins again, but the other 
languages are gaining strength. 

40) Do you feel competent to write 
a short Basic program? 

A) Yes— 72% 

B) No— 26% 

10 PRINT "Hello" 



41) Do you feef competent to re- 
place the finals in a transistor-type 
rig? 

A) Yes— 92% 

B) No — 8% 

Without killing yourself? Gee. 

42) Do you solder together your 
own coax connectors? 

A) Yes— 100% 

B) No— 0% 

What? Nobody uses sofderless 
connectors? 

43) Do you own a TVRO (home 
Earth satellite) system? 

A) Yes— 10% 

B) No— 90% 

And HBO sees a market here? 

44) Do you operate a packet-radio 
system? 

A) Yes— 12% 

B) No— 88% 



This will be a question to watch in 
the future, 

45) What do you think of contest- 
ing? 

A) Great— 10% 

B) Good— 18% 

C) Okay— 46% 

D) Don't like it— 14% 

E) Despise it— 12% 
Sorry, WB2GFE. 

46) What do you think of DXing? 

A) Great— 26% 

B) Good— 44% 

C) Okay— 26% 

D) Don't like it— 2% 

E) Despise it— 2% 

A general vote of approval. 

47) What do you think of re- 
peaters? 

A) Great— 32% 

B) Good— 44% 

C) Okay— 18% 
D)DorVt like them— 2% 
E) Despise them— 4% 

But what do you think of the peo- 
ple on repeaters? 

48) What do you think of traffic 
handling? 

A) Great— 1 0% 

B) Good— 48% 

C) Okay— 26% 

D) Don't like it— 10% 

E) Despise it — 6% 

What's not to like? I mean, some 
people think exercise is fun. 

49) If you heard an emergency net 
in progress, would you immedi- 
ately join in and offer your ser- 
vices? 

A) Yes— 54% 

B) No— 46% 

Little gold stars to the respon- 
dents who said they would join in 
only if they had traffic to pass. 

50) Have you ever secretly hoped 
for a minor disaster to strike your 
community just so you could 
demonstrate your radio skills? 

A) Yes— 14% 

B) No— 86% 

Regardless of the numbers, I still 
think most hams really do hope for 
trouble. 




OOKING WEST 



Bill Pasternak WABfTF 
28197 Robin Avenue 
Saugus CA 91350 

WA6ITF RETURNS 

This column was originally writ- 
ten for publication in the January, 
1982, issue of this magazine. The 
column was canceled by the deci- 



sion to reformat 73 f but / felt that I 
had an obligation to *\ , finish 
what I had started before going 
on. " Next month, a look at what's 
happening today, with an empha- 
sis on the emergence of regional 
hand-planning super-councils. — 
WA61TF. 
I've often addressed the ques- 



tion of band-plan standardization 
in this column, not just with regard 
to the FM relay mode, but for all 
types of operation. This is be- 
cause it is my strong belief that 
only through such standardization 
can every mode, special interest, 
and amateur be assured of spec- 
trum to "do his own thing" on our 
crowded VHf (and now UHF) 
bands. 

Over the years, I have put forth 
ideas on how such standardiza- 
tion could be accomplished, pre- 
sented complete conceptual band 



plans, and what have you. It's in- 
teresting to note that some 15 
years after the start of the VHF FM 
explosion only one of our amateur 
bands— 220 to 225 MHz— has a 
band plan accepted on a national 
scale, including Southern Califor- 
nia. As you are aware, the latter 
has been Known to go its own way 
in most cases, caring frttie what 
the rest of the country is up to. 
Witness the decision back in '77 
to use the "even-numbered" 
channel pairs in the 144.5-145.5- 
MHz repeater subband — every- 



84 73 Amateur Radio * J u ne , 1 986 



where else it's the "odd num- 
bers' 1 that are used. Some say 
that Southern California can't do 
anything right, but the hams of 
this area tend to consider them- 
selves the true trend-setters; 
eventually "everyone else" will 
notice the error of his ways and 
come to this geographic locality's 
way of thinking. 

In some cases it has happened. 
Inverted split-splits on 2 me- 
ters from 146 to 148 MHz were 
commonplace throughout half 
the nation until 20 kHz came 
along; the concept of inverting 
the tertiary channels was 
spawned by two well known 
Southern California hams, Burt 
Werner K6QOK and Bob Thorn- 
burg WB6JPL This is common 
knowledge. At the time it al- 
so seemed to be a rather good 
alternative to the problems in- 
herent with non-inverted 15-kHz 
tertiary channels. Like every- 
thing else in life, there was 
a trade-off involved. With non- 
inverted 15-kHz tertiaries, adja- 
cent-channel repeaters can inter- 
fere with users, When you invert 
the 15-kHz channels, the user's 
radio sees a "30-kHz clear slot" 
for the most part, but now 
repeaters can interfere with other 
repeaters. This is because the 
output of Repeater A is only 15 
kHz from the input to Repeater B. 
Obviously, where the terrain pro- 
vides for geographic shielding 
and/or system separation, this 
is no problem, In cases where it 
doesn't, then some elaborate 
equipment is necessary to make 
the concept play. This may m- 
clude such items as specially 
designed receivers with high dy- 
namic range figures, suck-out 
traps and cavities, circulators, 
and the like. The system does 
work, as has been proven here 
and elsewhere for the better pan: 
of 12-1/2 years now, but at best r 
it's still a trade-off— in this case 
protecting the "user's radio" at 
the expense of overall repeater 
system performance. 

Many years ago, an amateur 
In the Northeast named George 
Le Dtoux K1TKJ came up with 
an even better solution. This was 
back in the late 1960s, FM*s 
formative era. George suggest- 
ed two changes that would have 
avoided the many pitfalls we've 
faced and had to find ways 
around. KiTKJ's idea was to 
put alt two-meter repeaters on 20- 
kHz inter-system spacing, and 
utilize an inpuRo-output spacing 
of 1 MHz, Had this been done 
back in 1969, we would never 



have faced the concept of 15- 
kHz tertiary splits. True, there 
wouldn't have been as many 
repeater pairs available, but 
overall technological system op- 
eration would have been vastly 
improved. But this was not to 
be the case. Le Dioux's ideas 
were ignored and the nation 
stayed with 30-kHz inter-system 
spacing and 600-kHz input-to- 
output separation. There were a 
number of reasons for this, the 
primary one being that at the lime 
of the K1TKJ proposal, Techni- 
cian-class operators were not per- 
mitted operation in the 147-148- 
MHz spectrum. With most radios 
being crystal-controlled in that 
era, 147.97 was considered the 
ex-officio top end of the "open re- 
peater band." 

Then came repeater dereg- 
ulation. Technicians were granted 
operating privileges in the 147- 
MHz region, The doctrines of 
"Semi-Automatic" and "Fully 
Automatic" remote controls were 
established in D.C. and the big 
repeater rush was on. (It should 
be said that two Southern Cali- 
fornia amateurs were directly 
responsible for this first of many 
deregulatory moves with regard 
to repeater operation. They are 
Capt. Dick McKay K6VGP and 
Fred Deeg N6FD. Without their 
unceasing efforts on our behalf, 
the deregulatory process might 
never have come about.) Soon 
we were out of 30-kHz channels. 
The Northeast and then the en- 
tire eastern seaboard opted, ever 
reluctantly, to initiate the use 
of 15-kHz inter-system spacing. 
At that time little was known with 
regard to 15-kHz system spacing, 
so the decision was made to 
go "standard" right-side-up con- 
figuration. 

The early days were hectic. 
The average ham transceiver of 
the day had been developed in 
the era of 60-kHz spacing; most 
could hack 30 kHz with lit* 
tie degradation in performance, 
but 15 kHz was another story. 
The same held true for a num- 
ber of years through the mid 
1970s, To this day I and a bunch 
of friends hold the somewhat 
dubious honor of having placed 
the first non-inverted 15-kHz 
tertiary machine in the nation into 
operation. Its callsign was 
WA2ZWP; it was located atop 
the Williamsburg Bank Building 
in Brooklyn, New York, on a 
frequency pair of 146-205 in, 
146.805 out. No matter what we 
tried, it still wreaked havoc on 
our two neighboring systems 



(.19/79 and ,25/.85). Not to the 
systems themselves, but to those 
using these two machines. Then 
again, they each only got it 
from "one side.' 1 Our users were 
caught smack dab between the 
other two systems, and it took 
a lot of research by our Technical 
Chairman, Dave Kuraner, into 
new filters to make most of 
our users' radios function on the 
system, in fact, Dave, Larry Levy, 
and I were the only three who 
could realty make use of the sys- 
tem in the early days. We were the 
lucky ones. We were using con- 
vened Motorola and RCA land- 
mobile radios which had the need- 
ed selectivity. Most of the others 
were not that fortunate. Some- 
how, the WA2ZWP repeater sur- 
vived for a few years. It led the way 
for others who were intrepid 
enough to copy our foolishness. 
Soon a de facto 1 5-kHz standard 
existed in the Northeast and 
spread elsewhere as areas ran 
out of 30-kHz channel pairs, ft 
should also be noted that in spear- 
heading the use of 15-kHz chan- 
nel pairs, the Northeast was 
ahead of everyone else, It would 
be several years before the next 
major FM-oriented area would 
make the move, and when it did it 
would be in a different vein. 
Southern California elected to in- 
vert its tertiary channels as al- 
ready mentioned, and most of the 
country west of the Continental Di- 
vide eventually followed suit as 
the need arose to implement uti- 
lization of 15-kHz channel pairs. 

The ARRL gave its official 
blessing to either 15-kHz plan, but 
most of those placing repeaters 
into operation in a given area have 
kept with the norms established 
for that geographic region. 
Oh, . .there have been a few 
renegades here and there, but 
few problems have arisen and the 
status quo has been maintained. 
But many wondered if there was a 
better way. Most radios sold these 
days do operate fairly well on 
even, right-side-up 15-kHz chan- 
nels, though in a 30*kHz or even 
an inverted 15-kHz environment, 
their overall operation seems 
greatly improved. I suspect that 
many of you reading this were not 
even around in the 30-kHz days. 
Very few, if any, are left from the 
60-kHz era, so few are familiar 
with the way two meters sounded 
back then, I won't try to recon- 
struct the past other than to say 
that in the old days repeaters were 
fairly silent, with most FM being 
Simplex in nature. How things 
have changed. 



Is there an alternative to im- 
plementing 15-kHz tertiaries 
when you run out of the 30- 
kHz-split channel pairs? What 
about KiTKJ's old l+ lefs re- 
vamp to 20-kHz and 1-MHe input- 
to-output spacing "? Most ama- 
teurs felt that it was too fate to 
go this route because of the 
investment in established hard- 
ware — both "system" and "user" 
hardware. At least one geograph- 
ic locality seems to have de- 
cided to buck today's trend and 
has opted for something akin 
to the old K1TKJ concept. They 
have instituted the use of 20- 
kHz inter-system spacing, but 
have retained the standard 600- 
kHz input-to-output spacing. 
Actually, this is not so much an 
adaptation of KiTKJ's ideas as it 
is the adoption of the NARC 
144.5-145.5-MHz band plan for 
the upper two MHz of the band. 
The area in question is the Pacific 
Northwest, and results are report- 
ed as being very positive. 
So much* in fact, that now the 
Canadian province of British Co- 
lumbia has joined with Washing- 
ton, Oregon, Utah, Montana, Tex- 
as, Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, 
and eastern states like Alabama 
and Michigan to make this more 
than an experiment. Rather, 
things have reached the point 
where 20-kHz inter-system spac- 
ing on both the upper and lower 
repeater subbands on two meters 
must be considered a true region- 
al band plan. 

I am not saying that we should 
scrap years of commitment lo 30- 
kHz and 15-kHz operation, but 
what has been accomplished in 
the Pacific Northwest is of definite 
note. They did not double the 
number of available channel 
parrs, as would have been the 
case had they opted for one of the 
15-kHz plans, and they didn't 
have to fight any of the 15-kHz 
problems. Nor did anyone have to 
run out and buy a new radio, ei- 
ther. As pointed out in the British 
Columbia FM Communication As- 
sociation newsletter, most ama- 
teurs with crystal-controlled ra- 
dios had no problem swinging 
their crystals to the closest of the 
new 20-kHz pairs. As for the older 
15-kHz-based synthesized sets, 
the BCFMA newsletter went on to 
explain that these radios could ei- 
ther be converted back to their 
original 20-kHz centers, since that 
was the original Japanese design 
concept to start with, or another 
"mix-down" to permit 5-kHz or 1 0- 
kHz incrementation could be 
added. Newer synthesized radios. 



73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 $5 



the article added, were already 
equipped for either 10-kHz incre- 
mentation with S-fcHz offset, or 
were incremented in 5-kHz steps. 
For those units, no mods were 
needed at all. 

A few years ago there was but 
one band plan for two meters. 
It was known as the Modified Tex- 
as Plan and it sufficed for its day. 
It was based upon 30-kHz inter- 
system spacing and was the 
plan first modified in the North- 
east to accept upright 15-kHz ter- 
tiaries. and then in the Southwest 
to accept inverted tertiaries- Be- 
cause of politics, all of these pfans 
have won the "Official Approval" 
of the League's Board of Direc* 
tors. Had the ARRL approved only 
one, we would not be facing a new 
political dilemma* that of having to 
choose from three band plans. 
There is mounting political pres- 
sure for the national implementa- 
tion of the Pacific Northwest band 
plan. And it's not all coming from 
the Pacific Northwest, either. This 
reporter feets that it may be a bit 
too late to find a "true national 
standard/' much less get every- 
one to agree on its implementa- 
tion and use. It could happen, but 
I, for one. have stopped holding 
my breath. 

The SCRRBA Report: Part III 

We now begin the third and final 
installment of the SCRRBA report 
on the future of voluntary UHF 
coordination. While this report 
was primarily prepared for con- 
sumption in the Southern Califor- 
nia area, it holds importance for 
all areas and all spectra where 
coordination is scarce. How to 
solve things? Here's one group's 
opinion: 

Keeping Current 

One of the easiest ways in 
which the owner of a coordinat- 
ed system can akJ the Technical 
Committee is by remaining in 
close contact with us. Many co- 
ordinations were performed over 
five years ago. Having experi- 
enced no difficulties in the opera- 
tion of their machines on the 
coordinated channels, the own- 
ers of these machines have not 
kept current with our Techni- 
cal Committee, Since we are 
constantly referring to the file 
cabinets which contain the col- 
lected coordination records 
(which contain all paperwork re- 
ceived by the committee regard* 
ing each system), it becomes 
readily apparent how old some of 
these files are. 

In the United States the aver- 

86 7$ Amateur Radio • June, 1 



age household changes living 
quarters about once every five 
years; in Southern California it 
may be more frequent. Any coor- 
dination file which has not been 
updated in the last five years is 
probably useless to the commit- 
tee as a source of address and 
telephone information. We have 
an independent way of verifying 
this statement: Each time we mail 
out newsletters, we have approxi- 
mately 20% returned by the Post 
Office marked "Addressee Un- 
known/* 

It is the responsibility of the op- 
erator of a coordinated system 
both to recognize the value of a 
UHF frequency pair in Southern 
California and to "protect his in- 
vestment" by remaining in perma- 
nent contact with the Technical 
Committee. It only takes a few 
minutes to complete and mail a 
coordination update and it's an 
excellent "insurance policy.'* If 
you're not sure when you last 
updated your coordination, do 
it now. We can never have too 
much data. 

Avoid Wanderlust 

Earlier we discussed the prob- 
lems caused by "self-coordina- 
tion" of new UHF systems within 
the array of existing repeaters and 
remote bases. The Technical 
Committee has also had prob- 
lems, on a more or less continuing 
basis, with a different form of 
self-coordination performed by 
operators of presently function- 
ing UHF systems: The move- 
ment of an existing system from 
one location where it was coordi- 
nated to a new location where it 
isn't coordinated. 

The committee must empha- 
size that the coordination of a 
specific UHF pair for a particu- 
lar individual or group is only 
for utilization at an exact land 
location for coverage of a specif- 
ic geographic area. Coordina- 
tion of a channel pair does 
not imply ownership with "rights' 4 
to transport the pair anywhere 
around Southern California. If 
it is necessary for the owner to 
move his system to a new land 
location, he must apply to the 
committee, in writing, in advance 
of the move, for recoordi nation of 
that system. The committee will 
determine whether the system 
can be operated at the new lo- 
cation without receiving interfer- 
ence from or creating interference 
with other co-channel and/or co- 
site systems. Please recall that 
the 70-cm band is not so heavily 
coordinated that a small change 

986 



in the operation of a single system 
has the potential for causing a ma- 
jor impact on the entire regional 
coordination array. It is not the in- 
tention of the committee to at- 
tempt to prevent coordinated sys- 
tems from moving. If it is at all 
feasible for the system to operate 
from the proposed new location, 
an OK will be given quickly. 
Rather, it is the committee's de- 
sire to prevent unnecessary work 
and expense, both for itself and 
for the owners of the affected 
systems. 

Expect Company 

Most Southern California UHF 
channel pairs between 440 and 
450 MHz now support more than 
one system, and co-sharing of 
pairs will have to increase in the 
future. Long ago the committee 
learned an important lesson with 
regard to co-sharing of channel 
pairs: Everyone favors the prac- 
tice, ♦ .but only in principle. In its 
early days, the committee would 
contact the holder of a coordinat- 
ed channel pair and request his 
approval for the co-sharing of his 
pair with another system, located 
far enough away geographically 
that mutual system interaction 
would be minimal. The initial re- 
sponse was almost always affir- 
mative: later the complaints would 
start. 

The committee learned that an 
approval for co-sharing should be 
interpreted as follows: "I am cer- 
tainly agreeable to sharing the 
channel pair, as long as I can 
climb into my automobile and 
drive a minimum of 5 hours in any 
direction and still not hear the oth- 
er system!" Therefore, we long 
ago stopped asking for advance 
approval. 

SCRRBA will continue to coor- 
dinate co-channel systems using 
the best fit on a geographical co- 
sharing basis, between a previ- 
ously coordinated system and one 
of several completed applications 
for frequency coordination, A new 
system will be coordinated to co* 
share a pair with an existing sys- 
tem so that minimum practical 
overlap occurs between the users 
of each system. The Technical 
Committee witl notify owners of 
existing systems that a specific 
new co-channel system has been 
coordinated. 

In some instances there may be 
an occasional overlap in cover- 
age, as mobiles from one group 
find themselves in specific loca- 
tions which also put them within 
range of the other machine. This 
is to be expected. To prevent un- 



necessary access, the committee 
recommends CTCSS protection 
for mountaintop repeaters. If nec- 
essary, full CTCSS systems can 
be used to protect against occa- 
sional reception of the other sys- 
tem's taJkback. 

Toward The Future 

The Technical Committee 
should make a full and complete 
report to the Southern California 
UHF community about the current 
state of the coordination process 
and explain how little flexibility 
the committee has in the perfor- 
mance of UHF frequency coor- 
dination (and why seemingly 
reasonable requests cannot be 
fulfilled). Moreover, it is the 
committee's hope that the com- 
munity, after gaining this informa- 
tion, will act with the cohesiveness 
necessary to protect its consider- 
able investment of time, money, 
and talent, 

Southern California is recog- 
nized as the national leader in 
amateur UHF relay-system op- 
eration. Nowhere else in the 
country do systems exist which ri- 
val ours in complexity, sophistica- 
tion, and length of service. 
Whether or not we can continue to 
operate our systems successfully 
in the future depends directly 
upon how we, individually and col- 
lectively, value and support the 
community's frequency-coordina- 
tion program. 

Summation 

What you have just read is the 
third part of a three-installment se- 
ries on the future of voluntary re- 
lay-system coordination. It was 
gleaned from the June, 1981, is- 
sue of the SCRRBA newsletter. 
Parts 1 and 2 of this series ap- 
peared in the October and 
November, t98i f Looking West 
columns. 

The entire series was con- 
densed from a report to all South- 
ern California UHF users from 
the Southern California Repeater 
Remote Base Association and 
was prepared by Gordon Sch- 
lessinger WA6LBV of the SCR- 
RBA Technical Committee. While 
its initial audience was obvious, in 
retrospect I felt that anyone in- 
volved in putting up a repeater or 
helping get it coordinated could 
learn from what this particular 
group is accomplishing. Yes, it 
was written about the Southern 
California UHF repeater/remote, 
but there is something in it for all 
involved in repeaters or remotes, 
regardless of the band they oper- 
ate on. ■ 




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PLANNING FOR GOOD FIELD 
DAYS TO REMEMBER 

"Fascinating, frustrating, or 
fun P Field Days are good tests of 
amateurs' engineering and oper- 
ating ability," This was the open- 
ing sentence in an article in the 
June, 1969. issue of 73 Magazine 
entitled "A Field Day to Remem- 
ber." That article told how a group 
of inexperienced operators quick- 
ly planned, set up, and operated a 
makeshift Field Day station in the 
1968 Field Day contest, it was fun 
and a good learning experience 
for those involved. 

In the 17 years since then, the 
author of that article has partici- 
pated in more than a dozen Field 
Day contests. In the last 10 years, 
he has functioned as the Field Day 
Coodinator for Ihe Principia Col- 
lege Amateur Radio Club. 

The purpose of this article is to 
present ideas and information 
gained from these experiences 
that could help other clubs have 
successful Raid Day stations, 

Many amateur operators con- 
sider the annual Field Day the 
most important amateur radio 
contest of the year. These opera- 
tors might be called the "serious 
contesters/' They want to work 
hard to make the best score possi- 
ble. Each year they aim to make a 
better score than they did the pre- 
vious year. Serious contesters are 
sometimes young high-speed 
("hot shot") operators who can go 
24 hours without sleep. Other seri- 



ous contesters are older men (and 
sometimes women) who like to 
compete and can compete well in 
Field Day contests long after they 
are too old to compete in athletic 
sports such as football, basket- 
ball, or baseball. 

Other operators are less com- 
petitive and think of Field Day as a 
weekend social event in which 
they can relax after a hard week's 
work and have fun with other 
hams. These operators could be 
called the "socializers " Many 
clubs have both serious con- 
testers and socializers who come 
to Field Days. Too often, the so- 
cializers do not want to do much of 
the work of setting up and running 
a Field Day station. The serious 
contesters resent having to do 
nearly all the hard work, with little 
or no help from the socializers. 

This article will present ideas 
which (hopefully) will satisfy the 
needs of both the serious con- 
testers and the socializers. 

If a Field Day station is powered 
by a gasoline engine driven ac 
generator, keeping the generator 
running for 24 hours \s unpleasant 
work, The noise of the generator 
creates mental fatigue, whrch is 
not helpful to the operators. 

Running a Class 1A battery- 
powered QRP Field Day station 
eliminates both the noise of the 
generator and the work of keeping 
it running. Furthermore, because 
of the QRP multiplier, it's easier to 
make a good score with a QRP 
Class 1 A battery-powered station 
than with a higher powered gener- 
ator-powered station. For Ihe seri- 
ous contesters. a ORP Class 1A 




battery-powered station will 
provide a better score — with less 
work and without the tiresome 
noise of a generator. 

Here's Why 

The Field Day rules give a multi- 
plier of five for each contact made 
if the transmitter's rf output is 5 
Watts or less and the station is 
powered by batteries. This makes 
it possible for QRP Class 1 A bat- 
tery-powered stations to make 
higher scores than more powerful 
stations using gasoline engine 
driven ac generators (see Table 
1), A QRP Class 1A battery-pow- 
ered station is ideal for a club (or 
other group of operators) that is 
relatively small (three to ten seri- 
ous, competitive operators). A 
club may have only a small group 
of serious contesters, and a Class 
1A battery-powered QRP station 
would be ideal for this group (see 
Table 2). 

How Our Group Got Started 
With QRP Field Days 

Using power from a gasoline 
engine driven generator, the Prin- 
cipia College Amateur Radio Club 
did rather poorly in the 1960 Freld 
Day contest. During the contest, a 
ham drove up the road from the 
station and tossed an antenna up 
into a tree. He put his little Heath- 
kit HW-8 on a card table and con- 
nected it to the antenna, a 
telegraph key, and his car battery. 
Then he proceeded to make con- 
tacts. Many in the club were very 
impressed. 

In discussing the club's lack of 
success in the 1980 contest, one 
member of the group made a 



"radical suggestion": The club 
should use an HW-8 transceiver in 
the 1981 contest to do away with 
the noise and work of using a gen- 
erator. The others in the club 
agreed. In 1981 . the HW-8 station 
made 235 contacts and 2,650 
points, the highest score the club 
had ever made. During the con- 
test, W0VM and his logger started 
operating at 11 p.m. Saturday. 
Others were supposed to take 
over at 2 a.m. Sunday. However, 
because there was no generator 
noise, these "others" fell asleep 
and did not go to the station until 6 
a.m. W0VM and his logger were 
having fun making 10 contacts 
per hour and so didn't mind the 
extra operating time. 

Planning a QRP 
Field Day 

Soon after the end of a Field 
Day contest, members of the 
group can share ideas for making 
the next year's Field Day better. 
This planning can start as early as 
April — or even earlier, if experi- 
menting with antennas is a part of 
this work. As soon as they are 
available, the Field Day paper 
forms (summary sheet, dupe 
sheets, etc.) should be obtained 
from the American Radio Reiay 
League, 225 Main Street, Mewing* 
(on CT 061 1 1 , You can study the 
Field Day rules that appear in the 
May issue of QS7\ (It might be a 
good idea to have a few copies of 
the rules handy on Field Day.) 

The Field Day Site 

It's important to obtain a good 
site for your Field Day station. The 
site should be on high ground and 




Photo A. 1982's FD station in action. 
88 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



Photo B. The Principia Coftege ARC operating f A Battery: (f-r) 
KA0SAC, WBQVOE, K9BO. 





Battery -po w e re d 


Year 


Station Scores 


1980 


7015 


1981 


7220 


1982 


9585 


1963 


7330 


1964 


7900 


1985 


9270 



Ordinary 
Station Scores 

4400 
4828 
5852 
6152 
5698 
6544 



Table 1. The scores of the top Class 1A QRP battery-powered stations 
compared with the top scores of the ordinary Class 1A stations for the 
years 1980-1985. 



in the clear. Our group prefers a 
site with no trees or only a few 
trees around the edges, We have 
good temporary antenna supports 
and run the antennas north and 
south for good east and west cov- 
erage. Field Day stations can be 
located in public parks, on the 
grounds of schools, on farms, or 
on other private property. It's im- 
portant to make arrangements 
early with the people who control 
the site. The site should have toi- 
let and washroom facilities near- 
by. Picnic tables are also useful. 

Shelter 

The shelter for the station 
should be strong so that a storm 
cannot blow it down, as happened 
to our group in 1984. If you use an 
open canopy, set up a strong tent 
beside it into which you can move 
the station if a storm comes up. 
Trailers, campers, cottages, 
barns, and trucks can also house 
Field Day stations. For ease in op- 
erating, logging, and duping, the 
shelter should be big enough to 
include a large table with a shelf 
on it, which can hold antenna 
tuners, an swr meter, and keyers. 

Having a place nearby where 
Field Day contestants who are not 
operating can rest and sleep is 
most helpful This place could be 
an extra tent or camper, or a near- 
by building. People can bring their 
own cots, sleeping bags, and 
blankets. 

Bonus Points 

The Field Day rules provide 100 
bonus points for publicity: You 
must submit an article to a local 
newspaper for publication. (Radio 
or television publicity for the Field 
Day can sometimes be obtained.) 
A Field Day article should tell 
about the purposes of Field Day 
and about the setting up of emer- 
gency type stations all over the 
United States and southern 
Canada. Also include in the article 
the name of the club (or nonclub 
group), the location of the Field 
Day station, and the dates and 



hours of the Field Day contest. 
Other information appropriate for 
the article is the type of station 
{Class 1A battery-operated in the 
case of a GRP station), names of 
the group's operators, and the 
fact that visitors are welcome. 

Submit the Field Day article to 
the paper in late May or very early 
June so it will be printed in June 
before the Field Day weekend. It 
helps if you deliver the article in 
person to the editor of the paper, 
so you can emphasize the impor- 
tance of the Field Day contest and 
explain that it's the big amateur 
radio contest of the yearl Keep a 
copy of the article to send to the 
ARRL along with the summary 
sheet and other papers, in case 
the newspaper doesn't print the 
article. Proof that the article has 
been submitted will provide the 
100 bonus points for publicity. 
If the article is printed, send a 
copy of it along with the other 
documents to the ARRL after the 
contest. 

If you plan to make five contacts 
with "natural power'* for an addi- 
tional 100 bonus points, obtain a 
12-volt motorcycle battery and a 
solar charger. (Perhaps you could 
borrow a solar charger from a col- 
lege physics department.) Use the 
battery until it is fairly well dis- 
charged, then connect it to the so- 
lar charger and charge it on sunny 
days, At the slow charging rate of 
the solar charger (120 mrlliamps 
in full sun for the one our group 
used), it will take many hours to 
charge up the motorcycle battery. 
This charging might well start in 
the middle of May. 

Power Supply 

Two fully charged automobile 
batteries will run a transceiver 
with 5-Watt rf output for the full 
Field Day period. This includes 
running a 12-volt lamp during the 
night. (If the weather is cool, you 
can use a gasoline lamp, such as 
a Coleman lamp, for lighting, and 
its heat will be appreciated,) 



I960 


W5VBO 


3 


1981 


W1MJ 


11 


1982 


N48P 


3 


1983 


N4BP 


3 


1984 


K9RS 


7 


1985 


KP4FI 


6 



Table 2. The number of operators of the top Class 1A QRP battery-oper- 
ated stations for 1980-1985. 



Transceivers 

The transceiver for the station 
should be one which has a single 
signal superheterodyne receiver. 
For best results, the receiver 
should have an i-f filter of 500 or 
fewer Hertz, plus an audio filter. A 
Ten-Tec Argosy transceiver used 
in its low power mode is an excel- 
lent Field Day transceiver. Al- 
though you can make contacts 
with transceivers with direct-con- 
version receivers, the fact that this 
type of receiver brings in each sta- 
tion at two places on the dial 
makes undesirable QRM. There's 
more than enough QRM during 
Re Id Day without adding to it by 
using a direct-conversion type of 
receiver! It should go without say- 
ing that it's desirable, if not neces- 
sary, to have a backup transceiver 
available. 

Antennas 

Having excellent antennas is of 
greatest importance for QRP 
Field Day stations. It's helpful for a 
station to have two antennas and 
the ability to instantly switch be- 
tween them, ff possible, the anten- 
nas should have gain as com- 
pared to a conventional half-wave 
dipole. 

An allband tuned doublet or 
''center fed zepp" with 6S feet 
each side of the center is a good 
antenna for Field Day use. In 
1983, using only this antenna, the 
Principia College Amateur Radio 
Club made 394 contacts in 24 
hours with the 5- Watt rf output of a 
Ten-Tec Argosy transceiver With 
its wires running north and south, 
the antenna was an unusually 
good half-wave dipole on 80 me- 
ters. On 40 meters, the antenna 
was il two half waves in phase" for 
a gain of 1 & dB in the east and 
wesl directions (as compared to a 
dipole). On the 20- and 15-meter 
bands, the gain in the major Jobes 
of the four-leafed-clover pattern 
was probably more than 2 dB, Be- 
cause the antenna was in the Form 
of an inverted vee with its center 
up 40 feet and the ends op t5-20 
feet, the antenna sent well in all 
directions, on all bands. 



If your station has two anten- 
nas, the second antenna should 
have much gain on the 20- and 
15-meter bands. If the station is on 
the East Coast, a beam antenna 
aimed west woukl be the logical 
kind of antenna to use. For a West 
Coast station, a beam antenna 
aimed east would be appropriate. 
In the middle of the United States, 
you need a bi-directional beam. It 
isn't practical to rotate a beam on 
Field Day. This takes too much 
time, even if you could devise a 
1 2-voll rotor or "armstrong" rotat- 
ing system. Bi-directional beams 
are not hard to build and do work 
well. Vertically polarized bi-direc- 
tional beams send out a wider 
beam than do horizontal beams, 
and this makes them good for 
Field Day use. An end fed, 20-me- 
ter, vertical W8JK, "end fire," bi- 
directional beam fed with tuned 
feeders works well on both 20 and 
15 meters and has a gain of 4 dB 
as compared to a dipole (for both 
bands). 

Each Field Day antenna system 
should have its own antenna 
tuner, and there must be a coax 
switch with which the operator 
can instantly switch the output of 
the transceiver from one antenna 
tuner to the other. AN Field Day 
antennas should be fed with bal- 
anced tuned feeders so that the 
5-Watt rf output of the transceiver 
will get into the antenna as effec- 
tively as possible. Ordinary verti- 
cal antennas (not vertically polar- 
ized beams) are not usually 
effective for use with the QRP 
Field Day station. 

Field Day 
Operating QRP 

Having a meeting of the opera- 
tors, loggers, and dupers to dis- 
cuss the rules, operating, logging, 
and duping procedures is helpful. 
To make the best score, it's a 
good idea to have the best opera- 
tors do most of the operating. Oth- 
er operators are usually glad to 
contribute by doing the logging 
and duping. It's also good to use 
call letters that are short, easy to 
send, and easy to read, preferably 
ending in a dah. 






73 Amateur Radio ■ June, 1986 89 



The following ideas will help a 
QRP station make contacts: 

1. Answer COs rather than call 
C<X 

2. Use a cod© speed that isn't 
too fast. The sending should be 
clear and accurate. 

3. Conserve time by making the 
exchanges as brief as possible. 
Use a minimum of words. Sending 
de (your station's call) without 
sending the other station's call 
saves time, 

4. Quick "tailgating" after a sta- 
tion has completed its exchange 
often results in a quickly made 
contact, 

5. A computerized keyer pro- 
grammed to send the exchange 
when a button is pushed is help- 
ful. 

6. Do not spend too much time 
trying to make a contact with a 
given station. If a contact is not 
made after three calls, move on 
and call another station. 

7. Go to a less crowded part of a 
band if you cannot make contacts 
in a crowded part of the band. 

Band Selection 
and Band Changing 

Listening to the bands immedi- 
ately before the contest starts will 
give an indication of which bands 
are open and active, (There will be 
many Field Day stations testing,) 
If the 15-meter band is open, you 
can make contacts there until the 
band dies or is "fished out/' 
Twenty meters is also a good day- 
time band on which to start and is 
usually good well into the night. 
It's a good idea to spend most of 
the time on bands for which the 
antennas have the most gain, 
Forty meters is usually good both 
day and night. Eighty meters is 
strictly a nighttime band and, with 
a good antenna, will provide many 
contacts. 

The station should stay on a 
band as long as rt is making fre- 





SEMD 25* 

F0R OUR 

COMPETITIVE 

PRICE 
SHttT 



quenl contacts, When the number 
of contacts per hour starts to de- 
cline, it's time to change to anoth- 
er band. Later in the contest, the 
station can go back to bands thai 
were fished out earlier and may 
find many "new*' stations to work. 
Using separate log sheets lor 
each band helps in making out the 
summary sheet after the contest 
is over. 

Having a good support group of 
people who are not operators is 
helpful. Wives and other family 
members of the operators can 
supply food and soft drinks. A Sat* 
urday evening pot luck supper in 
which the operators can take 
turns eating and operating adds to 
the enjoyment of Field Day. Oper- 
ators can bring their own Saturday 
noon lunch, Sunday morning 
breakfast, and Sunday noon 
lunch. 

Setting Up the Station 

Some clubs like to set up their 
antennas on Friday evening. The 
rest of the station is set up on Sat- 
urday morning. This often takes 
more time than one would think. If 
the group starts at 9 a.m. Satur- 
day, everything can be ready and 
tested by the starting time. You 
can use a good alarm clock (hand 
wound or battery operated) for 
logging. It's easier and less con* 
fusing to keep the log in local time, 
rather than to try to keep it in UTC. 

A check list of everything need- 
ed will help to keep the group from 
forgetting anything. The Boy 
Scout motto "Be prepared* 1 is a 
good one for Field Day. Being ex* 
tra well prepared helps prevent 
Murphy's Law from shutting down 
the station. 

Keeping the 
Socializers Happy 

The socializers in a club are 
likely to be "phone hams" 



("phoney hams" in the eyes of the 

serious contesters), who have lit- 
tle interest in helping to run a QRP 
battery-operated CW station. To 
meet their needs, they can set up 
and operate another station with 
call letters different from those the 
station of the senous contesters 
uses. This station could be called 
the "fun station," and the station 
of the serious contesters the 
"contest station." The fun station 
should be located quite far, but 
not too far, from the contest sta- 
tion and powered by commercial 
power mains. Using commercial 
power eliminates the obnoxious 
noise of a generator and the un- 
pleasant work of keeping the gen* 
erator running. 

In most cases, the QRP contest 
station would operate on GW and 
the fun station on the phone 
bands. The contest station would 
have the best possible antennas, 
while the fun station would use a 
coax-fed antenna with parallel el- 
ements or other devices that 
would make the antenna work on 
several frequency bands. (A "trap 
vertical" with radials lying on the 
ground could be used; it would be 
easy to put up and would not take 
up much space.) 

The fun station should be man- 
aged in ways that would encour- 
age visitors to become interested 
in amateur radio. The fun station 
operators should explain amateur 
radio to visitors and give them ma- 
terials designed to get people in* 
terested in the amateur radio hob- 
by, (Nearly all hams like to talk 
about their hobby to any people 
who will listen to them. Hi!) 

Another good fun station activi- 
ty would be to let visitors get be- 
hind the microphone and make 
contacts. The licensed operator in 
charge of the station should care- 
fully supervise these contacts and 
be responsible for them. Visitors 
could also share in the logging 



of contacts and marking of the 
dupe sheets. These activities, 
shared with visitors, would 
provide training in contest operat- 
ing techniques. 

The fun station should operate 
only on frequencies that 
will not interfere with the QRP 
contest station. Given a reason- 
able distance between the two 
stations and the fact that one 
station is on CW and the other 
station is on phone, interference 
between stations should not be a 
problem. 

To arouse interest and stimu- 
late activity, the operators of the 
fun station might be encouraged 
to be competitive enough to try to 
make as many contacts as the 
QRP station makes on CW, (It is 
assumed that the fun station will 
be a medium powered station.) If 
the fun station operators do not 
want to stay around all night, they 
could try to make as many con- 
tacts per hour as the contest sta- 
tion during the times when the fun 
station is on the air. 

If possible, the fun station 
should use call letters that will nat- 
urally promote fun. One year the 
use of the call letters K9BO 
brought many humorous remarks 
from operators of stations worked. 
One of these was "Canine B.O., 
you must be a dirty dog." That 
year, it was singularly appropriate 
that K9BO made its last contact 
with station VV&PU, operated by a 
female operator who gave the call 
letters as "Whiskey Zero Pink Un- 
derwear/' 

On the next Field Day, make 
both your serious contesters and 
your socializers happy by running 
two stations, each with its own call 
letters. May your fun station 
provide lots of fun and may your 
QRP Class 1A battery-operated 
contest station make the best 
score that your club ever had! ■ 



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90 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 




EVER SAY DIE 



from page 12 

the air, you'll always be making a 
first impression on someone. 

I have a fairly good vocabu- 
lary—the result of living with an 
upper middle class family which 
made a point of 'looking it up" 
when anyone misused a word. 
Just as I dress to convey to others 
the real Wayne Green— I also am 
careful in my speech when meet- 
ing someone new, As I know them 
better I am more flexible in my 
dressing and my speech. I use 
dirty words sparingly, using them 
to communicate where needed for 
shock value — extreme emphasis. 

The language used between a 
group on a 75m net who have 
been talking with each other 
nightly for months is going to be 
different from that used in first 
contacts. We should allow more 
latitude. 

What Can We Do? 

Okay, let's address the situa- 
tion head on. Let's say you hear 
some jerk going way beyond the 
bounds of decency in language 
What should you do? Should you 
break in and arrogantly tell the 
sonofabitch off? Should you 
merely tune off the channel and 
sigh over what ham radio has 
come to? Shoutd you try to jam the 
bastard? Note my use of emotion- 
stirring words as I talk about the 
people who are making you 
mad — mad when you just think 
about itl I suspect you agreed with 
my expressing my obvious dis- 
taste for these filthy, disgusting 
people with appropriate words, 

My recommendation is to break 
in when you hear (he bounds of 
propriety being overstepped— 
and I mean way overstepped, not 
just stretched a bit. Break in and 
tell the chap you find his language 
inappropriate for amateur radio. 
Be polite but firm. I guarantee hell 
try to get you so mad you'll be 
inclined to sink to his level— so my 
suggestion Is to make your state- 
ment and then tune the hell off the 
frequency before he can answer, 
Think about it. One thing your ner- 
vous system does not need is an 
attack on you— even over the air. 
It doesn't take very many such ac- 
rimonious events before you'll 
find yourself avoiding your ham 
rig. No, say your piece as unemo- 
tionally as you can and leave the 



channel so you won't get burned 
by the fireworks. 

You may think that your efforts 
to clean up the bands will be wast- 
ed. But look at it this way — tens of 
thousands of hams are reading 
this editorial. Maybe only a few 
hundred will have the guts to actu- 
ally do something about the lan- 
guage on our bands, but by Ihe 
time a bad language user has 
been reprimanded— and been un- 
able to pick a fight over It, thus 
getting his jollies, he'll either start 
to clean up his act or will find him- 
self hesitating to turn on his rig, If 
hamming isn't fun, we don't do 
it — so the idea is to make it less 
fun for the people who are making 
it less fun for us. 

No, it is not necessary for you to 
give your call fetters when you are 
helping to clean up our bands. 
And none of that sanctimonious 
crap (hehl) about it being illegal to 
transmit without giving your call. I 
don't see the rules helping us with 
bad language or bad operating, so 
don't wave rules at me. I use my 
call letters when I think they are 
needed, not to satisfy the FCC. 
The FCC could care less. They're 
getting out of the monitoring busi- 
ness anyway, so if we want our 
ham bands to be fun we damned 
well have to accept the responsi- 
bility for keeping them fun. 

The H&R Block 

Non llligitimi Carborundum— 
don't let the bastards wear you 
down. Wear them down instead. 
Wear them down by htt-and-run 
tactics— what 1 call the H&R 
Block, 

This technique is effective on 
the low bands— and to some de- 
gree on VHF. But when you run 
into foul language on your re- 
peater you may need a more ef- 
fective approach. Hare, where 
your miscreant is nearby, you 
have a whole array of possibilities. 

Just as I recommend every ra- 
dio club have an l-Team — a group 
of three or so experienced ama- 
teurs who can keep their cool 
who go out and investigate 
every interference complaint 
against a local amateur— I also 
recommend clubs appoint a UFO- 
Team to handle perverse opera- 
tors. UFO— Unofficial Friendly 
Operators. 

The first step for the UFO-Team 
is to pay a friendly visit to a perpe- 



trator and explain the club's view 
of his operating. If this doesn't 
work, a secono visit with some 
tapes of his activities, perhaps ac- 
companied by a somewhat larger 
representation from the club, 
might get the message across, 
Hard-core nasties may call for cre- 
ative measures. Would tapes of 
his operating and a note to neigh- 
bors, his family, his employer, and 
so forth help create a more re- 
laxed atmosphere? 

When the crazies group for sup- 
port, your approach might best be 
to work on each one as a separate 
case and ignore the group Each 
then can individually feel the 
weight of your group disapproval, 
but without the support of his 
crazy group to back him up. 

Don T t Be Officious 

If you use your strength to swat 
a flea with a sledge, you'll lose 
your credibility. Hassling some- 
one for minor indiscretions will 
waste your power. Save your mus- 
cle for the hard-core cases, You 
have to be careful in selecting a 
club UFO-Team. There is a ten- 
dency for the power-seekers to 
find these jobs. You'll soon find 
them with UFO-Team signs on 
their cars, flashing red lights, and 
a barrage of tape recorders in 
their shack as they tune the ham 
bands, eagerly seeking anything 
and everything to hassle. 

Feedback 

If your club has some success 
with an t-Team or a UFO-Team, 
make sure someone writes it up 
so I can publish it in 73 We don't 
have to live with bad operators— 
we just have to retrain them. Let 
me hear your war stories— partic- 
ularly those where you've won 
some battles. 

ATLANTA IN JULY? 

The biggest hamfest in the 
Southeast is the Atlanta HamFes- 
tivaL . this year July 19-20. 
There are only a few major ham- 
fests where you'll see all of the 
major manufacturers showing off 
their newest gear — where you can 
corner them and get answers, 
where you can get your hands on 
just about every ham product 
made — and Atlanta is one. 

Yep, I'm planning on being 
there and I'll be giving a perfor- 
mance—bring your seat belt and 
your tranquilizers, 

Atlanta is always a joy to visit. 
It's really geared for visitors. 
They're working to rebuild Under- 
ground Atlanta, but in the mean- 
while you don't want to miss the 



refurbished Cyclorama— their up- 
dated zoo — and Stone Mountain, 
a nearby amusement park. 

For you fat people (like me) 
there are great wonders. I seldom 
miss a pass at Aunt Fanny's Cab- 
in. When I'm able to get someone 
to invite me out, I enjoy The 
Abbey — one of Atlanta's best (and 
most expensive) restaurants. Fat- 
ties will also go bananas over the 
buffet in the Marriott, There aren't 
many dessert buffets, but they've 
got one. Ice cream sundaes and 
banana splits, ice cream on 
pies, tee cream and cake. . . mm- 
mmmmm. I hope they haven't 
changed that. 

Jazz fans will enjoy Walter Mit- 
ty's, where you'll probably see the 
Trio-Kenwood gang tripping, 

It's time you got serious about 
packet radio anyway, so check 
em all out at Atlanta 

Y'all come, y 'hear? 

CAN WE REBUILD OUR 
LOST INFRASTRUCTURE 

A brief industry meeting was 
held during Miami Hamboree last 
February. This was a follow-up on 
last year's meeting where it was 
decided to go ahead with a ham 
comic book project. The industry 
agreed to ante up $1 0.000 for the 
project, which would be matched 
by an equal amount from the 
ARRL The industry ante on this is 
still light. 

Not much has happened yet on 
the project. It was discussed and 
agreed that it should continue as a 
test to see if this approach will re- 
sult in some growth. There was no 
disagreement that amateur radio 
is in desperate need of growth — 
that without something to make it 
grow, we're looking at a dying 
hobby. 

There's a tendency to put to- 
days kids down — to blame the 
kids because they're not getting 
excited about amateur radio. I 
hear lots of excuses— well, hell, 
the kids are playing with comput- 
ers these days— they're watching 
television. Bull. When I was a kid 
there were plenty of other things 
for kids to be interested in — has 
everyone forgotten that kids have 
always had plenty of things to do? 

IMo + blaming the kids is a cop- 
oui The problem isn't the kids at 
all, its plain and simple our own 
fault. I got interested in amateur 
radio about the time l entered high 
school — lo and behold, there was 
a school ham club, W2ANU. We 
got together a couple afternoons a 
week and talked hamming. We 
put our club station on the air and 
made contacts. We pored over 



73 Amateur Radio « June, 1986 91 



QSTand Radio together We visit- 
ed each others* ham shacks. 

We hams sat around arguing 
with each other twenty years ago 
when this whole infrastructure 
was destroyed by the League's 
"incentive licensing" proposal. 
Thousands of school radio dubs 
folded, right along with 85% of the 
ham stores around the country 
and 95% of the American manu- 
facturers. That was a catastrophe 
we're still paying for. 

Without the thousands of high 
school ham clubs to fan the start- 
ing flames of ham interest, this 
whole source of newcomers has 
almost totally dried up. 

We didn't help this situation 
with our regular community ham 
clubs. In almost every instance 
these dubs became controlled by 
old-timers — old-timers who want- 
ed to talk with old-timers, not kids. 
Kids are noisy- Kids ask a lot of 
dumb questions. Kids mean the 
club has to have a damned code 
class. Kids mean someone has to 
try and teach theory. Kids are im- 
patient with the usuat endless 
club bickering. Kids are impatient 
with long boring business meet- 
ings. Kids get fed up with commit- 
tee reports and interminable argu- 
ments over trivia. So old-timers 
have run the kids out of most 
dubs. So we don't have any kids 
these days— surprise, surprise, 

I'm wondering— even if a ham 
comic book does arouse some in- 
terest — so what? Where have the 
kids to turn for reinforcement? If 
my high school hadnH had a ham 
club, would I have had my interest 
in hamming fanned enough to get 
a ticket? Maybe. Probably not. I 
could easily have gotten involved 
with audio and hi-fi and drifted 
away from amateur radio. I had 
many friends who did just that. 

It wasn't hamming itself which 
attracted me as much as it was 
having fun with other kids. I first 
listened— SWUng. Then I started 
building electronic gadgets and 
radios. Then I was guided by the 
school radio club members to- 
ward getting my own license. This 
was reinforced by daily contact 
with other similarly interested 
kids. From there I got on my roller 
skates and started visiting the 
nearby hams I heard on the air. I 
think I visited every active ham in 
Brooklyn. 

The code put me off lor a long 
time. Some of my friends got 
W2Ms. I'm sure I would have been 
licensed at least two years earlier 
if I'd stayed in the high school with 
the radio club {Eramus HS). but I 
changed to a small private school 



with no ham club and lost the im- 
petus. When I went of! to college 
they had a ham club (W2SZ) and I 
almost immediately got licensed. 
This is what I see happening to- 
day—even when kids get excited 
about amateur radio, the excite- 
ment almost always blows over 
without the constant reinforce- 
ment of a school ham club. 

So I'm not at all convinced that 
a ham comic book is going to do 
much for us in the long run. No, we 
not only need to make the fun of 
amateur radio known to k*ds f we 
have to rebuild the whole in- 
frastructure which used to bring 
kids into the hobby. We need to 
get ham clubs back into the 
schools. We need to get every ac- 
tive community ham club dedicat- 
ed to getting kids involved and 
seeing that their first lentative in- 
terest is fanned to a roaring 
flame— maybe even to a license. 
Avuncular old-timers like me 
aren't what kids need, they need 
peers— other kids to help them— 
lo talk— to enthuse— to share 
excitement. 

How in hell are we going to do 
ail that? Well, it's not as hard as 
you may think. Yes, of course it 
can be done — done despite all the 
lame excuses about kids being at- 
tracted to computers these days. 
Sure they are — they have comput- 
er clubs in school— and they visit 
each others' homes and play with 
their computers. They talk about 
computers— read about 'em— 
they play games, they program 
and swap programs. They break 
the protection on programs and 
swap them. They get on the phone 
and break into bulletin boards — 
into banks— into military base 
computers. Talk about fun! 

Amateur radio has every bit as 
much excitement as computers— 
and I've done the computers bit 
too. Computers are fun, no ques- 
tion* but they're no competition to 
working a rare DX contact— mak- 
ing a DX aurora contact on two 
meters— getting a new country via 
OSCAR— working a new state on 
1 GHz from a mountain— operat- 
ing in a DX contest — getting a 
good picture on an SSTV screen 
from a new country— visiting 
9B1MM in Katmandu or 9M6MO 
in Kota Kinabalu in person — work- 
ing South Africa with a 2m handie- 
talkie through a crossband re- 
peater — getting a call on 20m 
from King Hussein — working 
Arthur Godfrey on safari in Africa 
and saying hello to an old friend of 
my father's who was with him. 

I remember a 1946 night— after 
a college radio club meeting when 



a bunch of us got into my old T 41 
Ford and drove to the top of ML 
Greylock in nearby Western Mas- 
sachusetts. We had my SCR-522 
and a IS-element beam on top of 
the car and had a ball. It was bit- 
terly cold, so we set up the beam 
and turned it with a couple pieces 
of string running out the car win- 
dow. Huddled around the 522 in 
the back seat, we worked dozens 
of stations— ail the way to Boston! 

Newspaper articles about our 
ham activities will help strike a 
spark of interest in kids, but with* 
out school ham clubs to follow up. 
it's a waste of time. Sure, we need 
PR in magazines, newspapers, on 
TV, radio. . every medium We 
need to demonstrate in shopping 
centers and malls. We need to 
provide communications for pa- 
rades, rallies, and other communi- 
ty events. But most of this will be 
wasted if there isn't the follow 
up— the school clubs. 

Okay, we need to rebuild the 
high school ham clubs. That'll get 
the kids in the 14-17 age bracket. 
Back before the ham dark ages — 
back in the 60s — ARRL studies 
showed that 50% of the new hams 
were either 14 or 15 years old. 
That's when it happens. I think we 
can start as early as ten these 
days, and I'm working on a 
fiendish plan for that. In the mean- 
while let's go with what worked so 
well for 17 years after World War 
II — hooking the high school kids. 
Let's talk about getting high 
school ham clubs going again- 
rebuilding the infrastructure 
which we know worked so well. 

It won't be as hard as you think. 
Better, it will be more exciting— 
and also more frustrating— than 
anything else you've done in ama- 
teur radio. Your first obstacle will 
be the resistance of the members 
of your own radio club. People in 
general and hams in particular 
tend to do everything they can not 
to change— often in the face of 
overwhelming evidence that 
change is not just necessary, but 
critically important. People in gen- 
eral and hams in particular are ter- 
ribly lazy. They will go to incredi- 
ble extremes not to do something, 
This is human nature and, con- 
trary to most evidence, hams are 
human. Well, some are* 

Let's not get into what hams 
are. Most of "em are obviously 
crazy. Most are cheap bastards I 
admit to both of those ham nor- 
malities, so I'm not throwing 
stones, just calling a spade a 
spade. I think, by almost any mea- 
sure, any ham in the ham industry 
has to admit s/he is crazy. There's 



no other rational explanation for 
such irrational profitless behavior. 

My recommendation as to the 
easiest way to get ham clubs start- 
ed in schools is to encourage our 
community ham clubs to get going 
on this as a club project. A small 
delegation from the club needs to 
talk with the school principal and 
explain the importance, to our 
country and to the kids, of getting 
them interested in a high-tech 
hobby such as amateur radio. 

The next step is to start regular 
meetings— maybe once a week— 
preferably during school hours, if 
at all possible. Get the principal to 
allow a club meeting in lieu of a 
study hall. After-school clubs are 
often up against serious problems 
such as busing and sports con- 
flicts. If you can't get a school peri- 
od, then settle for after school. 

The principal will quickly re- 
member that a club has to have 
some sort of faculty advisor— and 
that means, particularly after 
school, overtime pay, which isn't 
in his budget. If your club can 
guarantee that it will supply an ad- 
visor, you may be able to handle 
this hurdle. The incipient hams 
will need someone to tell them 
about the glories of hamming— 
and perhaps organize theory and 
code courses It's an opportunity 
to get the kids to come to the com- 
munity club too — and even to visit 
local ham stations and maybe get 
fired up by talking with some DX, 

If the principal isn't too interest- 
ed, you may be able to work 
through a child or grandchild of a 
club member attending the 
school. 

If you run into a particularly 
tough case you might point out 
that the lack of young radio ama- 
teurs has resulted in America 
falling far behind in engineers— 
with no growth in engineering 
graduates in over twenty years de- 
spite over a ten times growth in 
electronic sales. This is why 
Japan has been able, one by one, 
to take our consumer electronic 
industries away from us. Only by 
getting kids interested in high- 
tech careers will our country be 
able to reverse this destructive 
trend— and that means starting 
high school kids toward careers in 
electronics, communications, and 
computers. Every school in Japan 
has an active ham club. 

Let me be blunt— I don 1 ! know 
for sure that we can pull this off* 
but if 1 wasn't pretty damned sure, 
J wouldn't waste my time trying, I 
don't have a record of failure — 
and I don't intend to break that 
record now. If you really believe I 



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cant do this— if you're not going 
to support me — please let me 
know why. If you can think of any- 
one else in the entire world who 
you think can do this better than 
me, let me know — maybe we can 
get him lo do it, 

R.I.P, POOR LRPC 

One of the reasons I've been so 
concerned over the shortage of 
new hams has been my work with 
the FCC's Long Range Planning 
Committee. I was appointed to the 
committee when it was formed 
five years ago and, despite its 
meeting in Washington, ! don't re- 
call having missed more than one 
meeting in all that time. 

The purpose of the committee 
was to tackle America's need for 
an emergency communications 
system which could be expected 
to survive even the most serious 
of emergencies. . .a nuclear at- 
tack. It became obvious early on 
that our commercial and military 
communications systems were to- 
tally inadequate for this need. The 
committee recognized that only 
amateur radio had the potential. 

However, amateur radio had 
only the potential for this, not the 
actuality. The volume of commu- 
nications which would be needed 



should there be a nuclear attack is 
so far beyond the present capabil- 
ity of amateurs to handle that we 
are almost worthless right now. 
The millions of messages in- 
volved can't possibly be handled 
with our cumbersome, slow 
Morse-code traffic nets or even 
phone traffic nets. You know, it's 
estimated that 30% of us would be 
unable to pass a code retest if one 
were given. 

Remember that any serious 
emergency wipes out telephones. 
Remember that most commercial 
communications services are on 
different frequencies and are 
therefore unable to intercommuni- 
cate. We've seen many times 
where only amateur repeater 
groups have been able to provide 
the interconnect between po- 
lice, fire, ambulance, and other 
services. 

The committee saw that any 
practical solution to the need 
would entail two major changes. 
First, we would have to get ama- 
teur radio into vigorous growth be* 
fore we could expect to have 
enough hams to provide the need- 
ed service. Second, we'd have to 
get hams to develop technologies 
such as RTTY and packet radio 
far beyond where they are today 



to achieve the message through- 
put needed. The committee also 
recognized that for an emergency 
communications system to be 
dependable it must be in every- 
day use. 

The FCC commissioners appre- 
ciated the serious need for ama- 
teur growth, but the only move 
which seemed to have any real 
prospect for bringing about this 
growth was the no-code license. 
This had worked exceptionally 
well in Japan, bringing enthusias- 
tic teenagers into amateur radio 
by the hundreds of thousands. 

When the ARRL fought the 
FCC's proposed no-code license 
and defeated it, the FCC, with no 
other known options for producing 
new amateurs, gave up in disgust. 
They dumped the LRPC on FE- 
MA, the Federal Emergency Man- 
agement Authority, which, as I 
predicted, completely ignored it. 
FEMA never held one single LR- 
PC meeting in two years. The FCC 
recently dusted off what was left of 
the LRPC and held what ap- 
peared to me a brief wake, 
pronouncing the committee 
a rousing success, complete with 
a nice pfaque and an autographed 
photo of Ronny for retiring 
Defense Commissioner Mimi 



Dawson. Mi mi certainly gave it a 
fine try and did the best she could 
under the circumstances— a 
bravo to her. 

Perhaps I should share the ap- 
parently common feeling that the 
situation is totally, completely 
hopeless, so why bother to waste 
time trying to fight it? Well, I don't 
think it is hopeless as far as get- 
ting amateur radio growing again, 
t even think, with 73 helping, we 
may be able to develop the high- 
speed automated digital message 
system we need. Heck, we al- 
ready have the technology; all we 
need are the pioneers to work out 
the details and battle old-timer in- 
ertia to get it accepted. If we can 
get growth through kids, we'll 
have our pioneers. 

But you tell me. Should I give up 
trying to fight amateur apathy, the 
ARRL, the FCC. and City Hall? 
Maybe you'd rather read about my 
misadventures on 20 meters. Af- 
ter all, the chances of a nuclear 
attack are almost zero anyway, 
what with the promised nuclear 
winter effect which would wipe out 
most of civilization. Amateur ra- 
dio, as bumbling as it is, can usu- 
ally cope fairly well with small lo- 
calized emergencies such as 
earthquakes, floods, and vol- 



' 4 



When You Buy, Say 73" 



73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 93 



cartos— so why bother trying to 
develop more hams and a belter 
communications system? 

And, as far as getting amateur 
radio growing so America can 
generate engineers, technicians, 
and scientists so we can compete 
with Japan, perhaps it's time 
America got used to being a sec- 
ond-rate country — the way En- 
gland has Maybe we shouldn't 
bother to fry and regain our former 
pride in our technology. It's so 
much easier to just let our kids 
enjoy drugs and television— to ig* 
nore their smoking cigarettes and 
spending their nights cruising. 
Recent statistics show the aver- 
age American youngster spends 
an average of two and a half min- 
utes alone with his father a day 
without the TV set on. Do we even 
care about our kids— about our 
country— or amateur radio? I see 
no evidence of anyone caring. 

What do you think? I don't want 
to turn into a pest 

OUR HAM POPULATION 

With a little over 400,000 li- 
censed amateurs, we have a fairly 
strong hobby, eh? Of course 
we're seeing an increasing loss of 
newcomers, but the new ten-year 
licenses make it so the total num- 
ber of licensed hams has stayed 
about the same. 

What about concerns over the 
average ham age now reaching 
56? How did that happen? I talked 
with an old-timer the other day 
who had an interesting perspec- 
tive. He runs a ham store and he's 
observed that a surprisingly high 
percentage of the aging licensees 
are the wives and close friends of 
hams who were given or virtually 
given their licenses twenty-five 
years ago when that was popular. 
These Techs, now in their 40s and 
50s, have never had enough inter- 
est to bother learning much about 
amateur radio, or to be particular- 
ly active. A more realistic guess at 
the even remotely active ham pop- 
ulation might put it below 200,000. 

The bright side: Most licensees 
who drop out each year are from 
the inactive half of the ledger. 
We're also losing an increasing 
number via Silent Keys, as the av- 
erage age increases. Remember, 
the average life of men In the U.S. 
is around 72 years — which 
means, as I've pointed out before, 
by the time you're 72 half your 
friends will be dead and the other 
half dying. 

We do have enough time left, 
however, to get busy and Elmer 
local school radio clubs so we can 
gel amateur radio going again. 



Yes t Tve heard all about comput- 
ers taking the kids away from am- 
ateur radio. Baloney. Kids have 
always had plenty of interesting 
things to do. If hamming is fun we 
can interest kids in it. But we do 
need the school radio clubs to fan 
that spark of interest and gel 'em 
licensed. 

These days, with packet radio 
growing so fast, we have even 
more to talk about to kids. Packet 
is a way for them to use their com- 
puters and do something really 
fun with them. 

I hear whines about kids not 
having the money it takes for ama- 
teur radio equipment. Heck, if kids 
can support a $100 a week co- 
caine habit, they should be able to 
put together a whopping ham sta- 
tion just by avoiding drugs. Any 
kid that really wants to can find 
after-school work and make mon- 
ey. 

Speaking of money, what about 
the poor old-timers who are living 
in poverty on Social Security? I 
don't know about where you are 
but around here it's tough to find 
people for the available jobs. 
There's plenty of part-time work— 
and an unlimited number of ways 
for people to get into business for 
themselves. 

So let's not be complacent, 
smugfy assuring ourselves that 
were 400,000 strong. Let's get to 
work rebuilding our hobby— get- 
ting youngsters. My goal for us is 
1% of our population— yep, 2.5 
million hams—over ten times as 
many as we really have today. Jf 
you get started with school radio 
clubs. I'll publish the simple con- 
struction projects and news of ex- 
citing new ham activities such as 
packet radio. Who knows, we may 
even gel America back into high 
technogy! 

GOD WILL PROVIDE 

A few years back. ., oh my, it 
was 1966. twenty years ago I 
visited Robbie 5Z4ERR . he 
used to be VQ4ERR when Kenya 
was part of the British Empire . . 
which was then known as Great 
Britain. I suspect the term today is 
generally used in irony. Anyway, 
Robbie, who had been writing for 
73, suggested it would be nice of 
me to visit Kenya— and maybe go 
on a hunting safari. 

I'd just read a book on how to go 
on an African Safari for $690. I 
checked, and sure enough, I had 
$690 burning a hole in my pocket. 
Should I start a new magazine or 
go on safari? Easy choice. I wrote 
an editorial in 73 asking if there 
were any hams interested in going 



with me on safari. It turned out 
there were two, so we did it. 

No, I'm not going to write a day- 
by-day account of the trip. . .at 
least not now. What I'm gradually 
getting around to has to do with 
Kenya at that time, just a few 
years after gaining indepen- 
dence, Robbie, a British chap, ran 
the largest drug store in Nairobi — 
and had the biggest signal out of 
Africa, Oh P we had a lot to talk 
Qbouti 

After the $690 safari, which was 
most successful, thank you. > . 
while my trophies were being 
cured and shipped back, , . 
Robbie and I drove to the Seren- 
geti game park for a few days. 
Robbie explained that one of the 
big gripes in Africa at the time was 
the attitude of the missionaries. 
The Europeans could see (hat 
what little they'd established in 
the way of civilization was unrav- 
eling, so they warned the mission- 
aries to get out while the getting 
was good. 

No, God Will Protect Us. they 
pioused. So then, when the 
blacks, caught up in Uhuru— free- 
dom— started raping and killing, 
the cries of anguish arose — oh 
woe, please save us. Robbie was 
griping that then people had to en- 
danger their lives to rescue these 
turkeys. 

I tried to explain to Robbie that 
the inability to cope with an im- 
pending disaster is a human trait, 
not one isolated and perfected by 
missionaries. Oh, they saw the 
danger, but they just didn't be- 
lieve it could happen to them. 
They really believed that God 
would somehow spare them, so 
they were very upset to discover 
that God helps those who help 
themselves — perhaps a new con- 
cept to them. 

This came to mind as I thought 
about the similar reaction of busi- 
nessmen. When the cash gets 
short they look around for tempo- 
rary expediencies, some of which 
can have devastating conse* 
quences. How many times have I 
called 73 advertisers to see what 
they're planning to run, only to be 
told they're short of money right 
now, so they're going to cut their 
advertising. None ever survive. 

Yep, I know this seems self- 
serving— after ail I'm selling ad- 
vertising space, right? Yes, I 
am . . . but more important to you, 
the reader, and to the industry, 
what I'm selling is one of the most 
critical aspects of any business— 
communications with customers 
and potential customers. No cus- 
tomers, no business so when 



the connection to sales is cut, the 
business dies. 

Most of the ads in 73 are run by 
small ham-owned companies. 
They' re spending a bundle on ads 
in 73 in order to reach you, hoping 
desperately you'll buy their prod- 
ucts. Few of them (any?) know 
much about advertising, so you'll 
see some terrible ads in amongst 
the few good ones. Rather than 
just skipping over the bum ads, 
you might take pity on a fellow 
ham and drop him a note explain- 
ing your reaction. Maybe he'll do 
better as a result. 

Unless you're very unusual, the 
day is going to come when you 
and a ham friend or two get to 
talking about getting into the ham 
business. You'll have some gad- 
get or some service and you'll 
want to give it a try. What could be 
more fun than being in business 
selling a ham product or service? 
Weil, if you ask those who are in 
the business, you'll find there are 
many things far more rewarding — 
like jumping naked into a pit of 
hot tar. 

Entrepreneurialism is a mental 
deviation which is generally more 
concentrated with only- or first- 
children, but can hit almost any- 
one. Hams seem particularly sus- 
ceptible to this aberration, so 
watch out. One of these days 
you'll build some gadget which 
your ham friends will want- Will 
you make one for them? The next 
thing you know you're running 
small ads in 73. Then bigger ads. 
Then full pages. Then the sun 
spots fade away and so do sales. 
Instead of advertising smarter 
you start cutting ads . , . du m de 
dumm dumm. 

When sales are good you don't 
worry about making your ads work 
better— about getting the most 
out of 'em. When the hard times 
come it's too late to do the learn- 
ing you should have when you had 
the money. Pity. 

I can hear my telephone ringing 
now — I'd like to get into the ham 
business— how can I find a 
product to sell? My first warning is 
not to try to sell to hams— a tight- 
fisted bunch of retired old men 
bent on making sure newcomers 
suffer just as much as they did to 
get their ham ticket. Well, most of 
"em are that way, but we do have a 
few hams interested in new 
things — or else we wouldn't have 
several thousand packet-radio en- 
thusiasts. Perhaps there's some 
hope yet. 

My own formula for finding 
products to sell is to make an an- 
nual pilgrimage to where most of 



94 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 




>,, received my moneys worth with just one 



issue... 



— J. Trenbtck 

.afwgys slop to read CTM, even though 
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— Fred Blechman, K6UGT 



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ihe new products are being in- 
vented and developed: Asia. I try 
not to miss the Japanese Con- 
sumer Electronic Show every Oc- 
tober (there are generally a dozen 
or so hams on the fall show tour), 
plus CESs in Korea, Taiwan and 
Hong Kong. They're one after the 
other. I'm importing some great 
electronic gadgets from Asia that 
Pve discovered on these trips. For 
instance, we're selling about 500 
Apple disk drives a month and a 
couple thousand swivel bases for 
monitors with power switching 
and protection built in. 

The entrepreneur will find in- 
spiration almost anywhere. I'll 
bet I come up with a gangbust- 
ers idea at least once a month, 
with idea-ettes almost daily. Now 
that I've got my publishing and 
retailing businesses running fairly 
well, III be looking for coconspira- 
tors and investors to start more 
businesses. 

You can bet that when cash 
flows glaciate, I'll be pumping out 
the PR and advertising, not cut- 
ting back on ads to save money, 
Every business runs into cash 
problems— it's part of the real 
world. 

One piece of advice I give every 
firm consulting me: When things 
are going well it is time to invest in 
a good PR person and a writer, I 
know of many multi-million dollar 
firms which would be going strong 
today if they'd had such a team on 
hand when the going got rough. 
Many firms with excellent prod- 
ucts and services went out of busi- 
ness for this lack. 

Am I being a nudge about 
you're getting into business? I 

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&eMe Mead New Jersey OS 503 

[2011 S74 -6013 




guess J let my enthusiasm get 
away from me and write too much 
about it, I just get so darned fed up 
at hamfests hearing people plead 
poverty— poverty in the midst of 
plenty— plenty right there for 
those with the guts to go for it. 

I wonder if there is any correla- 
tion between hams who try new 
things— who get involved with 
packet radio, who get enthused 
over OSCAR contacts, who get on 
2m SSB— and being adventurous 
in life. . .in business? Seems to 
me there might be. Some hams 
get their Tech ticket and spend 
their declining years talking over a 
repeater — never really saying 
much. Some are into DXing, then 
into high-speed CW, then having 
a ball with slow scan, They never 
get bogged down for long. 

One of the great charms of RT- 
TY has always been the opportu- 
nity to talk with the more interest- 
ing and adventurous hams. The 
packet crowd is now saying the 
same thing. Plus, we seem to be 
able to communicate better in 
writing than we do on voice. These 
activities which take some extra 
effort are a fine filter to block out 
the boring turkeys. No, it isn't per- 
fect, but it's good enough to keep 
most of us going on RTTY and 
packet well beyond our pioneer- 
ing days, 

Now. getting back to the God 
Will Protect Us syndrome — I see 
that same attitude — the same 
blindness to approaching catas- 
trophe— on the part of our lower- 
intelligence old-timers. Here we 
have a hobby which depends to* 
tally on the use of incredibly valu- 
able radio spectrum* a limited re- 



source worth billions of dollars to 
commercial interests, We're an 
aging and shrinking group. We 
know that virtually all the technical 
advancements we used to con- 
tribute came from younger hams, 
yet we've allowed this resource to 
be almost wiped out, It's been a 
generation since we've done any- 
thing of value to warrant our use of 
our bands. Indeed, by keeping out 
the young experimenters we're 
now using only a few of our alio* 
cated bands at all. Will prayer 
save our hobby? Let's either get 
those prayer wheels going or get 
cracking on helping ourselves by 
getting school radio clubs going. 
Perhaps if we set all of our com- 
puters offering prayers 24-hours a 
day to save amateur radio from 
our own neglect, we might be able 
to relax and rag-chew without that 
guilt feeling. How about it you soft- 
ware chaps, have you a program 
which will take care of this for us? 

DO YOU WRITE? 

I'm looking for some columnists 
to keep us up to date on what's 
going on in the dozen or so related 
hobbies we call amateur radio. 
We're covering some okay, but 
not enough. For instance, per- 
haps you're a true 1 60m fanatic- 
fine, you'll have a lot more activity 
on 160 if you let everyone know 
what's happening there and how 
much fun it is, We're interested in 
antennas, 160m equipment, con- 
tests, special events, band condi- 
tions, what OX is available on 
what frequencies, when, and 
soon. 

If you're an 80m guru, we're in- 
terested in the same info— month- 

73 



ly. We're also interested in special 
activities such as RTTY, high- 
speed CW nets, and service nets. 
There's a lot going on on 80. Is 
there anyone who can tackle it? 

Ditto the above for monthly re* 
ports on 40m, 20m, 15m, and 
10m, In addition, if there's enough 
interest, we might have a separate 
10m FM report. I don't know if 
there's enough activity on 6m to 
fill even a one-inch column, but if 
there is someone who fives and 
breathes six meters and can fill us 
in on what's happening there, 
let's hear from you. 

There is so much doing on two 
meters I don't know how we could 
cover that. If there's someone 
with the guts to try, I'd like to hear 
what you propose. Trying to cover 
voice repeaters, RTTY repeat ers t 
digipeaters. moonbounce, meteor 
scatter, SSB. CW; aurora . A 
don't think it can be done. 

220 is easier — any volunteers 
to see what can be done abou: 
making 220 more popular? We 
need repeater lists, simplex chan- 
nel data, contest information, 
equipment news, and so on. Per- 
haps we need a 220 contest? 

430 is a busy band in many ar- 
eas of the country, with some TV 
on the low end and a passel of 
repeaters higher up. Is much be- 
ing done during contests? Sim* 
plex? Mountaintopping? Moon- 
bounce? Spread spectrum? Is 
there a volunteer? 

1250 MHz— volunteer? There's 
more and more ATV here. 
EME . .and what about mi- 
crowaves—like 105 GHz. 24 
GHz, and so on? ts there a volun- 
teer with enough interest to try 

Amateur Radio * June. 1986 95 






and get more activity on these 
bands? We need to know what's 
being done, what new equip- 
ment is available, how the bands 
do during VHF contests, and 
soon. 

We need a column for SSTV, 
And how about high-speed 
CW — anyone into that who can 
tell us what's going on— where 
to listen— what equipment to 
use? EME_ volunteer? We have 
OSCAR orbits, but how about 
news? 

We have an estimated 150,000 
American hams who are actually 
active in some way. Most of us are 
creatures of habit. We get stuck 
rag-chewing on 75 meters and 
tend to forget the fun of climbing a 
fire tower on top of a mountain in 
the middle of a well-beiow-freez- 
ing night to try for a 10.5-GHz con- 
tact with a new state. Sonne fun. 
So if you are having a ball with 
some aspect of amateur radio and 
would like to get more of us inter- 
ested in your Insanity, the best 
way to promote it is with a monthly 
column in 73, telling us what's go- 
ing on t how to do it, and how much 
fun it is. 

Even though I'm as habit-fro- 
zen as just about anyone, col- 
umns and articles on ham activi- 
ties I haven't yet tried eventually 
get to me. Over the years I've 
been forced by magazine articles 
and columns to become an 
RTTY fanatic, worked more than 
my share of DX, have a big cer- 
tificate collection, have done my 
bit with 75m DXing, was a pio- 
neer on six meters, have the 
record for states worked on 10.5 
GHz, had my own repeaters 
on several bands, operated 
SSTV from several countries, and 
so on. If you're enjoying ham ra- 
dio, get more hams involved with 
your particular interest with a 
column. 

If you'd like to give it a try, put 
together a sample column and 
send it to me so I can get an idea of 
what you can do. I'll pay modestly , 
but your main reward will be in- 
creased interest in your activity. I 
prefer to get both a disk and a 
printout so we won't have to 
retype your material We're com- 
pletely automated these days, so 
we plug your disk in, edit your 
stuff, then feed it right into the 
typesetting system. 

I'll be judging your columns on 
how much you obviously know 
about your subject, how persua- 
sive you are, and how much you'll 
be able to contribute without de- 
pending too much on material 
from readers. As a hard-core 



stick-in-the-mud ham, one who 
tends to stay with what I'm doing 
unless dynamited into something 
else, I'll be looking to see if your 
column gets me to thinking about 
giving your interest a try, It won't 
hurt for you to include an outline of 
things you'd like to cover in future 
columns. 

I got stuck for about a year talk- 
ing to the same bunch of hams on 
75m one time. It wasn't until the 
excitement of six meters opening 
to Europe during a sunspot high 
that I broke away, The enthusias- 
tic articles and reports finally did 
it, getting me to convert an old FM 
radio to see what the fuss was 
about. WOW! 

In order to keep columnists on 
their word processor keys, I want 
all of you to send me a Feedback 
card (page 80) every month telling 
me how you rate 'em. If they lose 
out in the ratings, I'll look for 
someone you'll like better. It's all 
too easy for columnists to run out 
of material and get dull. There 
isn't any excuse for dull in a bunch 
of hobbies like ours. 

I don't know whether we'll get 
you going on high-speed CW, on 
EME, or what, but I'm going to do 
everything I can to get you off 
dead center. If you aren't an ex- 
pert, at least contribute your news 
to the experts . . . and help me get 
as many hams subscribed to 73 as 
we can. Talk it up, okay? It's better 
than reciting your ham gear serial 
numbers. 

ASIAN TOUR 

The Consumer Electronic 
Shows in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, 
and Hong Kong are back to back 
in October, making it possible to 
get to all four in a two-week Asian 
trip. It's a fast tour, with one-day 
travel and then two days in most 
countries, but it gives you a 
chance to both see these interest- 
ing countries and get to their elec- 
tronic shows. 

Compact disc fanatics will love 
the wide variety of CDs available 
in Japan and Hong Kong — thou- 
sands of CDs which aren't {and 
may never be) available here. 

One of the nice aspects of this 
show tour is your freedom. If you 
want to go to the electronic shows, 
you'll have a bus and alt the help 
you need. If not, there are sight- 
seeing trips. Or you may want to 
go it alone. IVe been going on the 
Commerce show tours for about 
eight years and find them invalu- 
able for making contacts and 
keeping abreast of all electronic 
technologies. 

The tour leaves the U.S- Octo- 



ber 2nd from most any city you 
want, flying to Tokyo. You arrive 
the 3rd and are transferred to the 
New Takanawa Prince Hotel— a 
fine new hotel in the Shinagawa 
district of Tokyo. Several of us will 
be having dinner that first night 
just down the street in a great little 
(and surprisingly inexpensive) 
tempura restaurant. 

The tour provides a first-class 
breakfast every morning — plus at 
least one banquet dinner per city 
visited. The breakfast is a fine 
time to meet your fellow tourers. 
The tour usually has between 150 
and 250 people, Including a dozen 
or more hams, so it takes a while 
to meet everyone. 

The hotel is located right near 
the Shinagawa station, making 
it possible to get almost anywhere 
in Tokyo in minutes— such as 
Akihabara, where there are hun- 
dreds of electronics and parts 
stores. There's even a Baskin 
Bobbins and a McDonalds across 
the street from the station, in 
case you get a yen for American 
fast food. 

On the 6th we're off to Korea 
and the Seoul Hilton, which is 
near the famous Etweon shopping 
district. Between sightseeing (like 
the historical Korean Village), the 
electronics show and visiting elec- 
tronics factories, there's plenty to 
do during your two days in Korea. 
We'll join the 73 Magazine DXpe- 
dition group here, where their tour 
begins. 

Next stop is Taiwan on the 9th. 
If you didn't get a new suit in 
Seoul, you'll probably buy one 
here. By the way, though the yen 
has seriously escalated in price, 
currencies in Korea, Taiwan, and 
Hong Kong have held steady, so 
these are still first-rate shopping 
countries. Tailor-made suits are 
around $150 here— shirts $8. 
They can measure you the 
evening you arrive, make the first 
fitting the next morning, and have 
the finished suit for you that 
evening. 

The Taiwan electronic show is 
always a big one, with hundreds 
of small businesses showing 
products of interest to importers. 
I've been importing a bunch of 
computer accessories from Tai- 
wan, so I'll be looking for new 
ideas. 

Yes, there's sightseeing, fac- 
tory visits, an incredible place 
called Snake Alley— but most im- 
portant for me— we'll be in Taiwan 
on October 10th — 10-10, the 
biggest holiday of the year — so 
we'll be able to visit the huge sta- 
dium and watch the kids perform. 



Til have my 8mm video camera 
along this time and tape the 
whole production. You have to 
see the show those kids put on to 
believe it. 

Then on to Hong Kong. Here, in 
addition to the fun of the city, 
you'll find your best shopping for 
cameras and electronics gad- 
gets—plenty of record stores with 
wide CD selections— bargain 
portable CD players. If you bring 
along your 2m HT you can get a 
ticket here and operate on the 
seven repeaters. 

There are side trips available to 
Macao XX, just an hour away by 
hydrofoil, or to Shenzhen City, for 
a peek into China BY. 

After Hong Kong there are op- 
tional tour extensions — two days 
in Canton for the Canton Trade 
Fair, two days in Canton plus 
three in Beijing, where you can 
check out the Great Wall, the 
Ming Tombs, and perhaps get on 
the air from BY1 PK, or two days in 
Singapore 9V1 . If there's enough 
interest, I'll goon from Hong Kong 
with a small group for a short visit 
to the tiny countries of Sabah 
9M6, Brunei V85, and Sarawak 
9M8 on Borneo— an extra seven 
days — in case you'd like to see 
these fascinating, but seldom vis- 
ited countries. I've been to alt 
of them and they're well worth 
the trip. 

How much does all this cost? 
The round trip economy fare from 
the West Coast, October 2-1 6th, 
to Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and 
Hong Kong, is $2,639. It's a bit 
more if you want to travel Execu- 
tive Class— and a bit extra from 
the East Coast, of course. 

For a full schedule of dates, 
costs, and details, drop me a note 
and I'll get ! em to you. 

If you've added 8mm video to 
your repertoire, be sure to bring 
your camera and plenty of tapes 
on the trip. IVe visited these cities 
a dozen times or more over the 
last 25 years and they're stitl 
fascinating. 

You need visas to visit most of 
these countries. These take time 
to get, so you can't wait until the 
last minute and suddenly decide I 
guess I'll goon the trip. The China 
add-on takes even longer, with Ju- 
ly 31st being the deadline. 

About two-thirds of the people 
on the tour are repeat customers, 
so Bob Chang, the chap who runs 
Commerce Tours and personalty 
conducts the tours, is doing it 
right. 

Write Wayne Green W2NSD/1 , 
Asian Tour, WGE Center, Peter* 
borough NH 03458. ■ 



96 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



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73 for Radio Amateurs ■ May 1 1986 97 



73 International 




AUSTRALIA 

J. E. Joyce VK3YJ 
44 Wren Street 
AitonaSOIB 
Victoria 
Australia 

VK6 INFORMATION 

With the number of overseas 
visitors coming to the America's 
Cup Yacht Race in VK6 later this 
year, I have received several 
letters seeking information re- 
garding amateur radio in VK6. 
Particularly needed was info on 2 
metre and 70 cm repeater opera- 
tion, I hope the following will assist 
these people in having an enjoy- 
able stay in West Australia for the 
Cup, 

Nearly all VHF-FM repeaters in 
Australia have a downwards shift 
of 600 KC [kHz] on transmit; e.g.. 
Perth VK6RAP: receive on 
146.700, transmit on 146.100, As 
not all repeaters are in operation 
at the same time, due to break- 
downs or off-air being serviced 
(and as 1 am over 2,500 miles 
away on the other side of the con- 
tinent), I cannot guarantee which 
ones will be working during your 
stay. However, here is a full list, to 
my knowledge, of VK6 repeater 
frequencies in Perth, for you to 
either program your sets, or bring 
the appropriate crystals: 
RAP- 146, 700 (Voice) 
RTH-1 46,750 (Voice) 
RTH-146.8O0 (Voice) 
RPD-146,950(Vofce) 
REE-1 46.975 (Emergency) 
REE-1 47.000 (Emergency) 
RTY- 1 47.050 (RTTY) 
RWC- 147. 100 (Voice) 
There also is one 70 cm re- 
peater operating in the Perth area 
on 438,525 MHz. 

PEOPLE TO CONTACT 

If you wish to contact a radio 
club either when you arrive or be- 
forehand, I would recommend the 
Perth Radio League of WA (Inc.), 
PO Box 106 t Cannington, W.A. 
6107, Australia, 

As stated in previous articles, 
the best way to gain a reciprocal 
license in Australia is to apply 
upon arrival. In Perth the place to 
go is the Department of Communi- 



cations, Caga Centre, 256 Ade- 
laide Terrace, Perth 6000; Phone: 
09-3255877 (within Australia), 
NOTE: American Novice licenses 
are not recognized as valid for 
a reciprocal license within Aus- 
tralia. 

The cost of a license, regard- 
less of length of stay, is A$23 
[US$1,00 about A$1.40 as of 
April.] If you wish to apply for a 
license beforehand, please write 
to State Manager, Department of 
Communications, PO Box 6189 T 
Hay Street East, Perth 6000, Aus- 
tralia. All that is required is either 
your original amateur license (or a 
certified copy) to show to our 
D.O.C, You will then be granted a 
similar grade license with a VK 
callsign for 12 months operation 
within Australia. 

RAOTC 

In 1975, a small group of Aus- 
tralian amateur radio operators 

decided, mainly under the guid- 
ance of Bob Cunningham VK3ML, 
to form a Radio Amateurs 1 Old 
Timers Club, the main criterion 
being the holding of an amateur 
license for at least 25 years. 

From this small beginning there 
are now over 750 members, with 
some members being classed as 
old old-timers, having held a li- 
cense for over 50 years. 

Between 1975 and 1985, club 
communication was via weekly 
on-air skeds and a newsletter, 
With the growing membership, it 
was felt an annual magazine was 
required to service its members. 
1985 saw its inception with Max 
Hull VK3ZS its editor and Kevin 
Dull its co-editor. 

The magazine itself is full of 
nostalgia, with listings of present 
members, plus later day silent 
keys; with the band conditions the 
way they are today, it is the only 
way some of the not-so-active old- 
timers get to know of a friend's 
passing. 

The story below (by Lay VK3CF 
and Bill VK3CB) is typical of the 
magazine, and should bring back 
memories to some of the earlier 
days of amateur radio when ex- 
perimentation was supreme. 

The Big Re-Broadcast 

During the 1928-30 period in 
Melbourne, when a selected num- 
ber of amateur stations had per- 



mission to have "fun and games" 
S0 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



on the broadcast band, there was 
much friendly rivalry between the 
boys to see who could come up 
with some novel programme to 
augment the playing of gramo- 
phone records. 

One (big deal) for (hose days 
was to re-broadcast an overseas 
shortwave transmission or to in- 
troduce local 'live" talent from 
Mum's front room, using it as a 
sound studio with a "Reiss" car- 
bon microphone made from a 
marble block carved out by the 
local tombstone people plus 
pieces of mica and lots of carbon 
granules. I was Bill Sievers* 
(VK3CB) second op— and how 
Mum Sievers put up with us hang- 
ing chaff bags and hessian from 
the picture rail right around the 
room to reduce reverberation 
{yes! we knew something about 
acoustics even then) and pinching 
the four-inch wooden curtain rings 
from the spare room to make our 
multi-strand sausage-shaped 
zepp aerial, HI never know. 

An amusing highlight of those 
days happened to the fate Bert 
Maddick VK3EF of Elwood. He 
had his talking cockatoo in the 
shack with him, and while trans- 
mitting, the bird let loose with pro- 
fanity that would have done jus- 
tice to a bullock driver at his best! 
However, Bert was let off the hook 
by the Postmaster-General's De- 
partment, but only after a severe 
reprimand. Enough said! 

One of the best outside broad- 
casts (O/Bs) was put on by Arthur 
Forecast VK3AM who arranged 
with his second op, Headley 
Myers (the "Igranic" wireless 
man at Noyes Bros,), to receive 
the powerful American station 
KDKA, owned by the Western 
Electric & Manufacturing Compa- 
ny, from East Pittsburg. Pennsyl- 
vania, at his QTH and then, with 
special permission from the De- 
partment, send their programme 
down the telephone line to Arthur. 
This was technically and other- 
wise very good, and it created a 
lot of interest until one evening 
the local telephone exchange 
operator, being unaware of the 
Department's OK for this activi- 
ty (so what's new?) heard music 
on the line and immediately put 
on the howler which caused 
Arthur's many listeners to imag- 
ine that their receivers were about 
to blow up! 

The late Stan Gadsen VK3SW, 
Ivor Morgan VK3DH, and the 
Hoist brothers, VK3BY, and many 
others were very active in those 
days, and last but by no means 
least, VK3CB and myself. I start- 



ed out in the "OA prefix 1 ' days 
(prior to the VK prefix) as Bill's 
second op. 

Not to be outdone by the afore- 
mentioned weekend amateur 
broadcasts, we let it be known one 
weekend that on the following 
Sunday night at 1 1 p.m. we would 
re-broadcast a programme from 
JOAK, Japan, This station could 
be heard on the BC band on a 
slightly higher frequency than 
3LO when the latter closed down 
at 10:30 p.m.. as did all the BC 
stations in those days. 

Normally we could receive 
JOAK at good strength at East 
Richmond, but on the Saturday 
night prior to our much publicized 
"Big Re-Broadcast/' my multi- 
tube receiver packed up and in no 
way could it be fixed up in time for 
the following night's "do/' After 
the first wave of panic subsided, 
we dreamed up an idea to get us 
off the hook: in fact it was a stroke 
of genius! We announced on the 
Saturday that due to matters be- 
yond our control, we could not re- 
lay the Japanese station but, as 
an alternative, we would do a re- 
broadcast from China and thus 
keep faith with our listeners who 
were patiently waiting for the over- 
seas broadcast. 

Bill and I now applied our true 
amateur talents! We had no idea 
at all of the existence of a Chinese 
broadcasting station, so we creat- 
ed one ourselves! Firstly, Bill man- 
aged to fit a switch which would 
reverse the direction of rotation of 
our gramophone motor while I ar- 
ranged our Webster pickup arm to 
track from the inside out. We then 
drilled a new spindle hole about 
3/4 * off centre in an old 10" disc 
on which was recorded mainly 
voice. This was placed on the 
turntable using the off-centre po- 
sition for the spindle and. after the 
big announcement of the ,+ Big Re- 
Broadcast" from China, the thing 
was played off-centre, inside out, 
and back to front!! Talk about a 
Chinese broadcast; it was perfect! 
The secret of a nonexistent for- 
eign broadcast has remained with 
us. . .until now! 

I am grateful to VK3CF and 
VK3CB for the above story! 

Wl A BADGES 

For nearly half a century or 
more, the WIA has had the same 
lapel badge featuring Australia 
over a banner of the WIA, but with 
the ease of international travel, 
some of the members voiced a 
need for an international-type 
lapel badge, with the familiar dia- 
mond shape being mooted. This 





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The Australian badges* L to R f new, newer, and old. 



diamond-type badge was manu- 
factured, with quite a few being 
bought by members. 

This, of course, brought howls 
of indignation from some older 
members saying, iJ We are losing 
our National identity!" The argu- 
ments raged back and forth, with 
the result being that a third badge 
was made featuring the diamond 
shape plus a boomerang. The 
idea being that the diamond was 
for easy international recognition 
and the boomerang depicting 
Australia, with the added bonus 
that it was simple matter to have 
your callsign inscribed upon the 
boomerang; this badge would 
serve a three-fofd purpose. 

The arguments are still going 
strong with some members, as to 
which badge is the most represen- 
tative of the Australian amateur 
Photos of the three badges are 
included to help you form your 
own opinion! 

SPICE UP YOUR QSO 
WITH PHRASE DROPPERS 

Ever noticed how your QSO be- 
comes a little light on technical 
conversation? Welt, try a few of 
the combinations in Fig. 1 next 
time and no one will ever admit 
that they don't know what you are 
talking about! Select any three of 



the phrases, such as 3, 7, and 9, 
which give "parallel incremental 
consistency." Maybe your trans- 
ceiver just fits the bill. 




BRAZIL 

Cartes Vianne Carneim PY1CC 
Rua Afonso Pena 49/701 
20270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ 
Brazil 

WWSACW1986 

Last year's changes in rules for 
the World Wide South American 
C W Contest brought very interest- 
ing consequences and results — a 
strong increase in participants be- 
ing the immediate response. (See 
"Contests" in this issue.) Simpli- 
fied purpose, contacts between 
stations in all countries, seems to 
be the best to everybody, consid- 
ering we had almost double the 
radio amateurs from all parts in 
1985, 

As contest period annually is 
every second complete weekend 
of June, from 1500 UTC Saturday 
to 1500 UTC Sunday, this 1986 it 
starts June 14. Keep an eye on 



0. integrated 


0. muted 


0. options 


1 , total 


1 . organizational 


1 . flexibility 


2. systematized 


2. monitored 


2. capability 


3, parallel 


3. reciprocal 


3. mobility 


4. functional 


4. digital 


4. programming 


5. responsive 


5. reactive 


5. concept 


6, optional 


6. transitional 


6. time phase 


7. synchronized 


7, incremental 


7, projections 


8, compatible 


8, overtone 


8. hardware 


9, balanced 


9. emissional 


9. consistency 



that second and complete week- 
end! Bands are 1 .8, 3.5, 7, 14, 21, 
28 MHz, and crossband contacts 
are not valid . 

Classifications— 2-way CW 
mode, only for (1) single operator, 
single band or all bands, (2) multi- 
operator, single transmitter, all 
bands, (3) SWL. Call will be— CQ 
SATEST. 

Exchange— RST/QSO number 
starting from 001 * 

Points— Each QSO in same 
country points (valid only as mul* 
tipiier); in same continent, two 
points; in other continents, four 
points. Only for OX stations, QSO 
with South American stations, 
eight points! 

Multipliers— all different coun- 
tries (DXCC list) and different 
South American prefixes worked 
in each band. 

Scoring—final score is the total 
QSO points multiplied by the sum 
of total multipliers from all bands. 

Certificates will be granted to 
three top-scoring stations of each 
class in country, reasonable score 
provided. Results of South Ameri- 
can entries will be listed separate- 
ly from other continents. 

A separate log for each worked 
band must be sent not later than 
August SI, 1986, and PSE follow 
standard international contest 
logging rules* Send to WWSA 
Contest Committee, PO Box 
18003, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 
20772, 



"I 



Fig. l.An extract from the VK2 Westiakes Amateur Radio Club's Month- 
ly Newsletter. April, 1982. 

100 73 Amateur Radio • June, 1986 



Manos Darkadakis SV1IW 
Box 23051 
Athens 1 1210 
Greece 

In one of my previous columns I 
had mention about a new repeater 
(R0) on top of Taigetos Mountain, 
and I promised to return to it with 
more details. The reason is this is 
the first Greek repeater under so- 
lar power and also under remote 
control. Of course this might look 
like a common situation for coun- 
tries with a lot of amateur popula- 
tion, but for our country I shall call 
the event as unique. 

The man behind this installation 
was John SV1KC* an excellent 
electronics engineer who has put 
all of his talent on writing the soft- 
ware but also designing and build- 
ing the hardware for the control of 
the repealer; 

The repeater's site is on a place 



called Ag. Panteleimonas, 1640 
meters above sea level in South 
Peloponese Because of the high 
altitude, several parameters had 
to be met before everything was 
ready for the top. 

Now what the hardware con- 
tained was a Yaesu receiver and 
transmitter, an RX-TX systems 
duplexer, a colinear heavy-duty 
antenna with four dipoles, three 
starved electrolyte batteries, and 
three photovoltaic panels from 
B.P, (British Petroleum). The re- 
peater was designed with two 
power levels (2.8 and 8 W) t and 
every two hours is giving teleme- 
try with Information about its 
status. 

The full message is transmitted 
every two hours and looks like 
this: VVV CQ CQ DE SV3A 
. .CHRG AH DICH...AH 
TEM IN. . DEG TEM OUT 
...DEG BAT CAP... AH AR, 

CHRG gives charging current 
for the last two hours, DJCH gives 
power consumption during the 
past two hours, TEM IN gives in- 
side temperature, TEM OUT gives 
outside temperature, and finally 
BAT CAP gives battery capacity. 
Along with each transmission R0 
sends a subcarner of 72.8 Hz for 
monitoring service. 

The receiver consumes only 14 
mA squelched, and power output 
is dependent on the capacity of 
the batteries (more on this later). 
Both receiver and transmitter are 
using ovens for the crystal oscilla- 
tor in order to keep temperature 
between 25-30 C« There is also a 
clever system into the receiver 
called "economizer" (Yaesu uses 
this in FT-209 handheld). With this 
system, the receiver if is not trig- 
gered for 1 seconds then goes to 
9% duty cycle receive (90% off 
and 10% on) preventing spending 
energy for no reason. 

I think that this is enough for the 
hard part of the repeater. In my 
next column I will look a little more 
inside SV3A T s logic and will reveal 
all the power that a soft control 
can give to an ordinary repeater. 




HONG KONG 

ft J. Weaver VS6CT 
10A Bonaventure House 
91 Leighton Road 
Hong Kong 

I am scheduled to leave here on 
May 1 2 for my triannual leave and 
will be visiting with friends in Call- 



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fornia, Oregon, and Illinois until 
June 15. Then I head for Miami 
and hope to join a 48* DeFever 
motor cruiser for a six-week cruise 
around the Bahamas and Exumas 
Islands. Subject to confirmation, I 
then hope to spend August in the 
U.S. Virgin Islands, perhaps oper- 
ating as VS6CT/KP2, which will 
be bound to attract some atten- 
tion! ( will then be in the New York 
area for a week or two before go- 
ing on to England in mid-Septem- 
ber. I am due to return to start 
work here on October 15. 

I had a most interesting five-day 
trip to Okinawa to visit the West- 
ern Pacific Search and Rescue 
Center. It was mainly a familiariza- 
tion trip to learn how the other half 
operated, as we work very closely 
with that organization when there 
are any search-and-rescue opera- 
tions going on in our region. An- 
other seminar in Singapore in 
April is being put on by the Inter- 
national Maritime organization, 
but we will have to sing for our 
supper there, I am busy now 
preparing a paper to present, on 
how we do our search-and-rescue 
operations here, and the facilities 
we have. After Japan and Oki- 
nawa. Hong Kong is considered 
the most effective operation in the 
far east, and we have been asked 
to show other ASEAN country rep- 
resentatives how we do it. 

Amateur radio in Hong Kong is 
making very big strides at this 
time. At the moment, we have 
over 300 licensees of whom over 
70% have the Class B license— 
they have passed the technical 
exam but did not have to take 
code. They are permitted to oper- 
ate on 30 MHz and above, and of 
course that includes satellite op- 
eration. They are a very keen 
bunch, and since we implement- 
ed this license (for which I was 
responsible for achieving), there 
has been great interest among the 
local Chinese. Thanks to this no- 
code licensing, which is the same 
as in the United Kingdom, with the 
same exam, we have had a big 
expansion in activity. By October I 
hope we will have (our more re- 
peaters to add to our present 
three, and a closed repeater for 
the English-speaking hams only. 
One of our major problems with 
the increased activity is that re- 
peater chatter is all in Chinese, 
and as an English-speaker only, I 
can do a lot better if I don't have to 
listen to a repeater pouring out a 
language I don't understand. 

Had great fun over the Chinese 
New Year holiday in February, do- 
ing one of my expeditions to 



Macau. I made 2,700 contacts, 
well short of my average, but con- 
ditions were not the best, as was 
to be expected at the bottom of the 
current cycle. Expeditions to 
Macau are becoming more and 
more complicated, however. In 
the good old days, it was a matter 
of simply applying for a reciprocal 
license and getting on the air, ei- 
ther from an existing station which 
one had on loan or setting up in a 
hotel. The fee was US$3.50. Now 
it is US$17.50, plus US$25 if you 
ask the Post Office to do all the 
forms for you, on the ubiquitous 
Portuguese "Blue Paper," which 
is used for all legal matters. The 
license is valid for only 30 days, 
and after setting up your station 
you have to have it inspected be- 
fore you can operate. All this has 
happened just recently; and I 
don't think I'll bother with Macau 
again, at least not unless 1 can use 
an existing station. 

My best to Wayne. It will be de- 
lightful to read his editorials again 
and I am delighted he is back at 
the helm of 73. I hope you will 
consider publishing short stories 
again from time to time. I have 
been amused by them in the past. 
Perhaps you could ask sub- 
scribers to contribute some which 
have a "ham flavor/' 




ISRAEL 

Ron Gang 4Z4MK 
Kibbutz Urirn 
NegevM.P.O. 8S530 
Israel 

An important precedent for am- 
ateur radio has been set in the 
Haifa City Court, Until recently, 
antenna lawsuits were troubles 
only to be read about in the Ameri- 
can ham press, as far as Israeli 
amateurs were concerned. Now, 
after a short but tense court case, 
the hams here can breathe a sigh 
of relief, thanks to the refusal of 
Israel Lavie 4X4UF to bow to the 
pressure of his neighbours. 

To supply necessary back- 
ground, most Israelis do not live in 
detached houses, but dwell in 
apartment blocks which are the 
common property of the dwellers, 
each person owning his own 
apartment. The denizens elect a 
"house committee" which is re- 
sponsible for the upkeep of the 
building, collects maintenance 
fees, and makes rules regarding 
the use of the common property. 




DovGavish4Z4DX. 



A few years ago, 4X4UF, a 
ham of more than twenty years 
seniority and known in the am- 
ateur community for his techni- 
cal innovations and construction 
of miniaturized transceivers, 
moved from the Galilee town of 
Carrniel to the city of Haifa. Not a 
big DXer, he satisfied himself with 
a modest dipole antenna on his 
building's roof. 1 suspect that most 
of his operating anyway was on 
two meters while driving to and 
from work. 

One bright day, the house com- 
mittee of his building decided that 
the black coaxial cable coming 
down the side of the building to 
Israel's window from his dipole 
was an eyesore, and demanded 
that he remove it, Gritting his 
teeth, as it were, Israel complied, 
but in order to partly compensate 
himself he installed a small two- 
meter beam attached to the railing 
of his balcony facing out from the 
back of the building. 

Ancient Hebrew proverb says, 
"You give them a finger and they 
take the whole hand/' One day 
4X4UF opens his mailbox and 
finds himself served with a sum- 
mons to appear in the Haifa mu- 
nicipal court, charged with defac- 
ing the appearance of the build- 
ing. In the meantime, he removes 



the beam but photographs it for 
posterity. 

Hiring a lawyer and accom- 
panied by a few amateurs as 
witnesses, Israel appears in 
court and presents the pho- 
tograph as evidence. The chief 
municipal building inspector says 
that to his recollection the anten- 
na on the balcony was bigger, so 
the court adjourns so that the ac- 
tual antenna in question could be 
examined. 

In the course of the examina- 
tion, it becomes clear that said an- 
tenna was not permanently at- 
tached to the building; it looks like 
that on these grounds Israel may 
get off the hook. However, in this 
case the right of the ham to his 
antenna will still be in question, 
and red-head 4X4UF, once chal- 
lenged, does not back off, 

There is no substitute for a 
smart lawyer, and, indeed, Is- 
rael's has been doing his home- 
work- Checking the conditions of 
the license, the lawyer discovers 
that section 13 article 4 of the Is- 
raeli Amateur Radio License con- 
tains the following (which I have 
translated from the Hebrew): 

"When there is, in the opinion 
of the Minister of Communica- 
tions, a state of emergency, and 
the public welfare deems it neces- 



102 73 Ama teur Radio * J u n e , 1 986 







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sary t the director [of the Ministry 
of Communications) wilt be autho- 
rized lo take charge of the station, 
to supervise it or use it for the 
needs of the State, without pay- 
ment, or to transfer it to whom he 
sees fit, or to order the owner of 
the license to operate the station 
according to his instruction. The 
duration of this clause will not ex- 
pire with the cancellation, correc- 
tion or change of the license/' 

Armed with this important yet 
generally overlooked section of 
the license, Israel's lawyer taking 
a more offensive posture, asks the 
judge, how, in the time of national 
emergency, can a radio amateur 
comply with the terms of his li- 
cense and be of service to his 
country if his station has been ren- 
dered ineffective by the lack of an 
antenna? Indeed, in such times, 
the ham station is not an individu- 
al's means of personal entertain- 
ment, but a vital resource deter- 
mined by law to be put at the 
nation's disposal. 

It should be pointed out that this 
case took place when the memory 
of the vital service provided by 
amateurs at the time of the Mexi- 
can earthquake disaster was still 
fresh in the public consciousness, 
and, coupled with a year of excel- 
lent media coverage, amateur ra- 
dio in Israel was riding on high 
waves of popularity. 

Upon hearing this argument, 
the judge was convinced and the 
case standing against 4X4UF was 
dismissed. The amateurs Israel 
had brought to court did not even 
have to testify, and similar 
charges that were standing 
against another Haifa amateur 
were dropped. 

What is the significance of this 
court decision for the Israeli radio 
amateur? This case was fought in 
a municipal court, so although 
directly affecting only the city 
of Haifa, should the right of an 
amateur be contested in other 
courts, an important precedent 
has been set. 

In Haifa, any licensed radio am- 
ateur can erect an antenna on 
the premises whose address ap- 
pears on his station license. A 
transmitting antenna does not 
require a building permit, and the 
Haifa chief building inspector has 

said that should he receive any 
further complaints, he will first 
consult with officials of the Israel 
Amateur Radio Club before de- 
ciding whether action should be 
taken. 

Compared to the costs of simi- 
lar legal struggles abroad, this 
case was a bargain, with legal 

104 73 Amateur Radio ■ June. 



fees costing $500, The Israel Am- 
ateur Radio Club put up $150 aid, 
and it is expected that Israel will 
receive enough donations so as 
not to feel any monetary pinch. 

It is our hope that this will be the 
end of legaJ proceedings against 
ham antennas, and. naturally, a 
wish goes out from here that all 
amateurs worldwide will be able to 
defend their antenna rights with 
such relative ease. 

At the lime of writing Israel 
Lavie is not celebrating his victory 
with a monstrous multi-element 
tri bander perched on his build- 
ing's roof. However, his modest 
two-meter beam is no longer on 
the balcony railing but is on top of 
the building, and when he does 
manage to get on two meters, I'm 
told that his signal has never been 
better. 



ATOPDXER 



4Z4DX 



One of the few Israeli amateurs 
to climb close to the pinnacle of 
the coveted DXCC honor roll is 
Dov Gavish 4Z4DX. who to date 
has confirmed 315 of the current 
316 countries. 

Brought up on amateur radio on 
Kibbutz Ramat David in the north- 
ern Jezreel Valley, Dov is the son 
of the late Israel Gavish 4X4VB, 
who passed away last year. With 
his wife, Anat. and two children, 
Dov today lives in Ramat 
HaSharon, ten miles north of Tel 
Aviv. 

His back yard has turned into an 
antenna testing field, where It 
would seem that nothing less than 
a very thorough testing suffices. 
This is evidenced by having 
achieved on Five bands. Worked 
All Zones {first in Israel), DXCC, 
and Worked All States— not a sim- 
ple task from Israel. Other certifi- 
cates earned are 160-meter DX- 
CC, YL DXCC, Worked All 
German Countries, and 2500 LLS. 
counties certified in the County 
Award. 

Inside his shack sit the Ken- 
wood TS-930 and Drake TR4 plus 
the Robot slow-scan television 
outfit The current antenna farm 
consists of a KLM 6-element tiib- 
ander at 95 feet up, a 2-element 
40-meter beam, and full-sized 
slopers and inverted vees for 80 
and 1 60 meters. In the past he has 
tried different antennas for 80 and 
40 — delta loops, wire beams, 
slopers, and even a rhombic that 
he once stretched between four 
irrigation pipes on a once-vacant 
field adjoining his house, 

Dov is also active in group activ- 

1986 



ities, having found the club station 
4Z4EX in Ramat HaSbaron and 
organized the 4X6A multi-mutti 
operation that took first Asia in 
the 1979 CQ World-Wide DX 
contest in SSB in which your 
faithful scribe had the honor to 
participate. 

What's Dov's secret? If he has 
something special he isn't saying, 
but there's no doubt that the key is 
perseverance— listening on the 
bands with great concentration- 
good antennas, and a certain 
sixth sense that every serious DX* 
er seems to develop. 




NEW ZEALAND 

D. J. (Des) Chapman ZL2VR 
459 Kennedy Road 
Napier 
New Zealand 

RECIPROCAL LICENSING 

Over the past year or so I have 
had a few enquiries from ama- 
teurs who intend to visit New 
Zealand regarding our reciprocal 
licensing arrangements. For 
those who may be interested I 
shall outline them again, more ful- 
ly than on the last occasion. 

Countries with reciprocal 
agreements with the New Zealand 
Government include Sweden, 
Switzerland, French Republic, 
United States of America, and the 
Netherlands. In addition, coun- 
tries with Commonwealth recogni- 
tion include Australia, Canada, 
and the United Kingdom as well 
as a large number of Common- 
wealth and Pacific countries; 
countries with guest licenses in- 
clude South Africa. 

NZART, recognising the impor- 
tance of this facet of our hobby, 
have appointed Russ Garlick 
2L3AAA coordinator of the Re- 
ciprocal Licencing Bureau, and 
any enquiries regarding recipro- 
cal licensing may be directed to 
him. He ateo keeps up with (he 
information ZL amateurs need to 
know when they contemplate an 
overseas trip. The address for 
Russ is: Mr. R. A, Garlick 
ZL3AAA, 23 Lydia Street, Grey- 
mouth, New Zealand. 

Here is a guide to the require- 
ments for an application for a re- 
ciprocal license when visiting 
New Zealand: 

1 . Complete an application form 
in duplicate (obtainable from Russ 
or the Radio Regulatory Section, 



Post Office Headquarters, 

Wellington, New Zealand). 

2. Supply with the application a 
photocopy of your operator's cer- 
tificate and a copy of your current 
receipt for annual fee paid. 

3. A certificate to indicate the 
Morse speed at which the appli- 
cant is qualified. 

4. If no evidence of Morse 
speed can be submitted, the ap- 
plicant may sit for the examination 
in the normal way. (Remember, 
ZL VHF operation is with a non- 
Morse certificate, so if you only 
want 2m or 70cm operation, this 
condition is not important,) 

5- A birth certificate or evidence 
of the date of birth, e.g., a copy of 
driver's license if date of birth is 
shown on it. 

6. Applicant must submit a per- 
manent postal address to where 
all correspondence can be sent 
(consulate, travel agent, etc), 

7. All applicants for a license 
must give at least two weeks no- 
tice before license application can 
be processed. 

8. License applications can be 
made to the Radio Licencing Sec- 
tion. Post Office, of any of the 17 
main cities or to Radio Regulatory 
Section, Post Office Headquar- 
ters, Wellington. It is recommend- 
ed that you send your application 
to the Radio Licencing Section, 
Post Office Engineers Office, at 
your point of entry, or to Post Of- 
fice Headquarters, Wellington. 

9. Visiting amateurs will be allo- 
cated a callsign from the Z10 
series. 

10- There is no charge for the 
service. 

While on the subject of recipro- 
cal licenses, I have nothing but 
praise for the FCC in the States 
and for the Department of Com- 
munications, Vancouver, Can- 
ada, for the prompt attention to my 
applications for reciprocal licens- 
es to use on my visit to USA and 
Canada in May through to July 
this year, I made the usual appli- 
cations for the licenses early in 
January, and one month later I 
had received both reciprocal li- 
censes, well before my projected 
departure date. 

We will have three weeks on a 
Friendship Force holiday at 
Kauai, Hawaii, Spokane, Wash* 
ington, and the Seattle area, and 
after that period we will be pro- 
ceeding on an independent cou- 
ple of month's holidaying in 
Canada and the States. I shall be 
looking forward to many QSOs on 
2m as we travel around with the 
2m handheld, and also some HF 
QSOs on the HF bands while visit- 




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ing at Port Coquitlam, near Van- 
couver, mid-May to mid-June, 
where through the courtesy of my 
host, Jack VE7CMD, I hope to 
have the use of his HF gear. Listen 
out for 2UVE7 portable about that 
time as I will be looking forward to 
QSOs with those who read this 
column. 

I shall also be visiting amateur 
friends in Charleston, West Vir- 
ginia, Buffalo and Amsterdam, 
New York, Peterborough, New 
Hampshire, Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, and Prince Edward Island. 
Canada, in the later part of June 
and early July. 

Visiting amateur radio oper* 
ators with whom you have already 
made contact is the fulfillment 
of the friendship begun on the 
air, and something I can well 
and worthily recommend to those 
who are able to travel overseas. 
I have had endless hours of plea- 
sure from such experiences; in 
fact, this will be my third visit 
to Port Coquitlam in ten years, 
with many pleasant QSOs in be- 
tween times. 

IARU CONFERENCE 
"SHORTS' f 

All but four of the delegates took 

advantage of the visitors' license 
ZLG-series offer, and those who 
had sent license details in ad- 
vance were given their ZL licens- 
es and a supply of preprinted QSL 
cards on arrival. 

There was an interesting side- 
light to that too: Alt the Indonesian 
delegation joined NZART. When 
asked why, they said. "We have a 
ZL call, therefore we must join 
your society/* Wouldn't this be a 
marvelous attitude to apply every- 
where! It would make our amateur 
organizations much stronger nu- 
merical ty than we are now — with 
only about half the licensed ama- 
teurs being members of their na- 
tional societies. 

The ZM6ARU station and the 
Conference Award generated a 
lot of interest worldwide—in all, 
some 2500 cards, including 120 
OSCAR-1Q QSOs were dis- 
patched through the bureau. 

Boh Holt ZL1BBZ t the mini-bus 
driver for the ladies, took a week's 
leave to be amongst those lovely 
ladies— he ran up well over 2000 
km during the period of the Con- 
ference chauffeuring the ladies 
around on their sight-seeing trips 
The success of the ladies' pro- 
gramme was summed up by a del- 
egate saying he did not have to 
worry about his wife during the 
day and she was too tired to want 
to go out at night! 

106 73 Amateur Radio ■ June, 



SILENT KEY 

Mrs. Myrtle England ZL4GR 
passed away on 31 January, 
1986, just six days short of com- 
pleting 56 years as a licensed am- 
ateur. 4 *Myrt/' as she was known 
on the air. was New Zealand's first 
licensed woman amateur radio 
operator, receiving her license on 
6 February, 1930. She was hon- 
ored at the 19&0 NZART Confer- 
ence when she was awarded 
WARO's (Womens' Amateur Ra~ 
dio Operators) first 50-year Certifi- 
cate and elected an Honorary Life 
Member of that organization. Myrt 
was active in local and DX operat- 
ing — she operated as a relay sta- 
tion during the Napier earthquake 
in 1931* a base station during 
snow-storm isolation, and a valu- 
able aid in Search and Rescue 
over many years, 

Myrfs friendly voice on the air 
has been stilled now, but she will 
long be remembered for her dis- 
tinctive personality, her vitality 
and enthusiasm, and above all, 
her wit and humor which many 
shared with her at Association 
Conferences and other amateur 
gatherings, 

REGION III AWARD 

Eligible countries are those in 
Region III whose amateur ra- 
dio societies are members of 
the IARU Region III Associa- 
tion. These are Australia, Bru- 
nei. Bangladesh, China(PRC), Fi- 
ji, French Polynesia (FOB only), 
Hong Kong, India, Indone- 
sia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, 
New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua 
New Guinea, Philippines, Sin* 
gapore, Solomon Islands, Sri 
Lanka. Thailand, Tonga, and 
Vanuatu. 

Plus one country credit from 
U.S. Territories in the Pacific, 
from Guam, Northern Marianas. 
American Samoa, Wake Island, 
Baker Rowland Group, as repre- 
sented by ARRL; one country 
credit from Pitcairn Island (VR6), 
Chagos Arch (VQ9), represented 
by RSGB. (Current total of avail- 
able "countries" is 24; require- 
ments for award as from 1 Janu- 
ary, 1986: Basic— 7 areas; Silver 
endorsement — 1 5 areas; Gold en- 
dorsement— 20 areas. 

These to be reviewed as consid- 
ered necessary by the Custodian, 
Jock ZL2GX, who will recommend 
appropriately to the Region 111 
Secretariat, 

Applications to NZART Awards 
Manager, ZL2GX. 152 Lytton 
Road, Gisbome, New Zealand, 
with NZ$1,00; if airmail postage 

1986 



required, add another NZSi.OO 
extra. IRCs are acceptable. 




POLAND 

Jerzy Szymczak 
78-200 Bialogard 
Buczka 2/$ 
Poland 

Many Polish scouts took part in 
the annual scout's jamboree on 
amateur bands. Participation in 
this fixture, serving for a consoli- 
dation of friendship among na- 
tions, will be rewarded with occa* 
sional diplomas issued by 
international Scouts Bureau in 
Geneva. 

On July 20th and 21 st, a meet- 
ing of members and friends of 
hams took place in Jaroslaw. 60 
girls— radio amateurs — came to 
the meeting. An all-Polish Club of 
Women Radio Amateurs was 
formed, Zofia SP8LNO was elect- 
ed the president and Maria 
SP80BF the secretary of the 
"Club YLSP." The secretariat of 
the club announced that every 
21st day of months is a women's- 
activity day. The club station uses 
the cailsign SPfcPYL 

On the occasion of International 
Telecommunication Day in May, 
occasional radio station SP0ITU 
worked on the amateur bands 
from 10 till 19 May last year, The 
radio station consisted of 
transceiver FT-101ZD of short- 
wave bands, transverter 144 
MHz, radio-telephone FM306 on 
UHF, and antennas: dipole T in- 
verted V, vertical 14AVQ for 7, 14, 
21 , 28 MHz bands. During 9 days 
of activity, 2821 QSOs of 92 coun- 
tries and 28 WAZ zones were es* 
tablished Most of the contacts 
were gained on the 20m band. 

On October 5th and 6th last 
year a Convention of Radio Ama- 
teurs Railwaymen was held in 
Moszczenica. Dozens of hams 
took part in the convention under 
the slogan: " Railwaymen hams — 
boosters of technological educa- 
tion of society," The president of 
PRAA, Jerzy Rutkowski SP5JR, 
attending the convention, sug- 
gested a modification of the name 
to Polish Radio Amateur's Club 
Railwaymen. In consequence of a 
ballot, the first management of 
PRACR was set up. The function 
of the president of the club went to 
Henryk Paszkowski SP5HP, the 
vice-president, Ryszard Jablon- 
owski SP9EES, and the secretary, 



Mrroslawa Paszkowska SP5MHP. 

The residence of the club is situ- 
ated at Varsovian Communication 
Club "Kolejarz" Hoza 63/65 
Warsaw. After the approving of 
the working programme, Adam 
Koziarski SP5AY, the author of 
the modification, gave a lecture 
on an adaptation of the radio-tele- 
phone FM-302 for a SW transceiv- 
er. An occasional radio station 
SP5PKP/7 began its activity on 
the eve of the Convention, 

On the occasion of 40 anni- 
versary of the end of the Sec- 
ond World War, PRAA instituted 
a diploma "Forty years anniver- 
sary of Victory and Peace". To 
win the diploma a radio amateur 
had to establish contacts with at 
least one of 36 ham veterans of 
the Second World War. The veter- 
ans' callsigns were "broken" with 
V (Victory), Mainly for good rea- 
sons, only 26 radio stations of vet* 
erans were active to 9 May 1965. 
Nevertheless, many Polish and 
foreign radio amateurs won the 
diptomas. 




SPAIN 

Domingo Git Manrique EASTX 

Delegation Local de U.R.E. 

Avd. La Mura 87 

12540 Villarreai (Caslelion) 

Spain 

The Spanish Radioamateurs 
Union (U.R.E.), through its local 
group in Villarreai. has estab- 
lished the TD-EA-CW Award, 
available to any ham or SWL with 
an official license granted by any 
IARU member country. 

A two-way confirmed contact, 
direct, must be made with each of 
the nine EA districts over any peri- 
od of time since January 1 , 1976. 
CW only, over authorized amateur 
HF bands, and all must be made 
from the same DXCC country us- 
ing the same cailsign. Not valid: 
contacts through repeaters, satel- 
lites or similar means of communi- 
cation, and mobile contacts. 

Endorsement stickers: 5B (nine 
districts times 5 bands — 45 con- 
tacts), and 160 (nine districts on 
the 160-meter band). Decisions of 
the Award Committee shall be 
final. 

Send verified log and US$3 or 
the equivalent in marks, pounds, 
or IRCs to the Awards Committee 
(TD-EA-CW) at the above address 
for the 5-color award on heavy pa- 
per, 46 x 34 cm. ■ 




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^60 




AM HELP 



I'm looking for manuals for 
the following equipment: Topaz 
model 2LRA117SN anti-brown- 
out ac line regulator, Motorola 
model XT1 034C/T1 034C rf sig- 
nal generator, Plessey model 
MRA101 Tellurometer, Motorola 
HT-200 low-band walkie-talkie, 
Supercall model 6080KM mobile 
telephone, and the following CB 
radios: Claricon Raider, JIL model 
615CB, RCA model CRM-P3A-5, 
Radio Phone Mark VM, L(oyd 
models A-400 and A-410, Kraco 
KCB^2340 f Pace 8015, Pony 40, 
Hy-Gain 9 model 2679A, Hy-Gain 
7 model 3107, President John Q t 
Cobra 19 and 21 XLR, Johnson 
123-SJ, Midland 13-884, Spitfire 
Mark II, Royce 1-648, Ross CB- 
1000, Fanon Convoy PLLF, 
Prominent PT-23, Pony model 
CD-705S, Beltek Rough Rider 
model W5396, Fanon Fanfare 
330 Convoy (23 channels), Fanon 
Courier Classic Ml, and Beltek 
W-1 326F. 

I also need C8 Photofacts; a 
service manual for a Pace Base 



Command model P-5407 dum- 
my load/wattmeter/swr meter; 
service manuals for Yaesu mod- 
els FTC-2203, FTC-2205, and 
FTC-2640; back issues of CB, SB, 
Canadian Transceiver, and any 
others; NRI/McGraw Hill VCR 
servicing courses; and a ser- 
vice manual for a Hamlin MLD- 
1200-3. 

Rejean Mathieu VE2EUI 

1697 3rd Avenue 

Val D^Or Quebec J9P 4N7 

I am looking for a schematic 
and a manual for the Harvey Wells 
Bandmaster Senior model TBS- 
50C transmitter and power sup- 
ply. I will pay for copying or will 
buy them—whichever you like. 

Charles E. Phillips WB6AGB 

402 Wickshire Lane 

Durand Ml 43429 

Does W6RO aboard the Queen 
Mary GSL? I worked them in June p 
1985, and so far T through mid- 
January, three cards, complete 

108 73 A mateur Radio * J u ne , 1 986 



with SASEs, have gone un- 
answered. 

Also, I'm trying to locate a 
source for 36-mm vernier dials to 
replace those on a home-brew an- 
tenna tuner I bought. The vernier 
shafts extend 1/2" behind the 
panel, and the two mounting 
screw holes measure 1-1 /4" cen- 
ter to center. 

Last, but not least, where can I 
obtain a male plug for the user 
port on a Commodore 64 comput- 
er? It has a protective shell and a 
strain relief to prevent possible 
shorting of the contacts. The one 
included with my Kantronics 
Packet Communicator doesn't 
have the shell, and Vm worried 
about possibly shorting some- 
thing out, damaging the computer 
andtheTNC. 

Gary Payne KE6CZ 

1347 E.Dakota 

Fresno CA 93704 

I need NAVSHIPS 91713, 
93241, and 93788 Volumes 2 
and 3. 

C. T + Huth 

229 Mel more St. 

Tiffin OH 44883 

I need information on convert- 



ing my Kenwood TS-1 80S with the 
WARC mod for 4.5-5 + 0-MHz 
MARS operation. I have already 
tried the fixed-crystal position with 
no luck. Any suggestions? 

Dave Whaley WB9SES 

9 Ouali Run 

L.LT.H.IL 60102 

Does anyone know of a short- 
wave facsimile program for the 
Commodore 64 that receives FAX 
weather maps? 

David Sakowich 

1 5 Cove Street 

Chelmsford MA 01824 

I need manuals and schematics 
for a 2-meter SBE SB-144 trans- 
ceiver, and for a Sears 412-3573 
2-meter transceiver. 

Don Norman AF8B 

41991 Emerson Court 

Elyria OH 44035 

I would like information about 
programs and interfaces for 
putting the IBM PC on RTTY, 
packet, FAX, and SSTV. 

Irenee Pratt F6GAL 

5 Bis, Rue Thirard 

94240 L Hay Les Roses 

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9 VDC @ 500 m* 1 


SQ0 


125 VACfi 265 ma 1 


3 00 


^b v*C H v* ii^-3 




•5 WAC i 2a W J 


kN 


24 VAC © 250m* 


13 00 


MULTl VOLTAGE © 500 m 
3.1^.6, 2'^.i or if VOC 


■- 


lr so 




C4F# AVMOD 



SOUND 
AND VIDEO MODULATOR 
FOR TL COMPUTER 



Ti *UM13fl1t Designed tor use wrn T I com 
pum Can be used *itts video SOvreet Bull ho 
A/Bs*"tch Cn*ooe*3cx-*5e*ec«)oswnicn 
Operate an 1 2 vdc Hoc* up dean/am included 

WERE S1C00 nEOyCEOTOSSQOEACH 



ll 1^ SUM UNE « 



*5tqi«: 

■• ^r, BUZZER 



SUM UNE 
COOUNG FAN 



SPfC/ALS 

1 AMP 50 VOLT DIODES 

IN4D0I TAPE ANO REEL 
IO0 tw *4 50 

1000 for 130 CK) 

SOLDER TAIL I.C. 

SOCKETS 

?4Pfh 10 for S2. 50 

100 tor $22.00 

1000 tor S 200. 00 



SPECIAL PRICE ■ 

TRANSISTOR 

pieU* irwi^lor 
PI43569 10^92 KPN 

100 for S3. 00 

1000 tor $60 00 

LARCiL QUANTITIES 

AMftttABLL 



g 



Etn 5* 99**4162 to* 
norselan Measures 
3H squat* ■ 1 deep 
?1cfm 23 db l?00rpni 

SPECIAL PRICE 112 50*1 



MICRO-CASSETTE MECHANISM 

Mrcro-cas&ette tape transport for 

standard MC60 or MC45 

micro -cassettes 3 Vdc operation. 

Contains: drive motor. DelL head, 

capstan, pinch wheel and other 

componerts 3 V2T X 2 t/4 w X 5vr 

CAT* MCMEC S300 each 10 lor * 27.50 




COMPUTER 

GRADE 
CAPACITORS 




48 KEY ASSEMBLY 
FOR COMPUTER OR 
HOBBYJST 



.f • *5 




NEWTI KEYBOARDS, OginaBy 
used on computers, (hese key 
boards contain 4S S.P.ST.rrvecrv 
anical switches Terminates to 
\ 5 pin connector. Frame 4" x 9" 
CATttKP-4B S6.50 each 
2 for $11.00 



2,000 mid. 200 Vdc 
13*4-i 5~ hgh $2 00 

6.400 mid. 50 Vdc 
l SB" * 3 3/4" rtejfi $250 
3.700 mid. 50 Vdc 
\ lB-iAI/2-tagfi S3 00 

31.000 mfd 15 Vdc 
1 3/4 - k 4" tii^i 52 50 

50.000 mfd. 40 Vdc 
T * £ 3^4" hir>? $4 50 

66.000 mfd- 15 Vdc 
3" X 3 3,'4 - Ngh J3 00 

50,000 mfd. 40 Vdc 
TiS'higft $350 

66,000 mfd. 15 Vdc 
3 " x 3 3i'4" higfi $3 DO 

86,000 mfd- 30 Vdc 
r*5i;4 _ htgh 53.5Q 

5,500 mfd. 30 Vdc 
1 3/B-x 3 Whigh $1.00 
5,^00 mid 30 Vdc 
1 3/8" x 2 1/4" h^h $1.00 
9,300 mid. 50 Vdc L -., 

2 h !c4 l^" high $100 

10,000 mfd. 10 Vdc 
l 3/tt" x % 5^ H Ngh $100 
40,000 mfd 10 Vdc 
Z 1/2" x 3 1/4" high $1 00 
100.000 miff. 10 Vdc 






in' 
C3 



2 i/2 H pc S H high Jl 00 

185,000 mfd. 6 Vdc 

2l/2"x4l/rhip,h $1.00 



L- 




MINI-BOX 

Pomon*#?104 
SI 00 EACH 



He**t-dLit T 
phenoac pmapcl box anfh cov^ *od 
screws 2%" * !**" X IV*' 

FUSES p=n 

3AG (AGO SIZE 

34 5 6 *WP 
GMA5IZE rpjj 

.2 3,4 5A1IP Ue= - r- ^ 
5 o* an T ONE *rnper*t» 7S * 



Tl SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY 

Compaci, w«t roguiated swiiching pcwier supp»v 
deseed 10 pOMf Ivcm losirunwnfs computer 
aqmomeni 

INPUT 14 - 25 vac @ l amp 
OUTPUT l 12 vdc @ 350 ma 
• 5 vdc @ 1 2 amp 
— 5tfdc@2O0ma 

SIZE 414 H«i*'i.ii*rti«jh 



15-00 each 




13.8 VDC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 

These tresoad siare, tuay mguated 1 3 fl *<3c 
power iuppa^s acTh teaium 100^4 &dm siafe 
ton^Trucncn luseprofecooo and LED power 
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2 amp coomlani, 4 imp surge 

3 imp conitani,, 5 amp ^large 



II*. 00 each 
S25 00*M;fi 



RELAYS 

10 AMP SOLID STATE 

COWTWOL 3 32.dC ' 9 » ^\ 
LOW 140 wac 10 imp ' V 4 r . ^ 
SIZE: 2ft a * ViV U! 



59 SO EACH 



tJBH J 

10 FOR $90.00 



2K 10 TURN 

lUrULTl TURN POT 

SPfcrnoL 

#MOOS34-7t5t 
f 5.00 EACH 



w 



Siar #SMB 06 L 

6*dc 

tTL compatibt* 

$1-00 each 

10 for |9 m 



± 12 Vdc or 24Vdc POWER SUPPLY 



OfirROM MOOCL 0012/15-1.7 
Dual pfu& and mimA 12Vdc open 
frame po*er vapptf. Can be ufed a% 
?4Vdc:@ 1 Samp INPUf «th*r 
115 UK or 230 Vac 

fv»>re4^atrt computer parfcsuECfr 
rt4H'i?V 



512 50 each 10 for $110.00 




ULTRA-MINIATURE 

5 VDC RELAY 

Rattan* 
FBH211NCO00SM20 

HighsBfttiliirty 

COIL I20ohm» 
CONTACTS lamp 
Mounts m 14 pin DIP 50chel 
*1,2$t*ch I0hxf10 00 

MINIATURE 

6 VDC RELAY 

5MW Sm»JI ffl^S 

S?0 T relay # ' *' 

GOtdcoibaii I J I ' 

coniacf s rated 

1 amp @ 30 vdc Highly sensitive, 
TTL dtrecl drive possiwe 120 ohm 

coil 

Oporato from 4.3 - 6 vdc 

COtL I20ohm8 »1.50e*ch 



1*/™ ""/»■« 



ri • 

i in 



10 for 113. 50 





D.C. CONVERTER 





roproridvasieaCt 
?4Qma irom a tiallery 
of 3 5 to 6 25 voits 
2W*17**' rt #V 
11 



TWBT-LOCK 
COMNECTOR 




as SwTlcncraft #12CL5M 

■n-ano pajq and criassis 
Twnst-locir, style. 
S2 50 5ET 



13 VDC RELAY 

CONTACTS; S.PN C 
10 amp @ 120 vac 
Eneroj7« coil (o 
open cofflscl 
COIL ?3vdc6SOonms 

SPECIAL PfllCE * i 00 eech 
4POT RELAY 

14 ptnKH style.. 
3ampcontacls 
USED but Tuiy 
tested SI. 70 each 
Specify cori voh an desired 
Ertiw 24 vdc Of 120 vac 
LAUGE OUAMTmCS AWWLA6XE 

SOCKETS FOfl KH BELAf 
7He*ch 

RECHARGEABLE 
NI-CAD BATTERIES 



cz=* 



AAA SIZE 1 25^ 500mAHSl.«S 
AA SIZE I ZSV WOfflAH ft 85 
AA Bam wiicef lab 12.00 

C SIZE 1 2¥ 120OrnAH U» 
DSIZE l2V1200mAH 13 50 

UNIVERSAL CHARGER 





Will charge 4-AA. C. D, o» AAA 

oi-cads or one 9 volt oi cad a! 

one time 

SI 1 .00 per charger 



220 Vac 
COOLING FAN 

HOTOONt 
MX 77 A3 

MU«*i XI 




220 viae 

4 IB* square 
tta»iaf frame Ian 

CAT* CF-720 S6-50 ea 

10 lor S60 00 i 100 for $500 00 
QUANTITIES AVAILABLE 




Oohm 

gTipedanc*, 
FlbI range 



Oormagnel 
4 diagonal 
mounting oeniers 

52 50 each 10 fa* S20 00 

SPRING LEVER 
TERMINALS 

Two color 

coded 

(erminalsona 

sturdy 2*n' x 

3 J*" bakiHiie 

piale 

Grnm rpr spaaKer enclosures Or 

OOMrfjr supplies, 

754t EACH 10 for 56 00 





UNE CORDS 



TWO WIRE 

6 1fl/2 SPT-1 nal 3 for Si 00 

B laV? STT2 fUl 2 Tor$1 . 00 

& to72SJTrowvf JUS each 
THREE WtR£ 

& 14/3 tel Jl 50 each 

1 8/3 round 12 00 each 

7 CONDUCTOR 
RIBBON CABLE 




Spectra- 5 inp red rnariuir slnp 
28 oa. slranded wire 

$5.00 per 100 roll 



XENON FLASH TUBE 



3/4- long X 1/8" dia Flash 
lube designed for use in 
compaci camera flash units 
ideal for e^perFmenlors. 
CAT* FLT-1 2 for $1.00 



MINIATURE TOGGLE SWITCHES 

ALL ARE RATED 5 AMPS @ 125 VAC 



S.RD.T. 
(on -on) 

PC styla 
non-ihrBflded 

bushing. 
75ce»ch 
10 lor S7. 00 

S.RD.T. 
(on -off -on) 

PC slyfe 
non inrtaded 
busntfig 
76* each 
10 tor 1 700 





S.RD.T. 

(on-on) 

Solder lug 
larmindls. 
51.00 each 
10 for 59.00 
lOOiorSBO.rjf 

S.RD.T 

(on-on) 

PC lugs 
threaded 

bushing. 
51 DO each 
10 for $9. 00 
lOOforSaO 00 





S.R0.T. 
(on Qff-on) 

Solder lug 
lerminalr;. 
$1.00 each 
lOfor$9.00 
IOOforSaO.00 

D,RaT. 
(on-OFt) 

Sotder lug 
lenrnnars 
52 .00 each 
10 for 519,00 
100 lor SI 80 00 





STANDARD JUMBO 
DIFFUSED T 1-3/4 

RED 10 tor 41 SO 

lOOrorSUOO 

GREEN 10 lor 12.00 
100 for tl 700 

YELLOW 10 lot 52 00 
- 100 fe* SI 700 

FLASHER LED 

5 uotl operation 

reOjumooT 1*» 

**ft SIM each 
MEW GREEN FLASHER 
CATHID4G SI 00 

2 lor S1 70 



Bt-POLAR 



s 



LED HOLDERS 

Two piece ho*der 

tor pumbo LED 

10*0*65* 100 for 55 00 

CLEAR CUPUTE 
LED HOLDER 

UaAeLEDalancy 

nocalor 

4 for f 100 




D.RS.T LIGHTED 

ROCKER SWITCH 

115 vac tognted roc* er 
snap moun 1 5 in 
V ■ tH hole 
Orangelens 16 amp 
contBcl 

tut 

MINI-PUSH BUTTON 

S PS T momerrtary 
nor maay open 

RedbufTon 
35«eaoh 
10 tor 53.00 





SNAP ACTION I 
SWITCH 



hu. atcmoflKS con p. I 



UDS ANGELES CA STORE 
90S S. Wfnrfont Ave 
213 380 fl 000 

VhH NUTS. CA STORE 
6226 Sepulveda Blvd 

Bi b OTTi mm 



MAIL ORDERS TO ^ 2 

PO BOX 20406 

LAS Angel «, CA 90006 

TWX S101010163 ALL ELECTROWC 
EASVLfNK MBK 62M7746 





TOLL FREE ORDERS 0*L* QUANTITIES LIMITED 

1 BOG 826 S432 MINIMUM ORDER 510 00 

(ORDER ONLY J USA S3M SHIPPING 
(IN CALIFORNIA t i002S»e6oo) FORHGNOftOERS 
ALASKA. HAWAII. INCLUDING SUFFClENT 

OR I NFORM ATION S H I P P LNG 

(213^300 B000 NOC.O.0! CALIF RES A0D6 1 1% 



ChevryeaKi. #E-3l H O or H C 
0.1A rantacts Surtatae tot ata r mi 
and other tow energy oaoats 
m-fBapT 

45CEACH H>FO«f*^0 

ROTARY ACTION 
MICRO 

OaTRDM -C 6C3 C4I 
Drjckanse action tmem 
used in coin operated 
rt a^ c t ian jrs m s and frwr h w ifae 
operations 

ftAtI]&:5am?ra@ I23H1E 
51 25 each 10 for SH 00 

LARGf QUANTITIES MAILABLE 




New for 




TH-21AT,31AT V 41AT 
a Fastcharger K 





SPECIAL SALE! 



Save $15.00 when onteriiif 
cti&rgcr with nccessofkt kit, 



354:95" 
.95 




Now 



^ $3 .00 shipping and handling 
ILtss, add 5% s&lestax 



Features:. 

•Charges tn 15 minutes •12v-14vdc input 

•Automatic Voltage cut-off »No memory 

•Battery doesn't heat-up •Proven in daily use 

Optional AC adapter with DC and mobile cords 
available Jii^W $9.9$ 



C ait. and talk with 
feu! WB4WICOT 
Dr "S -. WA4DRV 



Charge-Rite i 

.FL 32964 (305)476-8580 



F,0. Box 4175, Vera 



DEALER DIRECTORY 



Puritan* CA 

Complete lines ICOM, DenTron, Ten-Tec, 
Mirage, Cubic, Lunar, over 4O00 electronic 
products foT hobbyist, technician, experi- 
menter. Also CB radio, land- mobik. 
Fmtuu Electronics, 8628 Sierra An,, 
Footwut C A 91535, 822-771 0. 

San Jose CA 

flay Area's newest amateur radio store. New 
& used amateur radio sales & service. Wc 
feature Kenwood, IGOM. Azden, Yaesu. 
Ten-Tec. Santec & many mure. Shaver Ra- 
dio, Inc., 177SA 5. Winchester Blvd., 
Campbell C A 95Q98, J7&-6665. 

Littleton MA 

The reliable ham store serving HE. Full line 
of ICOM & Kenwood, Drake, Daiwa. B&W 
accessories. Curtis A. Trac kcyers. Larsen, 
Hustler, Telex/Hy-Gain products, Mirage 
amps., Aslron PI, Alpha Delta protectors. 
ARRL Jk Kantronics instruction aids. Whis- 
tler radar detectors. Full Line of coax fittings, 
TEL -COM Electronic CommunJcations, 
#75 Great ttd. (Rt. 119), Littleton MA 
01460, 486-340W3040. 



Preston ID 

fco&s WB7B YZ has the largest stock of ama- 
teur gear in the Tntenrtountain West and the 
best prices. Call me for all your ham needs, 
Ross Distributing, 78 So. Stale, Preston W 
83243, 852-OS30, 



New Castle DE 

Factory authorized dealer! Yaesu. ICGM« 
Ten-Tec r KDK. Kenwood, AHA, Kantron 
its. Santec. Full line of accessories. No sales 
tax in Delaware. One mile off 1-95 . Dela- 
ware Amateur Supply t 71 Meadow Rand, 
New Castle DE 19720, 328-7728. 



Derry NH 

Serving the ham community with new and 
used equipment. Wc stock and service most 
major lines: AEA, Astron , B&W, Cushcraft, 
Encomm t Hy-Gain. Hustler, lCOM t Ken- 
wood, KLM. Larsen, Mirage, Mosky; 
books, rotors T cable and connectors. Busi- 
ness hours Mon. -Sat. 10-5, Thursday 10-9, 
Closed Sun. /Holidays. RJvendtJI FJectnm- 
ka, S lxmdondern Road, Derry, NH 
03038,434-5371. 



I DEALERS 
Ywir company name arid message can contain up to 25 words far as linle as $150 
yearly (prepaid), or $15 per month (prepaid quarterly). No mention of mail -order 
business or area code permitted. Directory text and payment must reach us 60 days 
in advance of publication. For example, advertising for the September '86 issue 
must be in our hands by My 1st. Mail to 73 Amateur Radio , WGE Center, 
Peterborough, NH 0345B. ATTN: Hope Currier. 




ROPAGATION 



1 Jim Gray W1XU 






EASTERN UNITED STATES TO: 




GMT: oo 02 04 06 na io 


17 14 IS 1ft 20 22 




ALASKA 














20 


20 












ARGENTINA 
















JS 


15 


1 » 


15 


15 




AUSTRALIA 












40 


20 


20 






15 


15 




CANAL ZONE 


20 


40 


40 


40 


40 




20 


Ij 


li 


l r j 


15 


20 




ENGLAND 


60 


40 


40 








20 


20 


20 


20 








HAWAII 




20 






40 


40 


20 


20 








15 




INDIA 














20 


20 












JAPAN 














20 


20 












MEXICO 




40 


40 


40 


40 




20 


L5 


i:> 


15 


15 






PHILIPPINES 














20 


20 


















PUERTO RICO 




40 


mO 


40 






20 


15 


15 


15 


15 






SOUTH AFRICA 


















i ■ 


I j 


1 5 






U S- S. R- 














20 


20 












WEST COAST 






80 


m 


40 


40 


40 


20 


20 


20 








CENTRAL UNITED 


STATES TO: 




ALASKA 


30 


20 












15 










ARGENTINA 




















15 


15 


15 




AUSTRALIA 


n 


20 








40 


20 


70 








15 




CANAL ZONE 


2 


20 


40 


40 


40 


40 






i 5 


15 


L5 


20 




ENGLAND 




40 


40 










20 


20 


20 


20 






HAWAII 


IS 


20 


20 


20 


40 


40 


40 










n 




INDIA 
















20 


2.0 
















JAPAN 
















20 


20 










MEXICO 


20 


20 


40 


40 


40 


40 






]'j 


L5 


15 


20 




PHILIPPINES 
















20 


20 










PUERTO RICO 


20 


20 


40 


40 


4 


40 






IS 


15 


15 


20 




SOUTH AFHICA 




















15 


15 


?0 




U.S. S. W, 
















20 


20 










WESTERN UNITED 


STATES TO: 




ALASKA 


20 


20 


20 




40 


40 


An 


40 








15 




ARGENTINA 


IS 


20 




40 


40 


40 










: : > 


\ L i 




AUSTRALIA 




15 


:u 


20 






40 


40 












CANAL ZONE 






20 


20 


20 


20 


:20 


20 








15 




ENGLAND 


















: i 


20 








HAWAII 


15 


20 


20 


4U 


40 


40 


40 










3 5 




INDIA 




20' 


20 






















JAPAN 


20 


20 


20 






40 


40 


40 






20 


20 




MEXICO 






20 


20 


20 


20 


20 










15 




PHILIPPINES 


15 












40 




20 










PUEHTORICG 






20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 








35 




SOUTH AFRICA 




















15 


15 






UL S. S. R. 


1 
















20 










EAST COAST 




80 


KG 


ftO 


40 :40 


40 


20 


20 


20 









G=Good f F=Fair, P=Poor. 



JUNE 

SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 


1 

G 


2 

G 


3 

G 


4 

G 


5 

G 


6 

G 


7 

G 


8 

G-F 


9 

F-P 


10 

p 


11 

P 


12 

p 


13 

P-F 


14 

F 


15 

F-P 


16 

P-F 


17 

F-G 


18 

F 


19 

F-G 


20 

G 


21 

G 


22 

G-F 


23 

F-P 


24 

P-F 


F-G 


26 

G 


27 

G 


28 

G 


29 

G 


30 

G 





110 73 Amateur Radio * June, 1986 






Work VHF or HF Packet 
On Any Computer 

With Kantronics Complete 
Packet Communicator 

KPC- 




From IBM to C-64, or any computer with an asynch- 
ronous serial port, you can now work packet on VHF 
or HF with one TNC, the KPC-2! Extra cost 
options are unnecessary. KCP-2 is packed 
full of features and backed by our full-time 
customer support departments. KPC-2 
has totally new hardware and software, 

Kantronics designed. For more information 
contact Kantronics or a Kantronics deafer. 

Suggested Retail $ 219.00 




Features 

• AX.25 Version 2.0 software 

• Supports multiple connects, up to 
26 

• RS232 or TTL compatible (C-64 
too!) 

• HF modem included! (both U.S. 
and European tones) 

• Carrier Detect, and software 
squelch operation 

• FCC Part 15 Certified 

• Kantronics industry standard 
extruded aluminum case 

• Power supply and cabling 
included 

• All EPROM software is Kantronics 
sourced and copyrighted 



• 128K EPROM, 16K RAM — 
expandable to 32K, 4K EEPROM. 

• Advanced software HDLC 
routines, eliminating costly out-of- 
date chips 

Customer Support 

• Extensive dealer network 

• In-house programmers/engineers 

• In-house service representatives 

• Periodic software updates (like 
2.0!) 

Want more information on Packet? 

Contact us about our new PACKET VIDEO. 

$ 25.00 (shipping included), VHS or BETA format. 



■56 




Kantronics 



RF Data Communications Specialists 
1202 E. 23 Street Lawrence, Kansas 66046 (913) 842-7745 



u 



o 



Call Toll Free — 9a: m Mor }arn - 2pm Sat 

In Missouri Call —616-74 1-S118 





102NW Business Park Urm. Kansas City, MO 64150 816-741-6118 



TRADE INS ACCEPTED 

MasterCard — viSA — COO Welcome 



KENWOOD 




*'$&fi 



fS940S DX<ellence' 



* Programmable Scanning 

* H*gh Stability* Dual Digital VPOs 

* 40 Channel Memory 

* General Coverage Receive* 



KENWOOD 




TS-440S "DX-CiUng 1 

•100% Duty Cycle 
•1 00 Memories 
■Direct Keyboard Entry 
•Optional BuiJtin AT 

On Sale Now* Cad For Price' 



KENWOOD 




TM2570 "ALL NEW" 

• RfM 70 Wttt FM Mobile 

• First Wiih Memory A Auto I 

• 23 ChanneJ Memory 

• Front Pane* Programmable CTCSS 






FT-757GX 

» All Mode Transcewef 

• Dual VFO's 

• Full Break -in CW 

• 100% Duty Cycle 



• Duo-Band Full Duplex 

• 25 Watt 

• K4M30MHZ 




KENWOOD 

TR2600 'Special- j 

• 2,5 VW300 MW2 Meter HT 

• LCD Readout 

• 10 Memories 

• Band And Memory Scan 



TH-21AT 

THE 
Smallest HV 

* Compact 
Pocket S*ze 

•1 Wx\ 

'Optional 
500mA 

Battery 




FRG-9600 



ICOMl 



i 




IC-735 



NEW" 



• HF Transceiver 

- Ultra Compact Mobile 

• Simplified Front Panel 

• Continuously Adjustable 
output Power up lo 100 Watts 



ICOM 







FT209RH 

"Powerful HT" 

»f Warts 

• lOMemones 
*LCDReadout 

• Battery Saver 



IC-751A 



• 100 KHz 30 MHz 
•FM Standard 

• 32 Memories 

- QSK (Nominal Speed 40 WPM} 



ICOM 



Kantronics 

PACKET COMMUNICATOR 




* Fully Assembled 

• One Year Warranty 
•RS-232 Compatible 

Port 





1C2AT 

• OTMFPad 

• 1.5 Mb 

• ThumbwtiNl 
rreq selector 




IC-02AT 

•OTMF Direct 

Keyboard Entry 
• 3 Wtans Standard 
•5 Watts Optional 




Antenna Sale 



HyGam On Sate Now 
Hustler 25% Off Mobile 
Cusheraft 
KLM 

Quttemut HF6V 
HF2V 
AEA )44 Sf . 

Avanu 1513G 



Ken Pro 



Quatron 



KR400 
KJWOO 

KRS4QO 
Aanpo AAZ-7 
Columbia Cable 
RG-BX 

RG-8 Super Flex 
9913 Type 
Rotor Cable 
HD Rotor Cable 

CALL FOR BEST PRICES 



$139 00 

179.00 

299-00 

89 00 



SI 18 OO 

$110 00 

4200 

3000 




ASTRQN 

CORPDRATION 




AM-6000G • $109.00 



HUSTLER HYGAIN ICOM 



n»Pl P 




XL. KANTRONICS 



I 




Presenting two small cases 

for a lot of mobile power. 



^bu wont find a 45-watt, 2-meter 
FM mobile rig that's built smaller than 
the^esu FT-273RH. 

Nor will you find aduat-band FM 
mobile that offers the crossband 
full-duplex capability found in the 
25-waftYaesu FT-2700RR 

It shouldn't be surprising. Wve 
been coming up with a lot of inno- 
vative concepts lately 

The FT-273RH measures just 
2x6x7 inches. Conveniently fitting 
its high-power punch into many 
small spaces of your car Places where 
other 45-watt mobiles just wont fit 

The FT-27DRH is small too. 
Smaller than other dual-banders. But 
with one big difference; a 4 DUP" 
button, Push it and you're operating 
full duplex, 2 meters on one VFO, 
440 MHz on the other Each at 25 
watts. So you can simultaneously 



transmit and neceive in true tele- 
phone style. 

Once installed, you'll find the 
FT-ZORH and the FT-ZTORH equally 
simple to operate, Just turn the rig 
on, dial up a frequency select offset or 
duplex split, and you're on the air 

Each rig gives you K) memories 
for storing your favorite frequencies. 
Dual VFO capability A clean, unclut- 
tered LCD display for easy readout 
Push-button jumps through the band 
in 1 MHz steps. Band scanning with 
programmable upper and lower limits, 
And priority channel operation. 

You don't even have to take your 
eyes off the road to determine your 
operating frequency and memory 
channel, An optional voice synthesizer 
announces them both at the push 
of a button on the microphone. The 
FT-2XX)RH announces both your 



2-meter and 440 MHz operating 
frequencies. 

Also, tone encode and encode/ 
decode capability is programmable 
from the front panel, using an optional 
plug-in board. 

So when you need a lot of power 
in a compact mobile radio, discover 
\&esu s FT-273RH and FT-2TORH 
There's nothing else like them on 
the road. 




Yaesu USA 

17213 Edwards Road. Cemtos, CA 90731 
(213) 4D4~2tt) 

Yaesu Cincinnati Service Center 

9070 Gold Rark Drive. Hamilton, OH 45011 

(513) 874-3100 

Prices and specifications subject to change 
without notice. 



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FT-2700H 



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...pacesetter in Amateur radio 






All-Mode Mobility! 



TR-751A 

Compact 2-m all mode 
transceiver 

It's the "New Sound" on the 2 meter 
band— Kenwood's TR-751A! Auto- 
matic mode selection, versatile 
scan, mg functions, illuminated multi- 
function LCD and status lights all 
contribute 10 the rig's ease-of- 
operation. All this and more in a 
compact package for VHF stations 
on -the- go! 

• Automatic mode selection, plus LSB 
144.0 144.1 144,5 145.8 146.0 148.0 MHz 



25 watts high/ 5 watts adjustable low 

Programmable scanning— memory, 

band, or mode scan with "COM* 

channel and priority alert 

10 memory channels for frequency, 

mode, CTCSS tone, offset. Two chan 

nels for odd splits, 

All mode squelch, noise blanker, 

and RIT 

Easy-to-read analog S & RF meter 



cw 


USB 


FM 


USB 


FM 



Optional front panel-selectable 

38-tone CTCSS encoder 

Frequency range 142- 

149 MHz (modifiable to 

cover 141-151 MHz) 

High performance receiver with 

GaAs FET front end 

VS-1 voice synthesizer option 




Dual digital VFOs 

• Semi break-in CW with side tone 

• MC-48 16-key DTMF hand micro- 
phone included 

• Frequency lock, offset, reverse 
switches 

• Digitial Channel Link (DCL) option 

Optional accessories: 

• CD-10 call sign display 

• PS-430, PS-30 DC power supplies 

• SW-100A/B SWR/power meter 

• SW-200A/B SWR/power meter 

• SWT-1 2-m antenna tuner 

• TU-7 38-tone CTCSS encoder 

• MU-1 modem unit for DCL system 

• VS-1 voice synthesizer 

• MB-10 extra mobile 
mount 

'SP-40.SP-50 mobile 
speakers 

• PG-2K extra DC cable 

• PG-3A DC line noise fitter 

• MC-60A, MC-80, MC-85 

deluxe base station mfes. 

MC-42S UP/DOWN mfc, 
NIC-55 (8-pin) mobile mic, 




TR-9500 

70 CM SSB/CW/FM 
transceiver 

• Covers 430-440 MHz, in steps of 






10GHz. 1 -kHz r 5-kHz, 25-kHz ort -MHz. 

* CW-FM Hi - 1 W ( Low - 1 W, SSB 1 W 

* Automatic band/memory scan. 
Search of selected 10kHz segments 
on SSB/CW. 

* 6 memory channels. 






Actual size front panel 



KENWOOD 



TRIO-KENWOOD COMMUNICATIONS 
1111 West Walnut Stro I 
Compton, California 90220 









ConrpieTf- - 
Specifications gt 



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c&s ate suOjecr to change without nonce or obligation 
teed for me I Amateur band oniy